Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1822
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DeMasters, Gerald
1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and vitamin D3 analogs such as EB 1089 potentiate the response to ionizing radiation in breast tumor cells. The current studies address the basis for this interaction by evaluating DNA damage and repair, the impact of interference with reactive oxygen generation, the involvement of p53 and caspase ...
Kato Takamitsu A - - 2006
We have investigated the use of the gamma-H2AX assay, reflecting the presence of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), as a possible means for identifying individuals who may be intermediate with respect to the extremes of hyper-radiosensitivity phenotypes. In this case, cells were studied from mice that were normal (Atm+/+), heterozygous (Atm+/-), ...
Li W - - 2006
The ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) protein, which is mutated in the inherited disease ataxia telangiectasia (AT), is a key activator of cell cycle checkpoint, initiating cell response to DNA damage and ensuring genomic stability. AT cells exhibit defects in all cellular responses to ionizing radiation and radiomimetic chemicals. Inactivation of ATM ...
Kalen Amanda L - - 2006
This study investigates the hypothesis that Mn-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) influences cancer cell radiosensitivity by regulating the G(2)-checkpoint pathway. Human oral squamous carcinoma cells (SCC25) stably overexpressing MnSOD were irradiated (6 Gy) and assayed for cell survival, cell-cycle phase distributions, and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) pulse-chase flow-cytometric measurements of cell-cycle phase transits. Electron ...
Benais-Pont Gaëlle - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated whether omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) could enhance the radiosensitivity of three different human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines. To understand the underlying mechanisms, the effects of omega-3 PUFAs on the cell growth, survival, and apoptosis were evaluated alone or in combination with an antioxidant (vitamin E) ...
Daigaku Yasukazu - - 2006
A CAN1/can1Delta heterozygous allele that determines loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was used to study recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light at different points in the cell cycle. With this allele, recombination events can be detected as canavanine-resistant mutations after exposure of cells to UV radiation, since ...
Houston Peter L - - 2006
Cells repair most double-strand breaks (DSBs) that arise during replication or by environmental insults through homologous recombination, a high-fidelity process critical for maintenance of genomic integrity. However, neither the detailed mechanism of homologous recombination nor the specific roles of critical components of the recombination machinery-such as Bloom and Werner syndrome ...
German Matthew J - - 2006
PURPOSE: High-resolution synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) microspectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis was used to investigate the characteristics of putative adult stem cell (SC), transiently amplified (TA) cell, and terminally differentiated (TD) cell populations of the corneal epithelium. METHODS: Spectra of individual cells in situ in cryosections of bovine ...
Pandita Tej K - - 2006
Eukaryotic cells have evolved DNA damage response mechanisms utilizing proficient DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoints in order to maintain genomic stability. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe Rad9 gene was initially identified as encoding a cell cycle checkpoint protein. When the mammalian homologue of S. pombe Rad9 was inactivated, however, chromosomal instability ...
Zhou Guangming - - 2006
To investigate the protective effects of melatonin against high-LET ionizing radiation, V79 Chinese hamster cells were irradiated with 100 keV/microm carbon beam. Parallel experiments were performed with 200 kV X-rays. To avoid the impact from extra solvents, melatonin was dissolved directly in culture medium. Cells were cultured in melatonin medium ...
Chen Yun - - 2006
BACKGROUND: GL331 is a topoisomerase II inhibitor and its effects on cultured human T98G glioma cells were investigated in this study. The effects of combined GL331 and radiation treatment on human T98G glioma cells were also examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The glioma cells were treated with GL331 and the clonogenic ...
Warren Graham - - 2006
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the utility of MG-132, a broad spectrum proteasome inhibitor, to selectively enhance radiation sensitivity in prostate cancer without affecting normal surrounding urothelial tissue. PC3 prostate cancer cells and normal URO-tsa bladder epithelial cells were treated with or without MG-132 and exposed to ...
Otsuka Shinji - - 2006
The underlying mechanisms associated with radiation-induced cognitive impairments remain elusive but may involve changes in hippocampal neural precursor cells. Proliferating neural precursor cells have been shown to be extremely sensitive to X rays, either from damage to the cells themselves and/or through microenvironmental factors, including the anatomical relationship with the ...
Wang Zhuan-Zi ZZ Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. - - 2006
To determine whether the number of non-rejoining G2-chromatid breaks can predict the radiosensitivity of human cell lines. Cell lines of human ovary carcinoma cells (HO8910), human hepatoma cells (HepG2) and liver cells (L02) were irradiated with a range of doses and assessed both of cell survival and non-rejoining G2-chromatid breaks ...
Nakamura Kyoko - - 2006
53BP1 (p53 binding protein) is a BRCT domain-containing protein that is rapidly recruited to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). To investigate the role of 53BP1 in the DNA damage response, we generated 53BP1(-/-) cells from the chicken DT40 cell line. As in mammalian cells, mutation of 53BP1 increased cellular sensitivity ...
Roy Kanaklata - - 2006
Glioblastomas are among the malignancies most resistant to radiation therapy. In contrast, cells lacking the ATM protein are highly sensitive to ionizing radiation. The relationship between ATM protein expression and radiosensitivity in 3 glioma cell lines was examined. T98G cells exhibited normal levels of ATM protein, whereas U118 and U87 ...
Stewart R D - - 2006
Microbeam, medium-transfer and low-dose experiments have demonstrated that intercellular signals can initiate many of the same biological events and processes as direct exposure to ionizing radiation. These phenomena cast doubt on cell-autonomous modes of action and the linear, no-threshold carcinogenesis paradigm. To account for the effects of intercellular signals, new ...
Cells form closely linked straight chains. Long, delicate threads radiate form the valve margins. Valve diameter 34-38 microns.
Kanao Tomoko - - 2006
We previously reported that to induce an early emergence effect with low-dose X-irradiation in Drosophila, exposure during the prepupae stage is necessary. The present study examined the mechanism by which low-dose radiation rapidly eliminates larval cells and activates the formation of the imaginal discs during metamorphosis. Upon exposure to 0.5 ...
Evans Paul M PM Institute of Child Health, University College London, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, - - 2006
Null mutations in Artemis confer a condition described as RS-SCID, in which patients display radiosensitivity combined with severe combined immunodeficiency. Here, we characterize the defect in Artemis in a patient who displayed progressive combined immunodeficiency (CID) and elevated lymphocyte apoptosis. The patient is a compound heterozygote with novel mutations in ...
Manti Lorenzo - - 2006
This review addresses the purported interplay between actual or simulated weightlessness and cellular response to ionizing radiation. Although weightlessness is known to alter several cellular functions and to affect signaling pathways implicated in cell proliferation, differentiation and death, its influence on cellular radiosensitivity has so far proven elusive. Renewed controversy ...
Sonnemann Jürgen - - 2006
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) are a promising new class of antineoplastic agents with the ability to induce apoptosis and growth arrest of cancer cells. In addition, HDIs have been suggested to enhance the anticancer efficacy of other therapeutic regimens, such as ionizing radiation (IR) or chemotherapy. The objective of this ...
Seo Hang-Rhan - - 2006
Thermoresistant (TR) clone of radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) cells have been reported to show adaptive response to 1 cGy of low dose radiation, and hsp25 and inducible hsp70 are involved in this process. In the present study, to further elucidate the mechanism of how hsp25 and inducible hsp70 regulate the adaptive ...
Raaphorst G P - - 2006
Cell lines mutant in specific DNA repair pathways were used to determine if these pathways are involved in adaptive responses. For these studies, the effect of deficiencies in homologous recombination repair (HR) were studied in the parental AA8 and mutant (irs)ISF cell line pair and for deficiencies in the nonhomologous ...
Manti Lorenzo - - 2006
The polykaryon-forming unit (PFU) cell survival assay is based on the postirradiation flow cytometric analysis of the DNA content accumulated in high-ploidy cells (polykaryons) induced by the cytokinesis inhibitor cytochalasin B and can provide a meaningful measure of cell radiosensitivity. In this assay, cell survival is defined as the ability ...
Moon M S - - 2006
In previous studies, polyamine depletion by DFMO (alpha-difluoromethylornithine)-treatment reduced H(2)O(2)-induced apoptotic cell death by reduction of ferric ion uptake. In the present study, we analyzed the reduction of radiation-induced cell death by polyamine depletion. Exposure of HT29 cells to radiation induced severe cell death, but when cells were pretreated with ...
Kehlbach Rainer - - 2006
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Due to its properties rhenium-188 (188Re) seems to be a promising radionuclide for stent coating to reduce restenosis following percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). In order to characterize the early effects of local 188Re treatment, human aortic smooth muscle cells (HaSMCs) were incubated with different doses of 188Re. ...
Belka C - - 2006
Radiotherapy remains a key component of modern multimodal anticancer treatment approaches. Although most clinically relevant improvements in radiation oncology are based on optimized radiation technology, it now becomes obvious that biology-based approaches will further boost the efficacy of modern radiation oncology. Of relevance to this is the question of the ...
Chang Hyo Won - - 2006
The Ku protein is essential for the repair of a majority of DNA double-strand breaks in mammalian cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the expression of Ku70/80 and sensitivity to radiation in cancer cell lines of the head and neck. The sensitivity to radiation ...
Yanagi Y - - 2006
To compare the theoretical retinal threshold time for endoilluminators and experimental phototoxic effect using A2e laden retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. The spectral irradiances of three types of 20 gauge and 25 gauge endoilluminators, currently commercially available from two manufacturers, were evaluated in conditions where the total beam spectral power ...
Wright Eric G - - 2006
The dogma that genetic alterations are restricted to directly irradiated cells has been challenged by observations in which effects of ionizing radiation, characteristically associated with the consequences of energy deposition in the cell nucleus, arise in non-irradiated cells. These, so called, untargeted effects are demonstrated in cells that have received ...
Barcellos-Hoff Mary Helen - - 2006
Recent studies have highlighted crosstalk between irradiated cells and non-irradiated bystander cells and have uncovered high-frequency phenotypes of genomic instability in the progeny of irradiated cells that cannot be solely explained by radiation-induced mutation. It is difficult to explain these multicellular and multi-generational phenomena using the current paradigm of radiation ...
Little John B - - 2006
This report reviews briefly some of the findings reported over the past 2 years that enhance our understanding of the radiation-induced bystander effect. These developments include: technicological advances; the role of oxidative stress; the effect of cytoplasmic irradiation; cell-to-cell communication; and evidence that Connexin 43 mediated intercellular communication is induced ...
Heinrich Tilman - - 2006
Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder with increased radiosensitivity and cancer susceptibility. The responsible gene (ATM) consists of 66 exons and a coding region of 9171 bp which precludes direct sequencing as a screening assay for confirmation or exclusion of the clinical suspicion of AT. Peripheral blood ...
Caspersen,Eli Faksvåg
ABSTRACT Cervical cancer is one of the major causes of gynecological death worldwide. The degree of cancer progression of is categorized into different stages. Therapy is given depending on the stage of the cancer. Radiation is the main therapy in the advanced stages. Unfortunately, radiation therapy also causes severe damage ...
Prise Kevin M - - 2006
The use of microbeam approaches has been a major advance in probing the relevance of bystander and adaptive responses in cell and tissue models. Our own studies at the Gray Cancer Institute have used both a charged particle microbeam, producing protons and helium ions and a soft X-ray microprobe, delivering ...
Santini Maria Teresa - - 2006
High resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy was used to examine the response of the MG-63 osteosarcoma cell line grown in monolayer and as 3-dimensional tumor spheroids to the same low dose (2 Gy) of ionizing radiation. The MG-63 cells and spheroids were irradiated at 24 h of growth ...
Miyamoto Akihiko - - 2006
The purpose of this study was to investigate radioadaptive response in 4 cell-lines under identical conditions using a colony assay. First, 4 cell-lines (V79, HeLa S3, EMT6 and SCCVII) were exposed to 8 Gy at various intervals after pretreatment with an adapting dose of 50 mGy or without it. Second, ...
Ballarini F - - 2006
In the last 10 years evidence has accumulated on the so-called radiation-induced 'non-targeted effects' and in particular on bystander effects, consisting of damage induction in non-irradiated cells most likely following the release of soluble factors by the irradiated ones. These phenomena were observed for different biological endpoints, both lethal and ...
Franken Nicolaas A P - - 2006
Clonogenic assay or colony formation assay is an in vitro cell survival assay based on the ability of a single cell to grow into a colony. The colony is defined to consist of at least 50 cells. The assay essentially tests every cell in the population for its ability to ...
Khaitan Divya - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Multicellular spheroids, an appropriate in vitro system for simulating 3-D tumor micro-milieu can be used for evaluating and predicting tumor response to therapeutic agents including metabolic inhibitors. However, detailed understanding of the nature, distribution and sensitivity/responses of cellular sub-populations to potential therapeutic agents/strategies is required for using this unique ...
Lau B M F - - 2006
The dose conversion coefficient (DCC) is used to assess the risk due to inhaled radon progeny in the human lung. The present work uses the microdosimetric approach and determines the linear energy transfer in the target cell nuclei. Killing of target cells was also taken into account through an effect-specific ...
Gerardi S - - 2006
At the low doses (and low dose rates) relevant to environmental and occupational radiation exposure (0-50 mSv), which are of practical concern for radiation protection, very few cells in the human organism experience more than one traversal by densely ionising particles in their lifetime, the intervals between the tracks, if ...
Journé Fabrice - - 2006
Both bisphosphonates and radiotherapy are highly effective for the management of bone metastases. Our in vitro study examined the cytotoxic effects resulting from combinations of ibandronate and ionising radiations (RX) in various sequences on breast cancer cells. Single radiation doses were given before, at halftime of, or after acute ibandronate ...
Tsutsumi Kaori - - 2006
Radiotherapy is an effective approach to treating many types of cancer. Recent progress in radiotherapy technology, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and three-dimensional (3D) radiotherapy, allow precise energy transfer to the tumor, which has improved local control rates. However, the emergence of tolerant cells during or after radiotherapy remains ...
Flatmark Kjersti - - 2006
The tumor response to preoperative radiotherapy of locally advanced rectal cancer varies greatly, warranting the use of experimental models to assay the efficacy of molecular targeting agents in rectal cancer radiosensitization. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, agents that cause hyperacetylation of histone proteins and thereby remodeling of chromatin structure, may override ...
Pyke E L EL MRC Radiation & Genome Instability Unit, Harwell, Oxfordshire OX11 0RD, UK. - - 2006
Ionising radiation can induce responses within non-exposed neighbouring (bystander) cells, which potentially have important implications on the estimates of risk at environmentally relevant doses. Using human skin fibroblasts (AG1522), a range of methods were used to investigate the nature of the signal(s) arising from the exposed cells. The signal(s) can ...
Kadhim M A MA Radiation and Genome Stability Unit, Medical Research Council, Harwell, Oxfordshire, UK. - - 2006
Genomic instability (GI) is a hallmark of tumorigenic progression and is observed as delayed genetic damage in the progeny of irradiated and unirradiated bystander cells. The expression of GI can be influenced by genotype, cell type and radiation quality. While several studies have demonstrated the induction of GI by high ...
Treizebré A A DHS Dpt., Lille Univ., - - 2006
Quite recently, it was found that metal wires can effectively guide terahertz radiation. We report in this communication an original planar excitation of surface wave on a single wire transmission line. This configuration is well suited for the design of THz BioMEMS dedicated to cell investigation. We show that we ...
Somodi Zsolt - - 2005
PURPOSE: To determine the role of single (SSB) and double strand break (DSB) repair in the induction and propagation of radiation-induced instability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two defined hamster cell lines with known DNA repair deficiencies in DSB repair (XR-C1) and base excision repair (EM-C11) and the parental wild-type line (CHO-9) ...
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