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Xu Defeng D School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, - - 2012
Androgen receptor (AR) is the major therapeutic target for the treatment of prostate cancer (PCa). Anti-androgens to reduce or prevent androgens binding to AR are widely used to suppress AR-mediated PCa growth; however, the androgen depletion therapy is only effective for a short period of time. Here we found a ...
Sato Takahiro - - 2011
Galanin (GAL) is a neuropeptide that is widely expressed in neuroendocrine tissues, including the adenohypophysis. Since GAL is expressed at higher levels in females, little attention has been paid to the regulation of GAL secretion in males. Here, we show that testosterone regulates GAL secretion in the adenohypophysis of male ...
Chuu Chih-Pin CP Institute of Cellular and System Medicine, Translational Center for Glandular Malignancies, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan. - - 2011
Androgen ablation therapy is the primary treatment for metastatic prostate cancer. However, this therapy is associated with several undesired side-effects, including increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. To study if termination of long-term androgen ablation and restoration of testosterone levels could suppress the growth of relapsed hormone-refractory prostate tumors, we implanted ...
Chen Liqun L VA Northern California Health Care System, Mather, California, - - 2011
Patients with recurrent prostate cancer are commonly treated with androgen withdrawal therapy (AWT); however, almost all patients eventually progress to castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), indicating failure of AWT to eliminate androgen-sensitive prostate cancer. The overall goal of these studies is to determine whether dual inhibition of the receptor tyrosine ...
Alexander Bobby - - 2011
OBJECTIVES:: To investigate the effects of an antibiotic brefeldin A (BFA) on androgen-regulated cellular events in androgen-responsive prostate cancer cells, focusing on PSA (prostate-specific antigen) status, cell growth, and bioactivity of androgen receptor (AR). MATERIALS AND METHODS:: Androgen-responsive human prostate cancer LNCaP cells were employed and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) was used ...
Chou Yu-Wei YW Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5870, USA. - - 2011
We identified the molecular target by histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors for exploring their potential prostate cancer (PCa) therapy. Upon HDAC inhibitors-treatment, LNCaP cell growth was suppressed, correlating with increased cellular prostatic acid phosphatase (cPAcP) expression, an authentic protein tyrosine phosphatase. In those cells, ErbB-2 was dephosphorylated, histone H3/H4 acetylation and ...
Jiang Qi - - 2011
It is well known that prostate cancer (PCa) occurs predominantly in the peripheral zone (PZ), whereas benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) typically develops in the transition zone. To identify possible mechanisms underlying zonal differences, we compared the effects of prostate stromal cells derived from the peripheral zone (PZsc) and the transition ...
Robaire Bernard - - 2011
Androgens are responsible for maintaining epididymal structure and functions. However, little is known about how androgen action is mediated and the mechanisms underlying the restoration of the integrity of epididymal cells after androgen deprivation. We first provide an overview of what is known about androgen action in this tissue and ...
Zhu Yezi Y Department of Urology, University of California at Davis, Sacramento, California 95817, - - 2012
Treatment for primary prostate cancer (CaP) is the withdrawal of androgens. However, CaP eventually progresses to grow in a castration-resistant state. The mechanisms involved in the development and progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) remain unknown. We have previously generated LNCaP-IL6+ cells by treating LNCaP cells chronically with interleukin-6 (IL-6), ...
Iglesias-Gato Diego - - 2011
Extracts from Serenoa repens are widely used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and traditionally for prostatitis. In the present study we evaluated the biological effects of Serenoa repens extract (Prostasan®) on prostate cells beyond its known antiandrogenic actions. Prostasan® inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) ...
Wang Xiao-Hai - - 2011
Prostate stromal cells are known to regulate epithelial growth as well as support and maintain epithelial function. However, how stromal cells regulate epithelial cells and what differences among various histological/pathological prostate stromal cells in prostate cancer progression still remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the different phenotypes of human ...
Suh Hyewon - - 2011
The molecular mechanisms of apoptotic induction by benzyldihydroxyoctenone (BDH), a nonsteroidal antiandrogen, isolated from the culture broth of Streptomyces sp., have been previously published in prostate cancer LNCaP cells. Apoptotic induction of BDH-treated LNCaP cells was associated with downregulation of Bcl-xL that caused, in turn, cytochrome c release from mitochondria, ...
Miyazaki Jun - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: • To conduct a preclinical evaluation of the ability of natural killer cells to cytolyze bladder cancer cells that were modified to show enhanced expression of natural-killer group 2, member D (NKG2D) ligands by R8-liposome-bacillus Calmette-Guéin (BCG)-cell wall skeleton (CWS) treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: • The T24 cells and RT-112 cells ...
Chalam Kakarla V - - 2011
Focal epiretinal radiation has emerged as a promising tool in the management of choroidal neovascularization associated with age-related macular degeneration. However, the dosages tested are not backed by cell culture studies used in the clinical setting empirically. Choroidal endothelial cells (RF6A) were maintained in a log scale and exposed to ...
Schütz Stefanie V - - 2011
In order to generate genomic signals, the androgen receptor (AR) has to be transported into the nucleus upon androgenic stimuli. However, there is evidence from in vitro experiments that in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cells the AR is able to translocate into the nucleus in a ligand-independent manner. The recent ...
Niu Yuanjie - - 2011
Results from tissue recombination experiments documented well that stromal androgen receptor (AR) plays essential roles in prostate development, but epithelial AR has little roles in prostate development. Using cell specific knockout AR strategy, we generated pes-ARKO mouse with knock out of AR only in the prostate epithelial cells and demonstrated ...
Schwartz Jeffrey L JL Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, Washington, USA. - - 2011
Both the G2 chromosomal radiosensitivity assay and allelic differences in TP53 codon-72 have been associated with cancer predisposition. The relationship between the two endpoints was determined in 56 human EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. Although there were overlapping distributions of sensitivity for the different genotypes, cell lines that were homozygous for ...
Shimada Mikio - - 2010
Centrosomes are important cytoplasmic organelles involved in chromosome segregation, defects in which can result in aneuploidy, and contribute to tumorigenesis. It is known that DNA damage causes the supernumerary centrosomes by a mechanism in which centrosomes continue to duplicate during cell cycle arrest at checkpoints. We show here that ionizing ...
Jain Suneil S Northern Ireland Cancer Centre, Queen's University, Belfast, Northern Ireland. - - 2011
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been shown to cause sensitization with kilovoltage (kV) radiation. Differences in the absorption coefficient between gold and soft tissue, as a function of photon energy, predict that maximum enhancement should occur in the kilovoltage (kV) range, with almost no enhancement at megavoltage (MV) energies. Recent studies ...
Che S-M - - 2011
This study aimed to investigate the cancer stem cell (CSC) properties of radioresistant esophageal cancer cells and the radiosensitization effect of NS398, a cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, on them. Fractionated irradiation was applied to acquire radioresistant esophageal cancer cells. Clone formation assay was employed to detect cell radiosensitivity and cloning formation ...
Aykin-Burns Nukhet - - 2010
Abstract It has been hypothesized that ionizing radiation-induced disruptions in mitochondrial O(2) metabolism lead to persistent heritable increases in steady-state levels of intracellular superoxide (O(2)(•-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) that contribute to the biological effects of radiation. Hamster fibroblasts (B9 cells) expressing a mutation in the gene coding for the ...
Kong Zhaolu - - 2010
PURPOSE: In metastatic prostate cancer, DOC-2/DAB2 interactive protein (DAB2IP) is often downregulated and has been reported as a possible prognostic marker to predict the risk of aggressive prostate cancer (PCa). Our preliminary results show that DAB2IP-deficient PCa cells are radioresistant. In this study, we investigated the anticancer drug Epothilone B ...
Van Nifterik Krista A - - 2011
Purpose: To investigate the possible cytotoxic interactions between the chemotherapeutic drug temozolomide (TMZ) and the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor meloxicam (MLC) or of both drugs combined with X-rays in three human glioma cell lines (D384, Hs 683 and U251). Materials and methods: Cells were exposed to TMZ (96 hours) and MLC was co-incubated during ...
Ng Wooi Loon - - 2010
M059J and M059K cells were isolated from different portions of the same human malignant glioma. M059J cells are more radiosensitive than M059K cells due to the absence of DNA-PKcs and low-expression of ATM. The mechanism concerning the absence of DNA-PKcs in M059J is due to the frameshift mutation in PRKDC ...
Murley Jeffrey S - - 2010
Abstract RKO36 cells exposed to either WR1065 or 10 cGy X rays show elevated SOD2 gene expression and SOD2 enzymatic activity. Cells challenged at this time with 2 Gy exhibit enhanced radiation resistance. This phenomenon has been identified as a delayed radioprotective effect or an adaptive response when induced by thiols or ...
Rugo R E RE Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, - - 2011
Characterization of the direct effects of DNA-damaging agents shows how DNA lesions lead to specific mutations. Yet, serum from Hiroshima survivors, Chernobyl liquidators and radiotherapy patients can induce a clastogenic effect on naive cells, showing indirect induction of genomic instability that persists years after exposure. Such indirect effects are not ...
Ma Hsin-I HI Department of Neurological Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan. - - 2011
Glioblastoma, the most common primary brain tumor, has a poor prognosis, even with aggressive resection and chemoradiotherapy. Recent studies indicate that CD133(+) cells play a key role in radioresistance and recurrence of glioblastoma. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which converts arachidonic acid to prostaglandins, is over-expressed in a variety of tumors, including CD133(+) ...
Varès Guillaume - - 2011
The ability of cells to adapt low-dose or low-dose rate radiation is well known. High-LET radiation has unique characteristics, and the data concerning low doses effects and high-LET radiation remain fragmented. In this study, we assessed in vitro the ability of low doses of X-rays to induce an adaptive response ...
Ponzinibbio María V - - 2010
Exposure to environmental, diagnostic, and occupational sources of radiation frequently involves low doses. Although these doses have no immediately noticeable impact on human health there is great interest in their long-term biological effects. To assess immediate and time-delayed DNA damage in two cell lines exposed to low doses of ionizing ...
Filgueira Daza de Moraes Vaz Batista Dde - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to verify the occurrence of pigment dispersion in retinal pigment cells exposed to UVA and UVB radiation, and to investigate the possible participation of a nitric oxide (NO) pathway. Retinal pigment cells from Neohelice granulata were obtained by cellular dissociation. Cells were analyzed for ...
Wang Li - - 2010
Semiconductor nanoparticles conjugated to photosensitizers have been shown to increase tumor cell death with ionizing radiation but the mechanism, particularly the role of photodynamic therapy in the process, was unknown. We used a molecular probe to measure production of (1)O(2) to quantify the component of photodynamic cell-killing in an in ...
Lee Kwan-Yong - - 2010
The aim of this study was to investigate whether single or combined radio frequency (RF) radiation exposure has effects on the cell cycle and its regulatory proteins. Exposure of MCF7 cells to either single (837 MHz) or combined (837 and 1950 MHz) RF radiation was conducted at specific absorption rate values of ...
Sioftanos George - - 2010
The breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 (breast cancer 1) and BRCA2 (breast cancer 2) encode proteins involved in double-strand break (DSB) repair, whose functions include facilitating homologous recombination through interactions with Rad51, the human homologue of bacterial RecA. Homozygous deficiency inhibits Rad51 focus formation and enhances radiosensitivity, but the effects ...
Yin Xiaoying - - 2011
The antitumor effect of enzastaurin, a specific protein kinase C beta (PKC-β) inhibitor, was tested on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines, as well as HNSCC xenograft model. HNSCC cell lines and xenograft were treated with enzastaurin alone or in combination with radiation to evaluate its antitumor ...
Chan Norman N Princess Margaret Hospital (University Health Network) and Departments of Medical Biophysics and Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, - - 2010
Acute and chronic hypoxia exists within the three-dimensional microenvironment of solid tumors and drives therapy resistance, genetic instability, and metastasis. Replicating cells exposed to either severe acute hypoxia (16 hours with 0.02% O(2)) followed by reoxygenation or moderate chronic hypoxia (72 hours with 0.2% O(2)) treatments have decreased homologous recombination ...
Fan Xiaoxiang - - 2010
In higher eukaryotes, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by ionizing radiation activate checkpoints that delay progression through the cell cycle. Compared to delays in other phases of the cell cycle, delays induced in G(2) are longer and frequently correlate with resistance to killing by radiation. Therefore, modulation of the G(2) ...
Xue Xiao-Ying - - 2010
The mRNA levels of 59 genes, detected by cDNA microarray, were up-regulated in the radioresistant human esophageal cacinoma cell line TE13R120 as compared with its parental cell line TE13 before and after radiation, and the expression of NRAGE gene showed a gradually up-regulating tendency. This study aimed to further detect ...
Wang Changlei - - 2010
Using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS), we have investigated the THz spectra of astaxanthin and riboflavin and the spectra of two kinds of cell, haenatcoccus plusivalis and bacillus subtilis, which could produce astaxanthin and riboflavin, respectively, during their metabolite process. Riboflavin was found to be much more absorptive to THz radiation ...
Nagata Yoko - - 2010
Activation to a large extent of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway and mutations in the p53 gene are involved in lung cancer therapeutic resistance. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) acts as a downstream effector for Akt. Activation of the Akt/mTOR signal is a contributing factor to decreased radiation sensitivity. ...
Chai Hongbo - - 2012
Quorum sensing is defined as the ability of microorganisms to sense their population density via the release of signaling molecules composed of acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL), which is a type of autoinducer (AI). Previous structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies demonstrated that the 3-oxo group, homoserine lactone of L-form, and long acyl side ...
Li Baoqing - - 2011
microRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous short non-coding RNAs, and play a pivotal role in regulating of a variety of cellular processes, including proliferation and apoptosis, both of which are cellular responses to radiation treatment. The purpose of this study is to identify candidate miRNAs whose levels are altered in response to ...
Christensen Terje - - 2010
Induction of cell death by optical radiation in the wavelength range 350-500 nm was significantly increased by commonly used methacrylate monomers, not mediated by absorption of radiation by the methacrylate monomers, but through a mechanism involving rapid reduction in the level of glutathione (GSH).
Bourthoumieu S - - 2010
Abstract It is important to determine the possible effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation on the genetic material of cells since damage to the DNA of somatic cells may be linked to cancer development or cell death and damage to germ cells may lead to genetic damage in next ...
Muthna Darina - - 2010
Adult human dental pulp contains stem cells (DPSCs) that are capable of differentiation into osteoblasts, odontoblasts, adipocytes, and neuronal-like cells. Because these cells have potential use in tissue regeneration, herein we characterized the response of DPSC lines to ionizing radiation (IR). These DPSC lines have been developed from the extracted ...
Brunner C - - 2011
A pilot study was performed to evaluate a new concept for a radiation biodosimetry method. Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to find out whether radiation induces changes in the composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the headspace of in vitro cultured cells. Two different cell lines, retinal ...
Pauwels Bea - - 2010
The combination of radiotherapy with chemotherapeutic agents that sensitize tumor cells to ionizing radiation has long been regarded as a promising strategy to enhance cancer therapy. Many chemotherapeutic agents interact with radiation and enhance the cytotoxic or anti-tumor effect of radiation through a number of mechanisms. These include an increase ...
Saito Takeshi - - 2010
Few quantitative analyses of the induction of metallothioneins (MTs) have been conducted, and there are no reports on the contribution of MTs to the protective mechanism against ultraviolet (UV) radiation in the lens. In this study, we quantitatively analyzed the induction of MTs and analyzed the resulting protective effects against ...
González Jorge E - - 2010
PURPOSE: To test the gamma-H2AX (Histone 2AX phosphorylation of serine 139) foci assay for the detection of ionising radiation-induced DNA damage in buccal exfoliated cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Buccal mucosa cells from five individuals (three females, two males, aged 26-47 years) were exposed to 0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 ...
Lin Ting-Yang - - 2010
PURPOSE: Radiotherapy is an integral part of the treatment modality for head-neck cancer (HNC), but in some cases the disease is radioresistant. We designed this study to identify molecules that may be involved in this resistance. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Two radioresistant sublines were established by fractionated irradiation of the HNC ...
Oh Eun-Taex - - 2010
Aurora-A, a serine/threonine kinase that is overexpressed in certain human cancer cell lines, plays an important role in mitotic progression. Aurora-A has also been reported to be involved in the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB). The purpose of the present study was to identify the role of Aurora-A ...
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