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Results 701 - 750 of 1460
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Yoshida H - - 1999
Intrastriatal implantation of polymer-encapsulated PC12 cells, which constitute a dopaminergic cell line derived from rat pheochromocytoma, has proved useful for ameliorating parkinsonian symptoms in several kinds of animals. In considering the clinical application of this technique, we should make sure that PC12 cells are rejected completely by the host immune ...
Pance A - - 1999
A variant of the PC12 pheochromocytoma cell line (termed A35C) has been isolated that lacks regulated secretory organelles and several constituent proteins. Northern and Southern blot analyses suggested a block at the transcriptional level. The proprotein-converting enzyme carboxypeptidase H was synthesised in the A35C cell line but was secreted by ...
Li S H - - 1999
Expanded polyglutamine tracts cause huntingtin and other proteins to accumulate and aggregate in neuronal nuclei. Whether the intranuclear aggregation or localization of a polyglutamine protein initiates cellular pathology remains controversial. We established stably transfected pheochromocytoma PC12 cells that express the N-terminal fragment of huntingtin containing 20 (20Q) or 150 (150Q) ...
Calderón F H - - 1999
This work addresses the differential effects of several oxidative insults on two neuronal cell lines, PC12 and Neuro 2a cells, extensively used as neuronal models in vitro. We measured cellular damage using the cytotoxic assays for MTT reduction and LDH release and found that acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-amyloid-beta-peptide (Abeta) complexes, Abeta25-35 fragment, ...
Sato A - - 1999
To investigate the molecular mechanisms of neurodegeneration caused by expanded CAG repeats in dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA), an autosomal dominant neuro degrees enerative disorder caused by unstable expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the DRPLA gene on 12p13.31, we established an efficient expression system for truncated and full-length DRPLA proteins ...
Gollapudi L - - 1999
The potential cytoprotective effects of the gonadal steroid estrogen, acting via its receptor (ER) on target neurons, are of considerable interest in aging, disease, and trauma. In this study, we examined the effects of estrogen on a prototypical neuronal-like cell, namely, nerve growth factor (NGF) differentiated PC12 cells when these ...
Bizon J L - - 1999
Substantial evidence supports a role for trophic activities in the function and survival of fully mature striatal neurons, but little is known regarding trophic factor expression in adult striatum. In situ hybridization was used to identify the distribution and the neurotransmitter phenotypes (i.e., cholinergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid [GABA]-ergic) of cells ...
Satoh T - - 1999
Although neurotrophins protect PC12 cells and neurons from oxidative stress-induced death, the molecular mechanism of this effect is largely unknown. Xanthine (XA)+xanthine oxidase (XO) increased the production of the superoxide anion (O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and the death of PC12 cells. Catalase but not superoxide dismutase (SOD) nor a ...
Siu-Caldera M L - - 1999
The secosteroid hormone 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1alpha,25(OH)2D3] is metabolized into calcitroic acid through the carbon 24 (C-24) oxidation pathway. It is now well established that the C-24 oxidation pathway plays an important role in the target tissue inactivation of 1alpha,25(OH)2D3. Recently, we reported that 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 is also metabolized into 1alpha,25-dihydroxy-3-epi-vitamin D3 ...
Kawamura T - - 1999
Neuronal apoptosis in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells, which was confirmed by TUNEL (terminal transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling) staining and detection of chromatin condensation, appeared within 8 h after nerve growth factor (NGF) deprivation. Prostaglandin (PG) E1 (10(-7)-10(6) M) reduced the incidence of apoptotic cell death in PC12 cells. The genes ...
Bland R - - 1999
Circulating levels of the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) are dependent on activity of the renal mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1alpha-hydroxylase (1alpha-hydroxylase). Production of 1,25-(OH)2D3 occurs predominantly in the renal proximal tubule, with 1alpha-hydroxylase activity being impaired in renal insufficiency and renal disease. The expression and ...
Satoh T - - 1999
Although A- and J-type prostaglandins (PG's) arrest the cell cycle at the G1 phase in vitro and suppress tumor growth in vivo, their effects on neuronal cells have not so far been clarified. Here, we found promotion of neurite outgrowth as a novel biological function of PGJ's. In PC12h cells, ...
Obin M - - 1999
Nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite outgrowth from rat PC12 cells was coincident with elevated (>/=2-fold) levels of endogenous ubiquitin (Ub) protein conjugates, elevated rates of formation of 125I-labeled Ub approximately E1 (Ub-activating enzyme) thiol esters and 125I-labeled Ub approximately E2 (Ub carrier protein) thiol esters in vitro, and enhanced capacity ...
Zaheer A - - 1999
Glia maturation factor (GMF) is a 17-kDa protein unique to the nervous system. Although GMF was initially characterized as a growth/differentiation factor, the absence of a leader sequence and its intracellular localization in normal brain suggest an intracellularfunction as well. In this paper we transfected the C6 glioma cells with ...
Hayakawa K - - 1999
The rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells have been employed as a useful model to study neuronal differentiation. To gain insight into the molecular events involved in extension of neurites, the differential expression of phospholipase D (PLD) isozymes were examined in cyclic AMP- or nerve growth factor (NGF)-treated PC12 cells. When the ...
Lee W Y - - 1999
Medical therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) is limited by the short-duration response and development of dyskinesia that result from chronic L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) therapy. These problems occur partly because the loss of dopamine storage sites leads to erratic dopamine delivery. Vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT-2) plays a critical role in dopamine storage ...
Obara Y - - 1999
Glial cells release neurotrophic factors that maintain neurons functionally. When rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC-12) were cultivated with the conditioned medium of human astrocytoma cells (1321N1) incubated with the new diterpenoids, scabronines A and G, isolated from Sarcodon scabrosus, they changed their morphology and there was neurite outgrowth. The scabronines increased ...
Butterfield L - - 1999
The cJun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are encoded by three genes generating ten protein kinase polypeptides and are activated in settings of cell stress, mitogenesis, differentiation and morphogenesis. The specific role of the JNK family members in these diverse cell programmes is largely undefined. In this study, we tested the hypothesis ...
Lambeng N - - 1999
PC12 cells treated with cAMP become irreversibly differentiated and die by apoptosis when deprived of trophic support, instead of dedifferentiating and reentering the cell cycle. To approach the molecular mechanism underlying the cAMP-induced switch from differentiation/proliferation to apoptosis, we compared three sequential markers of a candidate apoptogenic signal transduction pathway ...
Martínez M E - - 1999
Age-related bone loss may be a consequence of a lack of osteoblastic formation and/or function. In vitro, the osteoblastic response to 1,25(OH)2D3, an important regulator of osteoblastic function, appears to depend on the stage of osteoblastic maturation. In this study, we examined the response to 1,25(OH)2D3 of C-terminal type I ...
Fulle S - - 1999
Undifferentiated PC12 cells undergo apoptosis, via a calcium-induced calcium release mechanism, when the calcium-binding protein purified from bovine brain (native S100) is present in micromolar concentration in the medium. This process begins when S100 binds to specific membrane binding sites and involves up to 50% of the cell population. In ...
Tanaka K - - 1999
PIP3BP is a phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate-binding protein (PIP3BP) abundant in brain, containing a zinc finger motif and two pleckstrin homology (PH) domains. Staining of rat brain cells with anti-PIP3BP antibody and determination of localization of PIP3BP fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP-PIP3BP) revealed that PIP3BP was targeted to the nucleus. ...
Phung Y T - - 1999
PC12 cells are used as a model system to study neuronal differentiation. Nerve growth factor (NGF) triggers a differentiation pathway in PC12 cells. Neurite outgrowth (a morphological marker of differentiation) in PC12 cells is significantly reduced in the presence of the NOS inhibitor l-NAME, but not d-NAME, implicating NOS in ...
Slotkin T A - - 1999
The stimulation of cholinergic receptors in target cells during a critical developmental period provides signals that influence cell replication and differentiation. Accordingly, environmental agents that promote cholinergic activity evoke neurodevelopmental damage because of the inappropriate timing or intensity of stimulation. Nicotine evokes mitotic arrest in brain cells possessing high concentrations ...
Celli A - - 1999
This study examines the effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] on proliferation of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and demonstrates, for the first time, the presence of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in this cell line. Cell number showed a significant decrease, when the cells were incubated with 1 or 10 nM 1,25(OH)2D3 ...
Offen D - - 1999
Neuromelanin in the substantia nigra may be associated with the pathogenesis of nigral cell death in Parkinson's disease. We used synthetic dopamine-melanin (DA-M) as a model compound for neuromelanin and examined its toxic effects on mice cerebellar granule cells and a rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12). The DA-M and dopamine-treated ...
Marcinkiewicz M - - 1999
Synthesis of proteins such as nerve growth factor (NGF) is induced after nerve lesion. The NGF precursor (pro-NGF) requires a posttranslational processing by proprotein convertases to become active. In this report, we re-examine the localization of NGF protein and mRNA in injured nerve and show that the candidate pro-NGF convertases ...
Kafitz K W - - 1999
The role of ensheathing cells, a macroglial cell type with a unique presence in the olfactory system, in the outgrowth of olfactory receptor cell neurites was explored in vitro. Glial cell cultures harvested from both the olfactory bulb nerve layer and the hippocampus were established and immunocytochemically characterized. The expression ...
Powers J F - - 1999
Normal adult rat chromaffin cells show a robust proliferative response in vitro to nerve growth factor (NGF) and other mitogens. In contrast, PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells proliferate in the absence of exogenous mitogens and undergo neuronal differentiation in response to NGF. We demonstrate in this work that the antiproliferative drug ...
Singer H S - - 1999
Neurotrophins have definitive roles in the growth/maintenance of neuronal populations, but their function in malignant gliomas is unknown. The ability for nerve growth factor (NGF) to serve as a mitogenic agent was investigated in several human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines, including U251, U87, and U373. In a serum-free medium, ...
Guo Li-Ying - - 1999
A neurotrophic factor-like substance from Agkistrodon acutus was isolated by ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography and was found to be homogenous by electrophoresis. Itsmolecular weight was estimated to be approximately 26 kD by gel filtration. A characteristic of the substance was that the protein consisted of two subunits which ...
Oberdoerster J - - 1999
The present study was undertaken to determine whether the neurotoxic effects of ethanol vary between undifferentiated and differentiated neurons. For this study, untreated rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells and PC12 cells treated for 8-10 days with nerve growth factor (NGF) were used as models of undifferentiated and differentiated neurons, respectively. Treatment ...
Watanabe T - - 1999
Nerve growth factor (NGF) plays an important physiological role in differentiation and survival of various types of neurons. Glial cells and glial tumor cells synthesize multiple neurotrophic factors including NGF and secrete them into the surrounding environment; however, the mechanisms of NGF and the significance of NGF receptors have not ...
Si F F Department of Physiology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, - - 1999
Both the acid-phosphatase and mitochondrial dehydrogenase assay have been used to quantify cell numbers. The commonly used acid-phosphatase assay uses p-nitrophenyl phosphate as a substrate, while the mitochondrial dehydrogenase assay is based on the conversion of tetrazolium to formazan. Our experimental results showed that the former assay was more sensitive ...
Pedrozo H A HA Department of Orthopaedics, The University of Texas Health Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, Texas 78284-7774, - - 1999
Chondrocytes metabolize 25-(OH)D3 to the two active dihydroxylated forms of the secosteroid, 1,25-(OH)2D3 and 24,25-(OH)2D3. The aim of the present study was to examine the activity of the enzymes responsible for this metabolism, 1alpha-hydroxylase and 24R-hydroxylase, and their regulation by TGFbeta1. Basal 1alpha- and 24R-hydroxylase activities were measured in homogenates ...
Municio del Campo M J - - 1998
The aim of this work was to study the regulation by calcium of the synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (24,25(OH)2D3) in Walker 256 carcinosarcoma (W256) cells compared to renal phenotype LLC-PK1 cells. We have detected synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D3 and 24,25(OH)2D3 in W256 cells. Levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 in ...
Borgonovo B - - 1998
Neurosecretion competence is intended as the ability of neurosecretory cells to express dense and clear vesicles discharged by regulated exocytosis (neurotransmitter release). Such a property, which so far has never been studied independently, is investigated here by a heterotypic cell fusion approach, using a clone of rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells ...
Ohsawa Y - - 1998
In addition to the caspase family of proteinases, cathepsin D, a lysosomal aspartic proteinase, has been suggested to act as a proapoptotic mediator in mammalian cells. To further understand the roles of cathepsins B and D in apoptosis of the cells, we examined the precise alteration processes of ultrastructures and ...
Yasuda M - - 1998
Recently, we demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) reduces ATP generation via oxidative phosphorylation coupled with the mitochondrial respiratory chain in PC12 cells resulting in induction of apoptotic cell death. To further study the correlation between NO-induced ATP depletion and neuronal death, we examined the effect of NO on glycolytic ATP ...
Su W - - 1998
PC12 cells derived rom rat pheochromocytoma and C6 cells derived from rat glioma were infected with 0.3 plaque forming units (PFU)/cell of the D variant of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMC-D), after pretreatment with or without nerve growth factor (NGF). The virus titres in medium and cells were investigated at 6, 12, ...
Kohda K - - 1998
1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induces parkinsonism in humans after its oxidation into 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+) by type B monoamine oxidase. The 1-amino analogues of MPTP and MPP+, 1-amino-4-phenyl-1,2,3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (APTP) and 1-amino-4-phenylpyridinium ion (APP+), were synthesized, and their cytotoxicity to clonal pheochromocytoma PC12 cells was examined using a tetrazolium formazan assay. After ...
Yang W L - - 1998
Paraquat was taken up by PC12 cells in a carrier-mediated, saturable manner. When PC12 cells were permeabilized with digitonin (50 microg/ml) lipid peroxidation was observed after paraquat treatment in the presence of NADPH and chelated iron. The fact that lipid peroxidation preceded the appearance of LDH release provides positive evidence ...
Ueda H - - 1998
The betagamma subunits of G proteins were coimmunoprecipitated with antibodies against various alpha subunits, and analyzed by silver stain and immunoblotting with conventional transfer procedure and membrane-blocking buffer containing 2% BSA. Multiple isoforms of gamma were coimmunoprecipitated with no significant difference in form or ratio among the antibodies against alpha ...
Kanamori S - - 1998
PC12 cells express well cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptors (CI-MPR), but not cation-dependent (CD)-MPR as much. To examine CD-MPR dependency of transport of cathepsins B and D to lysosomes in PC12 cells, we prepared the cells overexpressing CD-MPR. Immunoreactivity for cathepsin B became more distinct and larger in size in the ...
Shibata M - - 1998
Cathepsin D, a lysosomal aspartic proteinase, has been shown to induce apoptosis of HeLa cells when overexpressed. To further understand regulatory mechanisms of cathepsin D-induced cell death, we examined whether lysosomal cysteine and aspartic proteinases are involved in apoptosis of PC12 cells following serum deprivation. In serum deprived culture, PC12 ...
Tyurin V A - - 1998
Incubation of mock-transfected PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12) for 2 h with increasing concentrations of glutamate caused progressive loss of viability (e.g., 67% with 15 mM glutamate). In contrast, the viability of bcl-2-transfected cells (PC12/bcl-2) was unaffected by glutamate. Neither PC12 nor PC12/bcl-2 cells showed a significant incidence of apoptosis ...
Nordin-Andersson M - - 1998
We have studied neurite degeneration in differentiated human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells. The axonopathy-inducing potency in vitro of caffeine, diazepam, methylmercury chloride (MeHg), triethyltin chloride (TET) and acrylamide (ACR) was elucidated. After 72 hours of exposure the neurite degeneration was determined (by morphological quantification) as well as the total protein content ...
Oberdoerster J - - 1998
Our goal was to examine the effects of ethanol on cell death using rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells as a neuronal model. Withdrawal of serum for 24 hr increased the number of PC12 cells labeled with ethidium homodimer indicating an increase in cell death. Inclusion of 50 mM ethanol during the ...
Klenchin V A - - 1998
A current major challenge in the study of regulated exocytosis is the identification of essential proteins that mediate the transit of secretory vesicles through trafficking stages such as recruitment, docking, and fusion. Defining the physiological roles and mechanisms of action of these essential proteins is paramount. The reconstitution of stages ...
Haycock J W - - 1998
The effects of depolarization by elevated potassium concentrations were studied in PC12 cells and in stably transfected AtT-20 cells expressing wild-type or [Leu19]-recombinant tyrosine hydroxylase (rTH). Changes in the phosphorylation states of Ser19 and Ser40 in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) were determined immunochemically using antibodies specific for the phosphorylated state of ...
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