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Knight Andrea - - 2013
Vδ2(neg) γδ T cells, of which Vδ1+ γδ T cells are by far the largest subset, are important effectors against CMV infection. Malignant gliomas often contain CMV genetic material and proteins, and evidence exists that CMV infection may be associated with initiation and/or progression of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We sought ...
Massie Isobel I Centre for Hepatology at the Royal Free, UCL-Royal Free Hospital Campus, University College Medical School, Hampstead, London, United - - 2013
A bioartificial liver comprising alginate-encapsulated liver cell spheroids (ELS) could bridge the gap to transplant or spontaneous recovery in acute liver failure, but will be required for emergency use, necessitating cryopreservation. A cryopreservation protocol has been developed, but beyond this, the feasibility of cold-chain storage is considered here. Cryopreservation will ...
Ahmad Shahzada - - 2012
We report herein lightweight, and economical dye-sensitized solar cells fabrication facilitated by an all plastic, metal free cathode consisting of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene).
Zhang Qichun - - 2012
Conventional dye-sensitized solar cells could potentially replace high-cost silicon-based solar cells, but the liquid electrolyte makes manufacture challenging. CsSnI(3) -based dye cells, constructed in solid-state form, pose a compelling solution.
Pons Carles - - 2012
SUMMARY: The application of docking to large-scale experiments or the explicit treatment of protein flexibility are part of the new challenges in structural bioinformatics that will require large computer resources and more efficient algorithms. Highly optimized FFT approaches are broadly used in docking programs but their optimal code implementation leaves ...
Trinetta Valentina - - 2012
Sakacin A was purified to homogeneity through simple chromatographic procedures from cultures of Lactobacillus sakei DSMZ 6333 grown on a low-cost medium. The highly purified protein dissipated both transmembrane potential (ΔΨ) and transmembrane pH gradient (ΔpH) in Listeria cells in a very intense, rapid, and energy-dependent fashion. On a slower ...
Gahlawat Geeta - - 2012
Economic production of biodegradable plastics is a challenge particularly because of high substrate and energy cost inputs for its production. Research efforts are being directed towards innovations to minimize both of the above costs to economize polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production. A novel airlift reactor (ALR) with outer aeration and internal settling ...
Geary U - - 2012
The objective of this paper was to estimate the effect of the costs of mastitis on the profitability of Irish dairy farms as indicated by various ranges of bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC). Data were collected from 4 sources and included milk production losses, cases treated, and on-farm practices ...
Xu Zhida - - 2012
A high-density and -uniformity sub-100 nm surface-oxidized silicon nanocone forest structure is created and integrated onto the existing texturization microstructures on a photovoltaic device surface by a one-step high-throughput plasma-enhanced texturization method. We suppressed the broadband optical reflection on chemically textured grade-B silicon solar cells for up to 70.25% through ...
Brodland G Wayne - - 2012
Early-stage embryos must reshape the tissues of which they are made into organs and other life-sustaining structures; and if non-mammalian embryos fail to complete these tasks before the energy provided by their yolk runs out, they die. The aim of this study is to use a cell-level computational model to ...
Hsu Chih-Yu - - 2012
Dye-sensitized solar cells are a promising solar technology because of their low cost, reliability, and high efficiency, compared with silicon-based solar cells. Efforts over the last two decades have increased solar cell efficiency to 12% based on liquid electrolytes, and more research on solid-state devices is necessary to determine their ...
Arany Szilvia - - 2012
A critical issue in the management of head and neck tumors is radioprotection of the salivary glands. We have investigated whether siRNA-mediated gene knock down of pro-apoptotic mediators can reduce radiation-induced cellular apoptosis in salivary gland cells in vitro. We used novel, pH-responsive nanoparticles to deliver functionally active siRNAs into ...
Chung In - - 2012
Dye-sensitized solar cells based on titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) are promising low-cost alternatives to conventional solid-state photovoltaic devices based on materials such as Si, CdTe and CuIn(1-x)Ga(x)Se(2) (refs 1, 2). Despite offering relatively high conversion efficiencies for solar energy, typical dye-sensitized solar cells suffer from durability problems that result from their ...
Burger Robert - - 2012
Microfluidic systems for cell separation and analysis have attracted increasing research activity over the past decades. In particular, the prospect of integrating all steps from sample preparation to assay readout in a single microfluidic cartridge, which is inserted into a compact, portable and potentially low-cost instrument, bears great promise to ...
Rayatpisheh Shahrzad - - 2012
A new method for ultrathin grafting of pNIPAm on PDMS surfaces is introduced that employs plasma activation of the surface followed by thermal polymerization. This method is optimized for human primary SMC attachment and subsequent intact cell sheet detachment by lowering the temperature. The contractile gene expression of the cells ...
Jung Jae Hwan - - 2012
All under control: A microfluidic droplet generator uniformly encapsulates an equivalent number of engineered E. coli cells and the same Fe and Mn metal ion concentrations in identically sized droplets. The synthesized biogenic FeMn paramagnetic nanoparticles inside the cells are eco-friendly and cost-effective.
Nagai Satoshi - - 2012
In this study, we succeeded in developing a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method that enables sensitive and specific detection of the toxic marine dinoflagellates Alexandrium tamarense and Alexandrium catenella from single cells of both laboratory cultures and naturally blooming cells within 25min, by monitoring the turbidimeter from the start of ...
Kelleher Shannon L - - 2012
The mammary epithelial cell transitions from a non-secreting to a terminally differentiated, secreting cell during lactation. Zinc (Zn) is a key modulator of phenotypic transition as it regulates over 300 biological functions including transcription, translation, energy transformation, intracellular signaling, and apoptosis. In addition, Zn must be redirected from normal cellular ...
Li Xiao-Feng - - 2012
The lyophilized Pseudomonas fluorescens cell was an efficient alternative catalyst to enzymes for highly regioselective acylation of a polar nucleoside, 1-β-d-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C). The cells showed an evident solvent dependence in the reaction. Among the tested solvents except for acetonitrile-pyridine, catalytic activity of the cells clearly increased with increasing the polarity ...
Zhang Jianguo - - 2012
While current approaches have limitations for efficient and cost-effective microalgal biofuel production, new processes, which are financially economic, environmentally sustainable, and ecologically stable, are needed. Typically, microalgae cells are small and grow individually. Harvest of these cells is technically difficult and it contributes to 20-30% of the total cost of ...
Brennan Linda M - - 2012
Rainbow trout gill epithelial cells (RTgill-W1) are used in a cell-based biosensor that can respond within one hour to toxic chemicals that have the potential to contaminate drinking water supplies. RTgill-W1 cells seeded on enclosed fluidic biochips and monitored using electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) technology responded to 18 out ...
Yang Liqiang - - 2012
Here we demonstrate a conceptually new approach, parallel-like bulk heterojunction (PBHJ), which maintains the simple device configuration and low cost processing of single junction BHJ cells while inherits the major benefit of incorporating multiple polymers in tandem cells. In this PBHJ, free charge carriers travel through their corresponding donor polymer ...
He Lining - - 2012
High efficiency hybrid solar cells are fabricated using a simple approach of spin coating a transparent hole transporting organic small molecule, 2,2',7,7'-Tetrakis-(N,N-di-4-methoxyphenylamino)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD) on silicon nanowires (SiNWs) arrays prepared by electroless chemical etching. The characteristics of the hybrid cells are investigated as a function of SiNWs length from 0.15 to ...
Garcia Daniel - - 2012
The capability to count cells from biofluids at low cost has important diagnostic implications in resource-poor settings. Many approaches have been developed to address this important need, and while most envision a low per-test cost, the detector instrument can be quite expensive. In this report, we present a novel device ...
Liu Kai - - 2012
High costs and issues such as a high cell concentrations in effluents are encountered when utilizing microalgae for wastewater treatment. The present study analyzed nitrogen and phosphate removal under autotrophic, heterotrophic, mixotrophic and micro-aerobic conditions by Chlorella sorokiniana GXNN 01 immobilized in calcium alginate. The immobilized cells grew as well ...
Krajarng Aungkana - - 2012
Osteosarcoma is the most frequently diagnosed primary bone tumor in dog. Since chemotherapeutics are quite limited due to high cost and severe toxicity, therefore, the ultimate goal is to discover cost-effective therapeutics with less toxicity. We have studied the effect of α-mangostin, a xanthone derivative isolated from pericarp of mangosteen ...
Raut Nilesh - - 2012
Over the past two decades there have been great advances in biotechnology, including use of nucleic acids, proteins, and whole cells to develop a variety of molecular analytical tools for diagnostic, screening, and pharmaceutical applications. Through manipulation of bacterial plasmids and genomes, bacterial whole-cell sensing systems have been engineered that ...
Wang Liang - - 2012
We developed several low-cost catalysts with high catalytic activity, which were used as counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). They showed higher efficiencies than that of Pt. The efficiencies were improved by 18-42% for the DSCs composed of active carbon, niobium dioxide, ordered mesoporous carbon and commercial titanium carbide.
Li Jie - - 2012
Cell viability assays have a variety of well known practical and technical limitations. All the available approaches have disadvantages, such as non-linearity, high background and cumbersome protocols. Several commonly used tetrazolium chemicals rely upon generation of a colored formazan product formed by mitochondrial reduction of these compounds via phenazine methosulfate ...
Miranda-Sayago Jose Maria - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Human amniotic-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSC) are a novel population of multipotent stem cells that have been shown to have great potential for use in regenerative medicine. However, procedures to store and preserve hAMSC for future clinical applications have not been explored extensively. METHODS: In this study, we analyzed ...
Krawetz Roman - - 2012
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are unique cells, which have the ability to differentiate into all cell types that comprise the adult organism. Furthermore, ESCs can infinitely self-renew under optimized conditions. These features place human ESCs (hESCs) in a position where these cells can be exploited for tissue engineering and regenerative ...
Haspot Fabienne - - 2012
[This corrects the article on p. e34795 in vol. 7.].
Yamagata Kazuo - - 2012
Technologies for vitally labeling cells with fluorescent dyes have advanced remarkably. However, to excite fluorescent dyes currently requires powerful illumination, which can cause phototoxic damage to the cells and increases the cost of microscopy. We have developed a filter system to excite fluorescent dyes using a conventional transmission microscope equipped ...
Hagfeldt Anders - - 2012
Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) are based on molecular and nanometer-scale components. Record cell efficiencies of 12%, promising stability data and means of energy-efficient production methods have been accomplished. As selling points for the DSC technology the prospect of low-cost investments and fabrication are key features. DSCs offer the possibilities to ...
Rodrigues João F Matias - - 2012
Multicellular differentiated organisms are composed of cells that begin by developing from a single pluripotent germ cell. In many organisms, a proportion of cells differentiate into specialized somatic cells. Whether these cells lose their pluripotency or are able to reverse their differentiated state has important consequences. Reversibly differentiated cells can ...
Munakata Keijiro - - 2011
Luminal surface of the swimbladder is covered by gas gland epithelial cells and is responsible for inflating the swimbladder by generating O(2) from Root-effect hemoglobin that releases O(2) under acidic conditions. Acidification of blood is achieved by lactic acid secreted from gas gland cells, which are poor in mitochondria but ...
Contreras Janette - - 2011
Lacrimal gland acinar cells are an important cell type to study due to their role in production and release of tear proteins, a function essential for ocular surface integrity and normal visual acuity. However, mechanistic studies are often limited by problems with transfection using either plasmid DNA or siRNA. Although ...
Dong Jie - - 2011
The ID family of helix-loop-helix proteins regulates cell proliferation and differentiation in many different developmental pathways, but the functions of ID4 in mammary development are unknown. We report that mouse Id4 is expressed in cap cells, basal cells and in a subset of luminal epithelial cells, and that its targeted ...
Lei Yu - - 2012
Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) was recently identified as a distinct salivary gland neoplasm, morphologically resembling intercalated duct cell predominant acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC). To determine how frequently MASC has mimicked an intercalated duct cell predominant AciCC, we reviewed AciCC diagnosed from 1956 to 1975. Nine AciCC consecutively diagnosed in ...
Carugo Dario - - 2011
Sonoporation is a useful biophysical mechanism for facilitating the transmembrane delivery of therapeutic agents from the extracellular to the intracellular milieu. Conventionally, sonoporation is carried out in the presence of ultrasound contrast agents, which are known to greatly enhance transient poration of biological cell membranes. However, in vivo contrast agents ...
Moran Yehu Y Department of Molecular Biology and Ecology of Plants, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, 69978 Tel Aviv, Israel. - - 2012
Jellyfish, hydras, corals and sea anemones (phylum Cnidaria) are known for their venomous stinging cells, nematocytes, used for prey and defence. Here we show, however, that the potent Type I neurotoxin of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, Nv1, is confined to ectodermal gland cells rather than nematocytes. We demonstrate massive ...
Guest Ian - - 2011
The mammary gland is a complex organ consisting of multiple cell types that undergo extensive remodeling during pregnancy and involution, cyclical changes that suggest the existence of a resident stem cell population that is responsible for remarkable tissue regeneration. The basic functional unit of the mammary gland is the terminal ...
- - 2011
A CELL OF TWO MINDS: Stem cells have two principal tasks: (i) being prepared to replicate vegetatively on command, and (ii) being prepared to replicate differentially on command. It is always helpful if there is a way of recognizing the small pools of cells with these capabilities, preferably biomarkers that ...
Toyoda Takeshi - - 2011
A subcutaneous mass was found in the lower ventral neck region of a 55-week-old male Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). Histopathologically, the mass involved salivary glands and featured diffuse proliferation of pleomorphic neoplastic cells with large necrotic foci. The lesion was well demarcated from the surrounding tissue, although invasive growth to ...
Gjorevski Nikolce - - 2011
The mammary gland undergoes a spectacular series of changes as it develops, and maintains a remarkable capacity to remodel and regenerate for several decades. Mammary morphogenesis has been investigated for over 100 years, motivated by the dairy industry and cancer biologists. Over the past decade, the gland has emerged as ...
Toga Kouhei - - 2011
Termite soldiers are the most specialized caste of social insects in terms of their morphology and function. Soldier development requires increased juvenile hormone (JH) titer and the two molts via a presoldier stage. These molts are accompanied by dramatic morphological changes, including the exaggeration and regression of certain organs. Soldiers ...
Lei Xia - - 2011
Human eccrine sweat glands are tubule-structured glands of the skin that are vital in thermoregulation, secretion, and excretion of water and electrolytes. A study of tubular morphogenesis in vitro would facilitate the development of a tissue engineering model for eccrine sweat glands and other tubule-structured glands. Matrigel, a basement membrane ...
Pasic Lejla - - 2011
Human mammary glands arise from multipotent progenitor cells, which likely respond both to cell-autonomous and to extrinsic cues. However, the identity of these cues and how they might act remain unclear. We analyzed HER1 ligand effects on mammary morphogenesis using a three-dimensional organoid model generated from human breast tissue that ...
Wanyonyi Stephen S - - 2011
Cathelicidins secreted in milk may be central to autocrine feedback in the mammary gland for optimal development in addition to conferring innate immunity to both the mammary gland and the neonate. This study exploits the unique reproductive strategy of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) model to analyse differential splicing of ...
Vega-Naredo Ignacio - - 2011
  The Syrian hamster Harderian gland exhibits sexually dimorphic porphyrin biosynthesis, wherein the female glands display an extraordinarily high concentration of porphyrins. Damage derived from this production of porphyrins, mediated by reactive oxygen species, causes the glands to develop autophagic processes, which culminate in detachment-derived cell death; these cells normally ...
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