Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 2016
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Harada Tadayuki - - 2008
PURPOSE: To examine whether nitric oxide (NO) and other radical species are involved in radiation-induced bystander effects in normal human fibroblasts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bystander effects were modeled by co-culture of non-irradiated cells with X-irradiated cells, and induction levels of micronuclei in co-cultured non-irradiated cells were examined. Three types of ...
Kobayashi Kazuya - - 2008
Planarians are well known for their remarkable regenerative capacity. This capacity to regenerate is thought to be due to the presence of totipotent somatic stem cells known as 'neoblasts', which have particular morphological characteristics. The totipotency of neoblasts was supported by Baguñà's experiment, which involved the introduction of donor cells ...
Huang Yu-Fen - - 2008
Safe and effective photothermal therapy depends on efficient delivery of heat for killing cells and molecular specificity for targeting cells. To address these requirements, we have designed an aptamer-based nanostructure which combines the high absorption efficiency of Au-Ag nanorods with the target specificity of molecular aptamers, a combination resulting in ...
Liu Feng - - 2010
To determine the direct effects of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor C225 on the radiosensitivity of human prostate cancer cells. Human prostate cancer DU145 cells were irradiated with (60)Co (1.953 Gy/min) at various doses in the presence or absence of C225. The cellular proliferation and cell-survival rate were ...
Febrer Emma - - 2008
Double strand breaks (DSB) are critical lesions involved in the formation of chromosomal aberrations. In response to DNA damage, the cell has mechanisms of repair and cell-cycle control to maintain the genome integrity in which BRCA1 gene is implicated. In the present study an evaluation of the radio-induced damage in ...
Lu Jun - - 2008
We investigated changes in the sub-cellular distribution of glycelaldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) after X-ray irradiation in HeLa cells. Twenty-four h after irradiation at 5 Gy, nuclear GAPDH levels increased 2.6-fold, whereas total GAPDH levels increased only 1.2-fold. Knockdown of GAPDH using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) led to sensitization to X-ray-induced ...
Tipton David A - - 2008
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Ultraviolet light absorber (UVA) and hindered amine light stabilizer (HALS) retard sun-induced pigment degradation in silicone elastomeric maxillofacial prostheses. HALS inhibits polymer degradation and UVA dissipates UV radiation. Their effects on oral cells are unknown. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ...
Wargent Jason J - - 2009
Reductions in leaf growth are a commonly observed response to ultraviolet radiation, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. This study examined the response of leaves exposed to a UV environment across a range of organizational scales, including leaf expansion rate, epidermal cell size and number, biomechanical properties, leaf-water relations ...
Hur Jung-Mu - - 2008
The purpose of the study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying the enhancement of radiosensitivity to 60Co gamma-irradiation in human hepatoma cell line HepG2 pretreated with gliotoxin. Enhancement of radiotherapy by gliotoxin was investigated in vitro with human hepatoma HepG2 cell line. Apoptosis related proteins were evaluated by Western blotting. ...
Gao Zhen Z Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, - - 2008
This study investigates the hypothesis that CuZn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) overexpression confers radioresistance to human glioma cells by regulating the late accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the G(2)/M-checkpoint pathway. U118-9 human glioma cells (wild type, neo vector control, and stably overexpressing SOD1) were irradiated (0-10 Gy) and assayed ...
Frankenberg Dieter - - 2008
We have studied the dependence of clonogenic bystander effects on defects in the pathways of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair and on linear energy transfer (LET). The single-ion microbeam of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) was used to irradiate parental Chinese hamster ovary cells or derivatives deficient in nonhomologous end joining ...
Pires Oliveira Deise A A - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of biomodulation on osteoblastic cells using a gallium-aluminium-arsenide diode laser. BACKGROUND DATA: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a non-pharmacological therapeutic resource to which biological tissues respond well, producing such effects as the acceleration of bone formation and bone ...
Fisher Carolyn J CJ Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Radiation Oncology Department, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, - - 2008
In recent years, cellular redox environment gained significant attention as a critical regulator of cellular responses to oxidative stress. Cellular redox environment is a balance between production of reactive oxygen species and their removal by antioxidant enzymes. We investigated the hypothesis that mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme activity regulates radioresistance in human ...
Au Leslie L Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, - - 2008
Gold nanocages with an average edge length of 65 +/- 7 nm and a strong absorption peak at 800 nm were conjugated with monoclonal antibodies (anti-HER2) to target breast cancer cells (SK-BR-3) through the epidermal growth factor receptor (in this case, HER2), which is overexpressed on the surfaces of the ...
de Waard Harm - - 2008
Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ES cells) are the precursors of all different cell types comprising the organism. Since persistent DNA damage in this cell type might lead to mutations that cause huge malformations in the developing organism, genome caretaking is of prime importance. We first compared the sensitivity of wild ...
Tapajós E C C EC Universidade de Brasília, Instituto de Biologia, Departamento de Genética e Morfologia, Brasília DF 70910-900, - - 2008
In this study, oral carcinoma cells were used to evaluate chloroaluminum-phthalocyanine encapsulated in liposomes as the photosensitizer agent in support of photodynamic therapy (PDT). The genotoxicity and cytotoxicity behavior of the encapsulated photosensitizer in both dark and under irradiation using the 670-nm laser were investigated with the classical trypan blue ...
Song Q - - 2008
This work describes the selective targeting of pigmented retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells by a single pulsed laser irradiation. We observed: (1) single pulsed laser irradiation caused cellular damages on pigmented, and not on non-pigmented RPE cells at laser radiant exposure up to 2550 mJ/cm(2); (2) in the mixture of ...
Natarajan Adayapalam T - - 2008
In order to evaluate the relative role of two major DNA double strand break repair pathways, i.e., non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination repair (HRR), CHO mutants deficient in these two pathways and the parental cells (AA8) were X-irradiated with various doses. The cells were harvested at different times ...
Thomas Charles - - 2008
PURPOSE: To ask whether highly metastatic sublines show more marked low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS) response than poorly metastatic ones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The progressive (PRO) subline showing tumourigenicity and metastatic potential and the regressive (REG) subline showing neither tumourigenicity nor metastatic potential were both isolated from a parental rat colon tumour. ...
Matsubara Akio - - 2008
BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to investigate the radiosensitizing effects of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2IIIb (FGFR2IIIb) in androgen-independent human prostate carcinoma PC-3 cells devoid of normally resident epithelial cell FGFR2IIIb. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A clonal line of PC-3 cells expressing FGFR2IIIb was established by stable transfection. Clonogenic cell survival, ...
Kuchimaru Takahiro - - 2008
To identify individual cells exposed to a X-ray microbeam in a cell population, we developed a biocompatible microchamber-array chip using UV lithography of photopolymer SU-8. The center-to-center distance between microchambers is 50 mum including a wall of 15 mum height. Using the microchamber-array chip, we performed tracking of individual exposed ...
Katz J J Department of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Florida, PO Box 100414, Gainesville, FL 32610-0414, USA. - - 2008
We studied the effects of isoflavones and irradiation on cell cycle in a human salivary gland cell line (HSG). Genistein and a soy isoflavone conjugate (NS) inhibited DNA synthesis. Cells deconjugated the glucoside form of isoflavones in NS to the aglycones genistein and daidzein. NS, genistein and IR increased phosphorylation ...
Folkard Melvyn - - 2009
The micro-irradiation technique continues to be highly relevant to a number of radiobiological studies in vitro. In particular, studies of the bystander effect show that direct damage to cells is not the only trigger for radiation-induced effects, but that unirradiated cells can also respond to signals from irradiated neighbours. Furthermore, ...
Sak A - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: This study is to evaluate the effect of separase depletion on cell cycle progression of irradiated and non-irradiated cells through the G(2)/M phases and consecutive cell survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Separase was depleted with siRNA in two human non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell lines. Cell cycle progression, mitotic ...
Kim S-Y - - 2008
AIMS: To investigate the microbicidal mechanisms of high-power microwave (2.0 kW) irradiation on Bacillus subtilis and to determine the effect of this procedure on the ultrastructure of the cell wall. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed viability test, examined cells using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and measured the release of intracellular ...
Holzapfel Korbinian - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Choline positron emission tomography (PET) can help to optimize radiation treatment strategy of prostate cancer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of ionizing radiation on the choline uptake in an androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and an androgen-independent (PC3) prostate cancer cell line. MATERIAL AND ...
Miyoshi Takashi - - 2008
To evaluate the feasibility of two kinds of pterin derivatives, 2-(N,N-dimethylaminomethyleneamino)-6-formyl-3-pivaloylpteridin-4-one (DFP) and 2-(N,N-dimethylaminomethyleneamino)-3-pivaloylpteridin-4-one (DP), as anticancer drugs, their photodynamic and non-photodynamic effects on pancreatic cancer cell line Panc-1 cells were examined. For photodynamic effects, cell death 48 h after UV-A irradiation was more prominent in cells preloaded with DP ...
Pant Kamala - - 2008
The Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell transformation assay has traditionally been conducted with a feeder layer of X-ray irradiated cells to provide growth support to the target cells seeded in low numbers. The feeder layer of cells consists of X-ray irradiated cells which are still viable but unable to replicate. ...
Huang Haomin H Fox Chase Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, - - 2008
X-irradiation-induced DNA damage perturbs the G(1), S, and G(2) phases of the cell cycle. The behavior of cells after they have experienced a DNA damage checkpoint delay is poorly characterized. We therefore examined the fates of irradiated tumor cells that have overcome a prolonged G(2) checkpoint delay. Most irradiated cells ...
Jańczyk Agnieszka - - 2008
Phototoxicity of titanium dioxide modified with platinum(IV)-chloride complexes, [TiO2/PtCl4], irradiated with visible light was tested on murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) in vitro. Presence of antioxidants such as alpha-tocopherol or beta-carotene during photodynamic treatment significantly increased cells viability. Our results indicate that observed cell death induced by [TiO2/PtCl4] was ...
Wang Jufang - - 2008
To investigate the influence of fractionation on cell survival and radiation induced premature differentiation as markers for early and late effects after X-rays and carbon irradiation. Normal human fibroblasts NHDF, AG1522B and WI-38 were irradiated with 250 kV X-rays, or 266 MeV/u, 195 MeV/u and 11 MeV/u carbon ions. Cytotoxicity ...
Iwakawa Mayumi - - 2008
Evidence has accumulated that ionizing radiation induces biological effects in non-irradiated bystander cells having received signals from directly irradiated cells; however, energetic heavy ion-induced bystander response is incompletely characterized. Here we performed microarray analysis of irradiated and bystander fibroblasts in confluent cultures. To see the effects in bystander cells, each ...
Pirev Elvis - - 2008
Changes of the redox balance in cells alter the availability of intracellular free Zn(2+). Here, cells were exposed to ultraviolet (UV)-A, UV-B, or infrared (IR)-A light irradiation, and the intracellular free zinc pool was monitored. Under sublethal conditions only UV-A irradiation resulted in a transient cytoplasmic and nuclear increase of ...
Matsuu-Matsuyama Mutsumi - - 2008
Polaprezinc, an anti-ulcer drug, is a chelate compound consisting of zinc and L-carnosine. Polaprezinc has been shown to prevent gastric mucosal injury. The anti ulcer effects of polaprezinc have been ascribed to its antioxidative property. The effect of polaprezinc on ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis was studied in the jejunal epithelial crypt ...
Takahashi Akihisa - - 2008
PURPOSE: The aim of this work was to characterize the radioadaptive response at the molecular level. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We used wild-type (wt) p53 and mutated (m) p53-containing cells derived from the human lung cancer H1299 cell line, which is p53-null. Cellular radiation sensitivities were determined with a colony-forming assay. ...
Dahle Jostein - - 2008
7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-guanine (8-oxoG) is a mutagenic DNA lesion that is induced by ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation. 8-oxoG results in increased frequency of GC-->TA transversion mutations. UVA-induced mutant frequency was measured in the guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (gpt) gene of Chinese hamster ovary cells (AS52) that were stably transfected to overexpress the hOGG1 ...
Lu Jun - - 2008
To find novel proteins involved in radio-resistance of human cells, we searched for nuclear proteins, whose expression levels alter after X-ray irradiation in HeLa cells, using agarose fluorescent two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis following mass spectrometry. We identified 6 proteins, whose levels were increased in nuclei 24h after irradiation at 5Gy, ...
McNally Kristin - - 2008
Translesion synthesis (TLS) refers to mechanisms by which specialized DNA polymerases incorporate nucleotides opposite fork-blocking lesions and extend replication until standard replicative polymerases take over. The first eukaryotic TLS polymerase discovered, S. cerevisiae Polzeta, consists of catalytic subunit Rev3 and non-catalytic subunit Rev7. Human homologs of these two proteins have ...
Novikova N S - - 2008
A morphometric analysis of hypothalamic cells containing c-Fos-like protein detected by an indirect immunoperoxidase method was carried out to clarify the responses to movement restriction and skin electromagnetic high frequency (EHF) irradiation (7.1mm, 42.2GHz, 20mW output power) simultaneously to three acupuncture projection areas. The morphometry of c-Fos-protein positive neurons by ...
Jimbo Ryo - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Previously, we reported that anodized porous titanium implants have photocatalytic hydrophilicity. However, this effect was not always sufficient for the significant improvement of bone apposition. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to improve the photocatalytic properties of porous titanium implants by the fluoride modification of the anodized titanium ...
Apel Anja - - 2008
Autophagy or "self eating" is frequently activated in tumor cells treated with chemotherapy or irradiation. Whether autophagy represents a survival mechanism or rather contributes to cell death remains controversial. To address this issue, the role of autophagy in radiosensitive and radioresistant human cancer cell lines in response to gamma-irradiation was ...
Duan Xin - - 2008
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of exogenous wild type p53 (Tp53) on murine melanoma B16 cell apoptosis induced by carbon-ion beam (C-beam) irradiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The murine cell line B16, which has wild-type Tp53 gene status was studied, as well as B16 cells transfected with an adenoviral vector containing ...
Stap Jan - - 2008
Understanding how cells maintain genome integrity when challenged with DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is of major importance, particularly since the discovery of multiple links of DSBs with genome instability and cancer-predisposition disorders. Ionizing radiation is the agent of choice to produce DSBs in cells; however, targeting DSBs and monitoring changes ...
Salmon Adam B AB Cellular and Molecular Biology Graduate Program, University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, - - 2008
Fibroblasts isolated from long-lived hypopituitary dwarf mice are resistant to many cell stresses, including ultraviolet (UV) light and methyl methane sulfonate (MMS), which induce cell death by producing DNA damage. Here we report that cells from Snell dwarf mice recover more rapidly than controls from the inhibition of RNA synthesis ...
Bogdanović Visnja - - 2008
Radiotherapy-induced toxicity is a major dose-limiting factor in anti-cancer treatment. Ionizing radiation leads to the formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) that are associated with radiation-induced cell death. Investigations of biological effects of fullerenol have provided evidence for its ROS/RNS scavenger properties in vitro and radioprotective efficiency in ...
Oishi Takuma - - 2008
Histological analyses of glioblastoma cells after carbon-ion exposure are still limited and ultrastructural characteristics have not been investigated in detail. Here we report the results of morphological and morphometric analyses of a human glioblastoma cell line, CGNH-89, after ionizing radiation to characterize the effect of a carbon-beam on glioblastoma cells. ...
Herrlich Peter P Leibniz Institute for Age Research, Fritz Lipmann Institute, Beutenbergstrasse 11, 07745 Jena, Germany. - - 2008
Like their prokaryotic counterparts, mammalian cells can sense light, especially in the ultraviolet (UV) range of the spectrum. After UV exposure, cells mount an elaborate response--called the UV response--that mimics physiological signaling responses except that it targets multiple pathways, thereby lacking the defined specificity of receptor-triggered signal transduction. Despite many ...
Rezácová Martina - - 2008
Mutations in NBS1 gene are related to higher occurrence of malignancies. In this work we studied response of T-lymphocyte leukemia cells MOLT-4 to ionizing radiation. We detected IRIF (ionizing radiation forming foci) containing histone gammaH2A.X, protein 53BP1, and Nbs1, which were formed around double-strand breaks of DNA. We found dose-dependent ...
Rostek C - - 2008
Protection from chronic exposure to cosmic radiation, which is primarily composed of protons, in future manned missions to Mars and beyond is considered to be a key unresolved issue. To model the effects of cosmic radiation on a living cell, we used Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells harboring various deletions of DNA ...
David Ran - - 2008
Regeneration of the salivary glands' (SGs) normal function for patients with cancer of the head and neck treated with irradiation would be a major contribution to their quality of life. This could be accomplished by re-implantation of autologous SG cells into the residual irradiated tissue or by implantation of tissue-engineered ...
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