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Antico Arciuch Valeria Gabriela - - 2012
Eukaryotic mitochondria resulted from symbiotic incorporation of α-proteobacteria into ancient archaea species. During evolution, mitochondria lost most of the prokaryotic bacterial genes and only conserved a small fraction including those encoding 13 proteins of the respiratory chain. In this process, many functions were transferred to the host cells, but mitochondria ...
Guzun Rita - - 2012
This review describes the recent experimental data on the importance of the VDAC-cytoskeleton interactions in determining the mechanisms of energy and metabolite transfer between mitochondria and cytoplasm in cardiac cells. In the intermembrane space mitochondrial creatine kinase connects VDAC with adenine nucleotide translocase and ATP synthase complex, on the cytoplasmic ...
Chalmers Susan S Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 161 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G4 0RE, - - 2012
Depolarization of an individual mitochondrion or small clusters of mitochondria within cells has been achieved using a photoactivatable probe. The probe is targeted to the matrix of the mitochondrion by an alkyltriphenylphosphonium lipophilic cation and releases the protonophore 2,4-dinitrophenol locally in predetermined regions in response to directed irradiation with UV ...
Kurihara Yusuke - - 2012
In mammalian cells, the autophagy-dependent degradation of mitochondria (mitophagy) is thought to maintain mitochondrial quality by eliminating damaged mitochondria. However, the physiological importance of mitophagy has not been clarified in yeast. Here, we investigated the physiological role of mitophagy in yeast using mitophagy-deficient atg32- or atg11-knock-out cells. When wild-type yeast ...
Ferreira Fernanda M - - 2011
In the present work, we evaluated the potential toxic effects of nerolidol, a sesquiterpenoid common in plants essential oils, both on mitochondrial and cellular energetics. Samples of enriched natural extracts of nerolidol (a racemic mixture of cis and trans isomers) were tested on rat liver mitochondria and a decrease in ...
Johnson James D - - 2011
Nanometre-scale spaces between organelles represent focused nodes for signal transduction and the control of cellular decisions. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the mitochondria form dynamic quasi-synaptic interaction nanodomains in all cell types examined, but the functional role of these junctions in cellular metabolism and cell survival remains to be fully ...
Zhang Jin J Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, - - 2011
It has been assumed, based largely on morphologic evidence, that human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) contain underdeveloped, bioenergetically inactive mitochondria. In contrast, differentiated cells harbour a branched mitochondrial network with oxidative phosphorylation as the main energy source. A role for mitochondria in hPSC bioenergetics and in cell differentiation therefore remains ...
Ponnala Shivani - - 2012
Glioma cancer cells adapt to changing microenvironment and shift from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis for their metabolic needs irrespective of oxygen availability. In the present study, we show that silencing MMP-9 in combination with uPAR/cathepsin B switch the glycolytic metabolism of glioma cells to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and ...
Liu Lin - - 2011
Dynamics of plastids and mitochondria during microgametogenesis in watermelon were examined by means of transmission electron microscopy. Plastids are present as proplastids in the microspore and as amyloplasts in the vegetative cell of the bicellular pollen grain, whereas the generative cell is completely devoid of plastids, suggesting that microspore plastids ...
Pattanayak Gopal K - - 2011
The Arabidopsis ACCELERATED CELL DEATH 2 (ACD2) protein protects cells from programmed cell death (PCD) caused by endogenous porphyrin-related molecules like red chlorophyll catabolite or exogenous protoporphyrin IX. We previously found that during bacterial infection, ACD2, a chlorophyll breakdown enzyme, localizes to both chloroplasts and mitochondria in leaves. Additionally, acd2 ...
Ghosh A - - 2011
In the preceding paper (A. Ghosh et al. (2011) Biochemistry (Moscow), 76, 1051-1060), using several comparable tissue materials, it has been convincingly demonstrated that methylglyoxal, a normal metabolite, inhibits mitochondrial complex I of specifically malignant cells. This suggests a distinct alteration of complex I, a highly important enzyme for energy ...
Das Samarjit S Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, - - 2012
Mitochondria are highly metabolically active cell organelles that not only act as the powerhouse of the cell by supplying energy through ATP production, but also play a destructive role by initiating cell death pathways. Growing evidence recognizes that mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the major causes of cardiovascular disease. Under ...
Michel Sébastien - - 2011
A controlled regulation of mitochondrial mass through either the production (biogenesis) or the degradation (mitochondrial quality control) of the organelle represents a crucial step for proper mitochondrial and cell function. Key steps of mitochondrial biogenesis and quality control are overviewed, with an emphasis on the role of mitochondrial chaperones and ...
Guizzunti Gianni - - 2012
The synthetic caged Garcinia xanthone, cluvenone, has potent and selective cytotoxicity against numerous cancer cell lines including those that are multi-drug resistant. The direct target of this structurally and functionally unique agent is unknown and that of the parent natural product, gambogic acid (GA), presently in clinical trials, is not ...
Klein Barbara - - 2011
Perturbation of cellular K(+) homeostasis is a common motif in apoptosis but it is unknown whether a decrease in intracellular K(+) alone is sufficient to replicate apoptotic hallmarks. We investigated, which mode of cell death is induced by decreasing the intracellular K(+) concentration using valinomycin, a highly K(+)-selective ionophore. Valinomycin ...
Anderson Donald D - - 2011
The de novo and salvage dTTP pathways are essential for maintaining cellular dTTP pools to ensure the faithful replication of both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. Disregulation of dTTP pools results in mitochondrial dysfunction and nuclear genome instability due to an increase in uracil misincorporation. In this study, we identified a ...
Theodossiou Theodossis A - - 2011
New and emerging therapeutic approaches focus on the targeted delivery of therapeutic agents to cell mitochondria with high specificity. Herein we present a novel mitotropic nanocarrier based on an oligolysine scaffold by addition of two triphenylphosphonium cations per oligomer. Although the parent oligolysine failed to enter healthy cells, the triphenylphosphonium ...
McFaline-Figueroa José Ricardo - - 2011
Fluorescence loss in photobleaching experiments and analysis of mitochondrial function using superoxide and redox potential biosensors revealed that mitochondria within individual yeast cells are physically and functionally distinct. Mitochondria that are retained in mother cells during yeast cell division have a significantly more oxidizing redox potential and higher superoxide levels ...
Shiozaki Motoko - - 2011
Resveratrol has been extensively investigated because of its beneficial effects in delaying age-related diseases, thus extending the lifespan, possibly by mimicking calorie restriction. For this study, cell biological techniques were used to examine how resveratrol influenced hepatocytes in a senescence-accelerated mouse P10 (SAMP10), treated from 35 to 55 weeks of ...
Park So Jung - - 2011
Mitochondrial dynamics not only involves mitochondrial morphology but also mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial distribution, and cell death. To identify specific regulators to mitochondria dynamics, we screened a chemical library and identified niclosamide as a potent inducer of mitochondria fission. Niclosamide promoted mitochondrial fragmentation but this was blocked by down-regulation of Drp1. ...
Wagle Mayura A - - 2011
PURPOSE: To develop and evaluate liposomal formulations prepared with an isolated mitochondrial fraction as a mitochondria-specific delivery vehicle METHODS: Liposomes were prepared with either a crude mitochondrial fraction extracted from cells or lipids extracted from the crude mitochondrial fraction and were then characterized by determining their size and zeta potential. ...
Galluzzi Lorenzo - - 2011
Cells normally respond to a lack of nutrients by activating autophagy, a prominent pro-survival pathway that involves the catabolism and recycling of cytoplasmic material. Recent results indicate that mitochondria actively elongate during autophagy, thereby avoiding their degradation and sustaining cell viability.
Cottet-Rousselle Cécile - - 2011
Mitochondria are most important organelles in the survival of eukaryotic aerobic cells because they are the primary producers of ATP, regulators of ion homeostasis or redox state, and producers of free radicals. The key role of mitochondria in the generation of primordial ATP for the survival and proliferation of eukaryotic ...
Wilkerson Donald C - - 2011
Mitochondria have long been recognized as cellular energy power houses that also regulate cellular redox signaling to arbitrate cell survival. Recent studies of mitochondria in stem cells (SCs) demonstrate that they have critical roles beyond this traditional view. Embryonic (E) SCs, termed pluripotent for their ability to differentiate into all ...
Choi Eun Mi - - 2011
Antimycin A (AMA), which inhibits complex III of the electron transport system, has been used as a reactive oxygen species (ROS) generator in biological systems. We investigated the effects of AMA on various parameters related to mitochondrial function in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Here, we show that AMA-induced cell death was ...
Dong H J - - 2011
Context: Monosialotetrahexosylganglioside (GM(1)) prepared from the brain of pig or bovine is an effective clinical drug in the treatment of different nervous system diseases. Generally, polysialogangliosides are transformed into GM(1) by enzymic or chemical hydrolysis due to the very poor level of natural GM(1). Objective: To continuously obtain GM(1) by ...
Brand Martin D - - 2011
Assessing mitochondrial dysfunction requires definition of the dysfunction to be investigated. Usually, it is the ability of the mitochondria to make ATP appropriately in response to energy demands. Where other functions are of interest, tailored solutions are required. Dysfunction can be assessed in isolated mitochondria, in cells or in vivo, ...
Bay K - - 2011
Knockout of the gene encoding insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3) results in cryptorchidism in mice due to disruption of the transabdominal phase of testicular descent. This finding was essential for understanding the complete course of testis descensus, and wound up years of speculations regarding the endocrine regulation of this process. INSL3 ...
Komohara Yoshihiro - - 2011
Most malignant tumors evidence infiltration of many macrophages. In this study, we investigated an anti-inflammatory macrophage phenotype (M2) in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) using CD163 and CD204 as markers. Immunostaining showed a correlation between the number of CD163(+) cells and age, sex, nuclear grade, and TNM classification. High ...
Suzuki D O H - - 2010
An intense electric field can be applied to increase the membrane conductance (Gm) and consequently, the conductivity of cell suspension. This phenomenon is called electroporation. This mechanism is used in a wide range of medical applications, genetic engineering, and therapies. Conductivity measurements of cell suspensions were carried out during application ...
Izzo Gaia - - 2011
8-Prenylnaringenin and isoxanthohumol are prenylflavonoids found in the hop plant, Humulus lupulus (Cannabaceae), which is traditionally used to add bitterness and flavor to beer. Flavonoids have previously been reported to exert endocrine disrupting actions. Therefore, we investigated the effects of 8-prenylnaringenin and isoxanthohumol on steroidogenesis activated by human chorionic gonadotropin ...
Chui Kitty K MandalMed, Inc., San Francisco, CA 94107, - - 2011
It has long been thought that mammalian Sertoli cells are terminally differentiated and nondividing postpuberty. For most previous in vitro studies immature rodent testes have been the source of Sertoli cells and these have shown little proliferative ability when cultured. We have isolated and characterized Sertoli cells from human cadaveric ...
Hogarth Cathryn A CA School of Molecular Biosciences and Centre for Reproductive Biology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164, - - 2010
Spermatogenesis is an intricately regulated process of cellular differentiation transforming spermatogonial stem cells to spermatozoa. Elimination of the transcription factor EGR4 generates subfertile male mice yet the expression and function of EGR4 in the mammalian testis has yet to be fully investigated. We performed in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence to ...
Yoon M J - - 2010
Leydig cells located in the interstitial space of the testicular parenchyma produce testosterone which plays a critical role in the maintenance and restoration of spermatogenesis in many species, including horses. For normal spermatogenesis, maintaining Leydig cells is critical to provide an optimal and constant level of testosterone. Recently, an anti-apoptotic ...
Beltrame Flávia L - - 2011
Treatment of gastric ulcer with cimetidine reduces acid secretion and interferes in the vitamin B(12) absorption. Regarding the harmful effect of cimetidine on the seminiferous tubules, the aim of the present study was to verify if prolonged treatment with cimetidine causes vitamin B(12) deficiency and whether the testicular damages are ...
Rodriguez-Sosa Jose R - - 2011
Testis tissue xenografting represents a versatile model to study testis biology, and to preserve fertility in immature animals. To evaluate whether bovine fetal testes can mature when grafted into mouse hosts, small fragments of testes from midgestation (125 to 145 days of gestation) bovine fetuses were grafted ectopically into immunodeficient ...
Mendis Sirisha H S - - 2011
Activin affects many aspects of cellular development, including those essential for reproductive fitness. This study examined the contribution of activin A to murine fetal testicular development, revealing contrasting outcomes of activin actions on Sertoli cells and gonocytes. Shortly after sex determination, from Embryonic Day 12.5 (E12.5) through to birth (0 ...
Gat Yigal - - 2010
Sertoli-cell-only (SCO) syndrome, or germ cell aplasia, is diagnosed on testicular biopsy when germ cells are seen to be absent without histological impairment of Sertoli or Leydig cells. It is considered a situation of irreversible infertility. Recent studies have shown that varicocele, a bilateral disease, causes hypoxia in the testicular ...
Zerani M - - 2011
The main objective of this study was to examine the modulatory in vitro effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) on isolated Leydig cells of adult alpaca (Lama pacos) testis. We first evaluated the presence of GnRH receptor (GnRHR) and cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and COX2 in alpaca testis. We then studied the ...
Langsdorf Aliete - - 2011
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a heparan sulfate (HS)-binding factor. GDNF is produced by somatic Sertoli cells, where it signals to maintain spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and reproduction. Here, we investigate the roles of extracellular HS 6-O-endosulfatases (Sulfs), Sulf1 and Sulf2, in the matrix transmission of GDNF from ...
Nah Won Heum - - 2011
Expression of claudin-11, which builds up blood-testis barrier (BTB), was increased in decreased spermatogenesis, including in hypospermatogenesis, spermatocytic and maturation arrest, and Sertoli cell only (SCO) testes. Increased claudin-11 immunoreactivity was observed at the inter-Sertoli tight junctions in maturation arrest and in the cytoplasm of Sertoli cells in SCO. The ...
Sajjad Yasmin - - 2010
The course of development of the human genital tract is undifferentiated to the 9th week of development. At this time two symmetrical paired ducts known as the mesonephric (MD) and paramesonephric ducts (PMD) are present, which together with the urogenital sinus provide the tissue sources for internal and external genital ...
Zaiden Sérgio Fonseca - - 2011
SummaryThe cururu stingray Potamotrygon cf. histrix, a new and endemic Amazonian freshwater species, presents appropriate characteristics for fish keeping and is exploited from its natural environment. The present study identified the testicular structure and spermatogenesis of this species. Gonads from adult male specimens were dissected, fixed and processed for histological ...
Su Linlin - - 2010
Adjudin, an analogue of lonidamine, affects adhesion between Sertoli and most germ cells, resulting in reversible infertility in rats, rabbits and dogs. Previous studies have described the apical ectoplasmic specialization, a hybrid-type of Sertoli cell-elongating/elongated spermatid adhesive junction, as a key target of adjudin. In this study, we ask if ...
Basciani Sabrina - - 2010
Normal development and function of the testis are controlled by endocrine and paracrine signaling pathways. Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) are growth factors that mediate epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in various tissues during normal and abnormal processes such as embryo development, wound healing, tissue fibrosis, vascular disorders, and cancer. PDGFs and their receptors ...
Spinnler K - - 2010
Testicular peritubular cells form an ill-characterized cellular compartment of the human testis, which forms a border with Sertoli cells and spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). A recently developed culture method has identified parts of the secretory repertoire of human testicular peritubular cells (HTPCs), which includes nerve growth factor. Whether peritubular cells ...
Böttcher Bettina - - 2011
Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours account for less than 0.2% of ovarian malignancies. We describe the case of a Sertoli-Leydig cell tumour in a 13-year-old girl who presented with symptoms of hyperandrogenism. We give an overview over current literature and discuss options of therapy of rare Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours.
Li Dongmei - - 2010
In this study, our purpose is to analyze combined effects of nonyl phenol (NP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) for rat testicular Sertoli cell toxicity in vitro. Sertoli cells were isolated, purified, cultured, and identified with FSHR fluorescence staining. Then the purified Sertoli cells were treated with different doses of NP, ...
Sherrill Jessica D - - 2010
Testicular Leydig cells, which are the predominant source of the male sex steroid hormone testosterone, express estrogen receptors (ESRs) and are subject to regulation by estrogen. Following ingestion, the two major isoflavones in soybeans, genistin and daidzin, are hydrolyzed by gut microflora to form genistein and daidzein, which have the ...
Wong Elissa W P - - 2010
In the testis, the blood-testis barrier (BTB) is constituted by specialized junctions between adjacent Sertoli cells in the seminiferous epithelium near the basement membrane. Although the BTB is one of the tightest blood-tissue barriers in the mammalian body, it undergoes extensive restructuring at stage VIII of the seminiferous epithelial cycle ...
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