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Results 201 - 250 of 2394
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Svechnikov Konstantin - - 2008
Di-2-ethylhexyl (DEHP) phthalate, one of the phthalates most widely distributed in our general environment, causes reproductive toxicity that is attributable to the action of its primary metabolite, mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). Here, we have investigated the effects of MEHP on steroidogenesis by primary cultures of immature and adult rat Leydig cells. ...
Mruk Dolores D - - 2008
In multicellular organisms, cell-cell interactions are mediated in part by cell junctions, which underlie tissue architecture. Throughout spermatogenesis, for instance, preleptotene leptotene spermatocytes residing in the basal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium must traverse the blood-testis barrier to enter the adluminal compartment for continued development. At the same time, germ ...
Boyer Alexandre - - 2008
WNT/CTNNB1 signaling is involved in the regulation of multiple embryonic developmental processes, adult tissue homeostasis, abd cell fate determination and differentiation. Many WNTs and components of the WNT/CTNNB1 signaling pathway are expressed in the testis, but their physiological roles in this organ are largely unknown. To elucidate the role(s) of ...
Kusakabe Takahiko - - 2008
In this study, we examined the levels of Cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn), which were considered to be involved in Sertoli cell damage caused by Cd exposure. We also examined metallothionein (MT), heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expressions in Sertoli cells induced by Cd ...
Shamekh Rania - - 2008
The 796RMB cell line is a multipotent stem cell line isolated from human fetal midbrain tissues, a region from which dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra develop. It would be useful to increase the dopaminergic characteristics of this cell line to enhance its usefulness as a cell therapy for Parkinson's ...
Pedrana G - - 2008
We tested the hypothesis that acute pre-natal exposure to high levels of synthetic glucocorticoid (betamethasone) would alter fetal testicular development through actions on gonadal glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). Pregnant Merino ewes bearing singleton male fetuses (n = 24) were allocated randomly among four equal groups to be injected intramuscularly with saline ...
Murugesan Palaniappan - - 2008
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental contaminants that in humans and animals disturb normal endocrine functions including gonadal functions. The present studies were aimed at determining the direct effects of PCB on Leydig cell testosterone production and antioxidant system in vitro. Adult Leydig cells were purified by Percoll gradient centrifugation method ...
Abel M H - - 2008
Spermatogenesis in the adult male depends on the action of FSH and androgen. Ablation of either hormone has deleterious effects on Sertoli cell function and the progression of germ cells through spermatogenesis. In this study we generated mice lacking both FSH receptors (FSHRKO) and androgen receptors on the Sertoli cell ...
Arregui Lucía - - 2008
Recovery of germ cells could be an option for preservation of the genetic pool of endangered animals. In immature males, xenografting of testis tissue provides the opportunity to recover sperm from these animals. In adult animals, xenografting has been less successful, but de novo morphogenesis of functional testis tissue from ...
O'Shaughnessy P J - - 2008
It has been shown that testicular germ cell development is critically dependent upon somatic cell activity but, conversely, the extent to which germ cells normally regulate somatic cell function is less clear. This study was designed, therefore, to examine the effect of germ cell depletion on Sertoli cell and Leydig ...
Mazaud Guittot Séverine - - 2008
Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins have been shown to alter Leydig cell steroidogenesis in vitro, substantiating the hypothesis that Leydig cell steroidogenic activity and matrix environment are interdependent events. However, the nature of the ECM components synthesized by Leydig cells and their regulation by LH/human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) remain unknown. Here, ...
de Souza Santos Lia Raquel - - 2008
The present study describes morphological aspects of testes and presents a general characterization of the seminiferous elements of Dendropsophus minutus (Peters, 1872). Twenty samples of the species were used; after macroscopic descriptions the testes were submitted to histological routine for microscopic analysis. Anatomically, the testes measured 1.90+/-0.13 mm, and were ...
Moon Changjong - - 2008
The Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways are involved in cell survival. This study examined the temporal profiles and localization of Akt/PKB and ERK1/2 activation in rat testis after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Testicular tissue was collected from normal control rats and rats exposed to reperfusion for 6, ...
Khalaj Maryam - - 2008
Repro22 is an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced mutation in mice showing depletion of both male and female germ cells. In the present study, we investigated the male phenotypes of the mutant mouse at the adult stage. The repro22/repro22 homozygous mice showed reduced body weights as well as markedly reduced testis weights. Histological ...
Loppion Geraldine - - 2008
In the lesser-spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula), spermatogenesis takes place within spermatocysts made up of Sertoli cells associated with stage-synchronized germ cells. As shown in testicular cross sections, cysts radiate in maturational order from the germinative area, where they are formed, to the opposite margin of the testis, where spermiation occurs. ...
Zhang Zhen - - 2008
The contribution of somatic cells to nonrodent male germ cell transplantation success has not been well established due to lack of cell type-specific markers to distinguish donor cells from host cells. In the present study, we first screened antibodies and a lectin to identify markers suitable for unequivocal distinction between ...
Godmann Maren M Institute of Anatomy, Developmental Biology, University of Duisburg-Essen Medical School, 45122 Essen, - - 2008
Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a pleiotropic zinc finger transcription factor that regulates genes being involved in differentiation and cell-cycle control. Knockout studies revealed a critical function for KLF4 in the terminal differentiation of many epithelial cells. In testicular Sertoli cells, Klf4 is strongly inducible by the glycoprotein follicle stimulating ...
Wagner A - - 2009
The role of FSH for Sertoli cell establishment and sperm production in the boar is not definitely known. In order to elucidate its function FSH was substituted postnatally in male pigs and the resulting effects on testicular histological traits and sperm production capacity were investigated when the boars had reached ...
Joensen Ulla Nordström - - 2008
Fertility among human beings appear to be on the decline in many Western countries, and part of the explanation may be decreasing male fecundity. A hypothesis has been put forward that decreasing semen quality may be associated with a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), a spectrum of disorders originating in early ...
Chung Ee-Yung - - 2008
The ultrastructures of germ cells, Leydig cells, and Sertoli cells during spermatogenesis in male Boleophthalmus pectinirostris were investigated by electron microscopic observations. During the period of maturation divisions, well-developed Leydig cells have three major morphological characteristics: a vesicular nucleus, mitochondria with tubular cristae, and a number of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. ...
Yan Helen H N - - 2008
During spermatogenesis in the mammalian testis, preleptotene/leptotene spermatocytes differentiate from type B spermatogonia and traverse the blood-testis barrier (BTB) at stage VIII of the seminiferous epithelial cycle for further development. This timely movement of germ cells involves extensive junction restructuring at the BTB. Previous studies have shown that these events ...
Benbrahim-Tallaa Lamia - - 2008
Fetal androgen disruption, induced by the administration of anti-androgen flutamide (0.4, 2, and 10 mg/kg day) causes a long-term apoptosis in testicular germ cells in adult male rat offspring. One of the questions raised by this observation is the role of the Sertoli cells in the adult germ cell apoptotic ...
Golat Brian T - - 2008
Sertoli cells isolated from the testis (referred to as extratesticular Sertoli cells) have been shown to facilitate allo- and xenogeneic cell transplantations. It appears likely that the ability of these cells to enhance the success of cell engraftment is due, in part, to the retention of their intratesticular functions of ...
Schuenemann G M - - 2008
The aim of the present study was to evaluate transient testicular ischaemia (induced using elastrator bands) in Jersey calves on testicular morphology and development. Treatments (at 27 +/- 5 days of age) consisted of control (0 h banding) and banding for 2, 4 or 8 h (n = 4 in ...
Sklebar Duska - - 2008
It has been shown that adult human Leydig cells express a number of neuroendocrine markers, and, therefore, could be considered as a part of the neuroendocrine system in the adult. A limited number of studies have dealt with the dynamics of development of human foetal Leydig cells, whereas studies on ...
Dufour Jannette M - - 2008
Sertoli cells are important for maintenance of the immune privileged environment of the testis and prolong survival of cotransplanted cells. The objective of the current study was to examine the immunoprotective properties of a mouse Sertoli cell line (MSC-1) in order to identify a Sertoli cell line that could be ...
Vogl A Wayne - - 2008
The cytoskeleton of terminally differentiated mammalian Sertoli cells is one of the most elaborate of those that have been described for cells in tissues. Actin filaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules have distinct patterns of distribution that change during the cyclic process of spermatogenesis. Each of the three major cytoskeletal elements ...
Xiong Weipeng - - 2008
The apoptotic spermatogenic cells and residual bodies are phagocytosed and degraded by Sertoli cells during spermatogenesis. The mechanisms of this process are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Gas6 and its receptors, the Tyro 3 subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs; Tyro 3, Axl, and Mer), regulate the phagocytic function ...
Ehmcke Jens - - 2008
The different types of spermatogonia present in the testes of all mammalian species have a series of functions in the adult testis. Some cycle regularly to (1) maintain the spermatogonial population and (2) derive differentiating germ cells to maintain continuous spermatogenesis; other spermatogonia act as a functional reserve, proliferating only ...
Zhang De-ying - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To construct a cell model of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) cocultured on Sertoli cells feeder layer in vitro, and study the proliferation characteristics of SSCs. METHODS: Sertoli cells and SSCs were separated from testes of 14-15 days and 6 days KM mice respectively by two-step enzyme digestion. SSCs were ...
Angelopoulou R - - 2008
Sertoli cell population kinetics, as evidenced by semi-quantitative immunolabeling for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67, in developing Wistar rat male gonads of embryos and neonates [14.5 days post conception (dpc)-7 days post partum (dpp)], was investigated. Throughout the examined period a gradual increase of immunolabeled Sertoli cell number, ...
Sasso-Cerri Estela - - 2008
Cimetidine, referred as antiandrogenic agent, has caused alterations in the seminiferous tubules, including alterations in the peritubular tissue and death of myoid cells by apoptosis. Regarding the structural and functional importance of the peritubular tissue for the maintenance of Sertoli cells (SC), we purpose to investigate the SC-basement membrane interface, ...
Zhang Yunhui Y Department of Environmental Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China. - - 2008
Leydig cells are the primary source of testosterone in the male, and differentiation of Leydig cells in the testes is one of the primary events in the development of the male body and fertility. Stem Leydig cells (SLCs) exist in the testis throughout postnatal life, but a lack of cell ...
Cool J J Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, - - 2008
Cell migration is one of the earliest events required for development of the testis. Migration occurs only in XY gonads downstream of Sry expression and is required for the subsequent epithelialization of testis cords. Using organ culture experiments and tissue recombination, we and others speculated that peritubular myoid (PTM) cells ...
Hu Guo-Xin GX Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325035, PR - - 2008
Stress-mediated elevations in circulating glucocorticoid levels lead to corresponding rapid declines in testosterone production by Leydig cells in the testis. In previous studies we have established that glucocorticoids act on Leydig cells directly, through the classic glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and that access to the GR is controlled prior to the ...
Walczak-Jedrzejowska Renata - - 2008
AIM: To assess proliferative and apoptotic potential of the seminiferous epithelium cells in relation to Sertoli cell maturation in newborn rats under the influence of estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) or both agents given together. METHODS: From postnatal day (PND) 5 to 15 male rats were daily injected with 12.5 ...
Chan Yuen-Fan - - 2008
The present study demonstrates the expression of adrenomedullin (ADM) in the rat Sertoli cells and its effect on inhibin production. The regulation of ADM by FSH and its interaction with endothelin 1 (EDN1) in the rat Sertoli cells have also been established. Primary culture of Sertoli cells secreted 414+/-27 pg ...
Chan Yuen-Fan - - 2008
Based on the finding of gene expression of adrenomedullin (Adm) and its receptor components in the rat testis, a paracrine effect of ADM on testicular steroidogenesis has been suggested by our group. The present study demonstrates the gene expression of Adm and the effect of ADM on testosterone production in ...
Johnson Larry - - 2008
Testicular function is under the control of expression and repression of several genes and gene products, and many of these works through Sertoli cells. The capability of Sertoli cells to regulate spermatogenesis is dependent on Sertoli cell functions and Sertoli cell number. Sertoli cell number has long been thought to ...
Dias V - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The cellular sites of activin action and its regulation in the normal and dysfunctional adult human testis are unknown. METHODS: Activin type I (ALK2 and ALK4) and type II (ActRIIA and ActRIIB) receptors were detected using immunohistochemistry on Bouins fixed sections of normal, carcinoma in situ (CIS), seminoma, non-seminoma ...
Butler Christopher M - - 2008
Leydig cells are the major source of androgen in the male mammal. We describe here for the first time the development of the Leydig cell in a macropodid marsupial, the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii. Leydig cells are first recognized morphologically 2 days after birth with the appearance of lipid droplets ...
Cory Aron T - - 2007
In mammals, the pre-Sertoli cell of the male genital ridge is the first cell type to display sex specific differentiation and differential gene expression. The genetic cascade driving the differentiation of pre-Sertoli cells and ultimately testis formation is beginning to be unravelled, but many questions remain. A better understanding of ...
Gassei Kathrin - - 2007
The organogenesis of a functional testis is the basis for male fertility and perpetuation of each species. In mammals, testicular development is dependent on two crucial events during embryonic and pubertal development. First, primary sex determination is initiated by expression of the Sry gene on the Y chromosome and directs ...
Parthasarathy Chandrakesan - - 2008
Metyrapone, a specific inhibitor of 11beta-hydroxylase inhibits glucocorticoid production and it is used in the diagnosis/treatment of hypercortisolism and also to test the functional integrity of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. To assess the impact of glucocorticoid deficiency, this drug is preferred over adrenalectomy, which eliminates all the hormonal secretions of the adrenal ...
Wong Elissa W P - - 2008
Anchoring junctions are cell adhesion apparatus present in all epithelia and endothelia. They are found at the cell-cell interface (adherens junction (AJ) and desmosome) and cell-matrix interface (focal contact and hemidesmosome). In this review, we focus our discussion on AJ in particular the dynamic changes and regulation of this junction ...
Loss E S - - 2007
FSH and testosterone exert different regulatory effects on the seminiferous epithelium; they act through multiple and complex signaling routes to direct the development of the germ cells into mature spermatozoa. In addition to their well-known pathways of action, both hormones have recently been recognized to have new signaling routes that ...
Wu Xiufeng - - 2007
The primary function of testicular Leydig cells is the production of androgens to promote sexual differentiation in the fetus, secondary sexual maturation at puberty, and spermatogenesis in the adult. The fetal and postnatal (adult) populations of Leydig cells differ morphologically and have distinct profiles of gene expression. As postnatal Leydig ...
Owston M A - - 2007
Mixed germ cell sex cord-stromal tumors (MGSCTs) of the testis are rare in dogs. We describe the histopathology and immunohistochemical characteristics of an MGSCT associated with a Leydig cell tumor in a cryptorchid testis. Histologically, MGSCT consisted of two nodules of seminiferous tubules lined by germ cells and Sertoli cells ...
Jun Sun-Young - - 2008
The incidence of ectopic Leydig cells (LCs) has been reported to be 40% to 90%. Several theories have been proposed to account for ectopic LCs, including in situ differentiation, migration from testicular interstitium, and trapping of peritubular LCs in the tunica propria of the seminiferous tubule during its thickening. To ...
Berger Trish - - 2008
Increased Sertoli cell proliferation during the neonatal period, transient negative effects on epididymal sperm maturation, larger postpuberal testis size reflective of increased Sertoli cell numbers, and increased testicular sperm production characterized boars subjected to continuous inhibition of endogenous estrogen production. The objective in the present experiment was to extend these ...
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