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Singh Anju A Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, - - 2010
Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), a redox-sensitive transcription factor, regulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes and several anti-apoptotic proteins, which confer cytoprotection against oxidative stress and apoptosis. Constitutive activation of Nrf2 in lung cancer cells promotes tumorigenicity and contributes to chemoresistance by upregulation of glutathione, thioredoxin, and the ...
Kim Jae-Sung - - 2010
The nature of the molecules underlying the radioresistance phenotype of laryngeal cancer cells remains to be established. We initially generated radioresistant laryngeal cancer cell lines from human HEp-2 cells with fractionated radiation. These RR-HEp-2 cells and isolated clones displayed more radioresistant and anti-apoptotic phenotypes than parental HEp-2 cells after radiation. ...
Wassmann Marko - - 2010
In a precursory study for the space experiment ADAPT ("Molecular adaptation strategies of microorganisms to different space and planetary UV climate conditions"), cells of Bacillus subtilis 168 were continuously cultured for 700 generations under periodic polychromatic UV irradiation (200-400 nm) to model the suggested UV radiation environment on early Earth ...
Ryu Kazuteru - - 2010
Antitumour effects of third-generation bisphosphonates (BPs), such as zoledronic acid (ZOL), and the combined effects of ZOL with other anticancer agents against osteosarcoma cells have been reported previously. The aim of this study was to identify further combined antitumour effects using BPs and radiation in osteosarcoma cell lines. MATERIALS AND ...
Ruan Lin - - 2010
Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) is a metastasis suppressor whose expression is reduced in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tissues and is absent in NPC metastases. To investigate the effect of RKIP on radiosensitivity of NPC, high metastatic 5-8F with low RKIP expression and non-metastatic 6-10B with high RKIP expression were stably ...
Schettino Giuseppe - - 2010
Despite the increasing concern about the effect of doses below 0.5 Gy and non-targeted exposures of ionising radiation on living organisms, the majority of radiobiological studies are conducted using in vitro cell lines. In order to be able to extrapolate the in vitro results to in vivo models with confidence, ...
Kobayashi Kouichi - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Cancer immunotherapy with NKT cells is a potential new treatment strategy for advanced head and neck cancer. NKT cell therapy is promising due to its unique anti-tumor activity and higher degree of safety compared to current therapies. Radiotherapy is indispensable as a standard treatment for advanced head and neck ...
Theriot Corey A - - 2010
In this study, the ability of the C(60) fullerene derivative DF-1 to protect radiosensitive cells from the effects of high doses of gamma irradiation was examined. Earlier reports of DF-1's lack of toxicity in these cells were confirmed, and DF-1 was also observed to protect both human lymphocytes and rat ...
Blattmann Claudia - - 2010
PURPOSE: Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) can enhance the sensitivity of cells to photon radiation treatment (XRT) by altering numerous molecular pathways. We investigated the effect of pan-HDACIs such as suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) on radiation response in two osteosarcoma (OS) and two rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cell lines. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Clonogenic ...
Baluchamy Sudhakar - - 2010
Radiation affects several cellular and molecular processes, including double strand breakage and modifications of sugar moieties and bases. In outer space, protons are the primary radiation source that poses a range of potential health risks to astronauts. On the other hand, the use of proton irradiation for tumor radiation therapy ...
Kim E-H - - 2010
Epigenetic regulation by CpG methylation has an important role in tumorigenesis as well as in the response to cancer therapy. To analyze the mechanism of epigenetic control of radiosensitivity, the CpG methylation profiles of radiosensitive H460 and radioresistant H1299 human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines were analyzed using ...
Xia Shu - - 2010
Activation of Akt, or protein kinase B, is frequently observed in human cancers. It has been demonstrated that PI3K activation leads to radiation resistance. Here, the role of PI3K/Akt/COX-2 pathway in the resistance to radiation in human cervical cancer HeLa cells is explored. Cultured HeLa cells were randomly assigned to ...
Zhang Min - - 2010
p21-activated kinase 6 (PAK6) is a serine/threonine kinase belonging to the p21-activated kinase (PAK) family. We investigated the role of PAK6 in radiation-induced cell death in human prostate cancer cells. We used a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) strategy to stably knock down PAK6 in PC3 and DU145 cells. Radiation sensitivities ...
Ebert Martin A - - 2010
A mathematical model for fractional tumor cell survival was developed incorporating components of cell killing due to direct radiation interactions and bystander signals resulting from non-local dose deposition. Three possible mechanisms for signal production were tested by fitting predictions to available experimental results for tumor cells (non-small cell lung cancer ...
Chavdoula Evangelia D - - 2010
In the present study we used a 6-min daily exposure of dipteran flies, Drosophila melanogaster, to GSM-900MHz (Global System for Mobile Telecommunications) mobile phone electromagnetic radiation (EMR), to compare the effects between the continuous and four different intermittent exposures of 6min total duration, and also to test whether intermittent exposure ...
Yu Xiaoyan - - 2010
Checkpoint activation benefits DNA homologous recombination repair and therefore protects cells from ionizing radiation (IR)-induced killing. CHK1 is one of the most important checkpoint regulators in mammalian cells. We recently reported that matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein/osteoblast factor 45 (MEPE/OF45) stabilizes CHK1 through interacting with CHK1, thus protecting cells from IR-induced killing. ...
Varghese Rency S - - 2010
Recent advances in mass spectrometry-based metabolomics have created the potential to measure the levels of hundreds of metabolites that are the end products of cellular regulatory processes. In this study, we investigate the metabolic changes in genetically engineered cell lines in response to radiation exposure. "Shrinkage t" statistic and partial ...
Yu Y - - 2010
Because of the increased use of modern radiofrequency devices, public concern about the possible health effects of exposure to microwave radiation has arisen in many countries. It is well established that high-power microwave radiation can induce cataracts via its thermal effects. It remains unclear whether low-power microwave radiation, especially at ...
Bobola Michael S - - 2010
Concurrent treatment with the methylating agent temozolomide during radiotherapy has yielded the first significant improvement in the survival of adult glioblastomas (GBM) in the last three decades. However, improved survival is observed in a minority of patients, most frequently those whose tumors display CpG methylation of the O(6)-methylguanine (O(6)-meG)-DNA methyltransferase ...
Furuse Satori - - 2010
This study was designed to determine the effect of the treatment schedule on the interaction between docetaxel and irradiation. Human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells with different p53 status, and HSC4 (p53 wild-type) and CAL27 (p53 mutant type) cells were treated with docetaxel and irradiation using three ...
Bertollo Caryne Margotto - - 2010
The characterization of new cell lines is an important tool to understand the biological processes involved in cancer treatments. In the present study, we used two newly established epithelial human breast cancer cell lines from primary sites MACL-1 and MGSO-3 and compared their susceptibility to the treatment with ionizing radiation ...
Jaal Jana - - 2010
This study was designed to determine changes in cell numbers, proliferation (using Ki-67) and EGFR expression in mouse bladder urothelium during the early and late radiation response. Groups of mice were irradiated with a single dose of 20 Gy and assayed 0-360 days later. Urothelial cells were counted. After immunohistochemistry, ...
Hofstetter Barbara - - 2010
PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of demethylation with 5-aza-cytidine (AZA) on radiation sensitivity and to define the intrinsic radiation sensitivity of methylation deficient colorectal carcinoma cells. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Radiation sensitizing effects of AZA were investigated in four colorectal carcinoma cell lines (HCT116, SW480, L174 T, Co115), defining influence of ...
Basse B - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: Tumour cells respond to ionizing radiation by cycle arrest, cell death or repair and possible regrowth. We have developed a dynamic mathematical model of the cell cycle to incorporate transition probabilities for entry into DNA replication and mitosis. In this study, we used the model to analyse effects of ...
Qu Yaming - - 2010
Failure to control nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) is mainly due to a portion of radioresistant phenotype. Identifying gene targets for radiosensitization is an important strategy in improving anticancer treatments. Exposure of cells to ionizing radiation leads to the formation of reactive oxygen species that are associated with radiation-induced cellular apoptosis and ...
Chiu Shu-Jun - - 2010
Combined-modality treatment has improved the outcome in cases of various solid tumors, and radiosensitizers are used to enhance the radiotherapeutic efficiency. Rosiglitazone, a synthetic ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma used in the treatment of type-2 diabetes, has been shown to reduce tumor growth and metastasis in human cancer cells, ...
Lau Patrick - - 2010
Radiation response of bone cells, especially the bone-forming osteoblasts, is an important issue for radiotherapy in young age. A radiation-induced cell cycle arrest may enhance or accelerate osteoblastic differentiation. To analyze radiation response of osteoblastic cells, the correlation between DNA double-strand break induction (DSB), cell cycle alterations and gene expression ...
Guijin He - - 2011
To investigate the effect of (103)Pd radioactive stent on Caspase-9, cholangiocarcinoma cell growth and its radiosensitivity. Cholangiocarcinoma was treated with (103)Pd radioactive stent at different period. Radiosensitivity of the cells was detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) method. Apoptosis of cholangiocarcinoma cells was detected by immunohistochemistry and electron microscope. The ...
Trémezaygues Lea - - 2010
We investigated the capacity of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) to protect spontaneously immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT) and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma cells (SCL-1) against the hazardous effects of ionizing radiation (IR). We pretreated HaCaT and SCL-1 cells in vitro with 1,25(OH)2D3 (10(-7) M) over 48 h and then irradiated them once ...
Gavrilov Vladimir - - 2010
Radiotherapy is one of the curative treatment options for prostate cancer (PCa). However, effective doses of ionizing radiation (IR) have a high risk of side effects. To increase sensitivity of PCa to IR we pretreated human androgen-refractory DU145 PCa cells with a combination of sodium valproate (VPA), a well-tolerated drug ...
Heo Soo-Jin - - 2010
In this study, potential inhibitory effect of 21 species of marine algae on melanogenesis was assessed via tyrosinase inhibitory effect. The Ishige okamurae extract tested herein evidenced profound tyrosinase inhibitory effect, compared to that exhibited by other marine algae extracts. Thus, I. okamurae was selected for use in further experiments, ...
Liu Junye - - 2010
Hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), the key mediator of hypoxia signaling pathways, has been shown involved in hypoxia-induced radioresistance. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The present study demonstrated that both hypoxia and hypoxia mimetic cobalt chloride could increase the radioresistance of human cervical cancer Hela cells. Meanwhile, ectopic expression ...
Tomita Masanori - - 2010
Abstract The radiation-induced bystander response is defined as a response in cells that have not been directly targeted by radiation but that are in the neighborhood of cells that have been directly exposed. In the work described here, it is shown that bystander cell killing of normal human fibroblast WI-38 ...
El-Awady Raafat A - - 2010
Inhibition of the repair of 5-fluorouracil (FU)-induced DNA lesions may improve the response of many tumors to this anticancer agent. Despite the identified associations between DNA strand breaks and the lethality of thymidylate synthase inhibitors, the role of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathways in a cellular response to 5-FU ...
Qian Liren - - 2010
It has been demonstrated that hydrogen can selectively reduce hydroxyl and peroxynitrite in vitro. Since most of the ionizing radiation-induced cellular damage is caused by hydroxyl radicals, this study was designed to test the hypothesis that hydrogen may be an effective radioprotective agent. This paper demonstrates that treating cells with ...
Huang Ge - - 2010
A novel camptothecin derivative (TLC388) with higher efficacy and reduced toxicity has been synthesized and tested as a novel chemoradiosensitizing agent. This study investigated the mechanisms of the chemoradiosensitizing effects of TLC388 on H23 human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Using the TUNEL assay, a significantly higher percentage of ...
Yin Xiaoying - - 2010
Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone that promotes the conformational maturation of numerous client proteins, many of which play critical roles in tumor cell growth and survival. The ansamycin-based Hsp90 inhibitor 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) is currently in Phase III clinical testing. However, 17-AAG is difficult to formulate and ...
Chen Chang-Ming - - 2010
To examine the role of DNA repair and altered thymidine analogues in altering the response to radiation during thymidine deprivation. Mismatch repair-deficient and -proficient cell lines HEC59 and HC-2.4 were treated with fluorodeoxyuridine (FUdR), azidothymidine (AZT), and irradiation either alone or in combination, and outcomes of clonogenic survival and cell-cycle ...
McArt Darragh G - - 2010
The comet assay is a sensitive tool for estimation of DNA damage and repair at the cellular level, requiring only a very small number of cells. In comparing the levels of damage or repair in different cell samples, it is possible that small experimental effects could be confounded by different ...
Javvadi Prashanthi - - 2010
Curcumin, a plant polyphenol, is a widely studied chemopreventive agent with demonstrated antitumor activities in preclinical studies and low toxicity profiles in multiple clinical trials against human malignancies. We previously showed that curcumin radiosensitizes cervical tumor cells without increasing the cytotoxic effects of radiation on normal human fibroblasts. Here we ...
Costantini Danny L - - 2010
Our goal in this study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which methotrexate radiosensitizes HER2-positive human breast cancer cells to the Auger electron emitter (111)In-trastuzumab modified with nuclear-localization sequence peptides ((111)In-NLS-trastuzumab) and to compare these mechanisms with the potential sensitizing effects of paclitaxel and doxorubicin when combined with this radiopharmaceutical. ...
Boboila Cristian - - 2010
The classical nonhomologous end-joining (C-NHEJ) DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway employs the Ku70/80 complex (Ku) for DSB recognition and the XRCC4/DNA ligase 4 (Lig4) complex for ligation. During IgH class switch recombination (CSR) in B lymphocytes, switch (S) region DSBs are joined by C-NHEJ to form junctions either with ...
Torres Mylin A - - 2011
The present study investigated the effect of AC480, a small molecule pan-HER tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on in vitro radiosensitivity and in vivo radioresponse of a human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell line. HN-5 cells were exposed to γ-radiation with and without AC480 and assayed for proliferation, clonogenic survival, ...
Dziegielewski Jaroslaw - - 2010
Repair of DNA damage through homologous recombination (HR) pathways plays a crucial role in maintaining genome stability. However, overstimulation of HR pathways in response to genotoxic stress may abnormally elevate recombination frequencies, leading to increased mutation rates and delayed genomic instability. Radiation-induced genomic instability has been detected after exposure to ...
Williamson Chris T - - 2010
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibition is toxic to cells with mutations in the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 or BRCA2, a concept termed synthetic lethality. However, whether this approach is applicable to other human cancers with defects in other DNA repair genes has yet to be determined. The ataxia ...
Sinn Brigitte - - 2010
PTEN mutations are frequently found in malignant glioma and can result in activated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt survival signaling associated with resistance to radiotherapy. Strategies to interfere with aberrant PI3K/Akt activity are therefore being developed to improve the therapeutic efficacy of radiotherapy in patients with malignant glioma. The methylxanthine caffeine has been described ...
Wright Eric G - - 2010
A well-established radiobiological paradigm is that the biological effects of ionizing radiation occur in irradiated cells as a consequence of the DNA damage they incur. However, many observations of, so-called, non-targeted effects indicate that genetic alterations are not restricted to directly irradiated cells. Non-targeted effects are responses exhibited by non-irradiated ...
Kim Eun Jin - - 2010
TSPYL5, encoding testis-specific Y-like protein, has been postulated to be a tumor suppressor gene, and its hypermethylation is often associated with human disease, especially cancer. In this study, we report that the TSPYL5 gene was less methylated (30%) in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells, which are relatively resistant to gamma-radiation, than ...
Suzuki Keiji - - 2010
Ionizing radiation induces delayed destabilization of the genome in the progenies of surviving cells. This phenomenon, which is called radiation-induced genomic instability, is manifested by delayed induction of radiation effects, such as cell death, chromosome aberration, and mutation in the progeny of cells surviving radiation exposure. Previously, there was a ...
Baskar Rajamanickam - - 2010
Ionizing radiation is an invaluable diagnostic and treatment tool used in various clinical applications. On the other hand, radiation is a known cytotoxic with a potential DNA damaging and carcinogenic effects. However, the biological effects of low and high linear energy transfer (LET) radiations are considerably more complex than previously ...
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