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Chen Changbiao C Department of Respiratory, Affiliated Tongji Hospital of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 and Department of Respiratory, Hannan District People's Hospital of Wuhan, Wuhan 430030, China. - - 2014
Bronchial asthma is the common chronic inflammatory disease and is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, airway remodeling, and airway hyperreactivity (AHR). Aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels (MitoKATP) on the proliferation and secretion of human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). HASMCs were ...
Kim Soon-Ja - - 2014
We investigated whether inhibiting phosphorylated p70S6K (p-p70S6K) suppresses the proliferation and growth of noninvasive low-grade urothelial carcinoma (LG-URCa) in vitroand whether p-p70S6K can serve as a predictive biomarker for the recurrence of noninvasive LG-URCa of the bladder in patients. We constructed a tissue microarray (TMA) for 95 LG-URCa and 35 ...
Mills Anne M - - 2013
Cell cycle regulatory protein expression by immunohistochemical assay may have diagnostic utility in the distinction of uterine leiomyosarcoma from leiomyoma variants. p16, p21, p27, and p53 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on 44 atypical leiomyomas (mean follow-up, 50.8 mo), 16 leiomyosarcomas (mean follow-up, 29.7 mo), and 8 cellular leiomyomas ...
Nagarajah J - - 2012
In this study we evaluated the success rate of double fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of clinically suspicious thyroid nodules in one session. The success rate of FNAB in clinical setting is quite low. There were several attempts made to improve the success rate of this method. It is anticipated ...
Gao Jing - - 2012
Spermatogenesis is regulated by a cascade of steroid regulated genes in the testis. Recent studies suggested that acupuncture may improve fertility in men with abnormal semen parameters. Yet, the underlying mechanisms in which acupuncture enhances spermatogenesis remain largely unknown. Here we used a scrotal heat-treated rat model to study the ...
Wang Chao - - 2012
Pituitary prolactinoma is one of the estrogen-related tumors, some anti-estrogen compounds have suppressive effects on prolactinoma. Previous studies have suggested that resveratrol, a phytoestrogen, displays anti-estrogen and anti-tumor characteristics. Therefore, We determined whether resveratrol could inhibit the cell proliferation and decrease prolactin level in prolactinoma cell line, and identify the ...
Seale A P - - 2011
Osmoregulation is essential to life in vertebrates and osmoreception is a fundamental element in osmoregulation. Progress in characterizing the mechanisms that mediate osmoreception has been made possible by using a uniquely accessible cell model, the prolactin (PRL) cell of the euryhaline tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. In addition to a brief historical ...
Matzkin María Eugenia - - 2012
Serum prolactin (PRL) variations play a crucial role in the photoperiodic-induced testicular regression-recrudescence transition in hamsters. We have previously shown that cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins (PGs), is expressed mostly in Leydig cells of reproductively active hamsters with considerable circulating and pituitary levels of ...
Catacuzzeno Luigi - - 2011
Glioblastoma cells in vivo are exposed to a variety of promigratory signals, including undefined serum components that infiltrate into high grade gliomas as result of blood-brain barrier breakdown. Glioblastoma cell migration has been further shown to depend heavily on ion channels activity. We have then investigated the modulatory effects of ...
Shansab Maryam M Program in Immunology and Department of Pathology, Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, - - 2011
In B cells, activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) induces somatic hypermutation (SHM) at rearranged immunoglobulin (Ig) variable (V) regions. Previous studies have shown that both monoubiquitination of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and translesional DNA polymerase activity are important for inducing mutagenesis during SHM. Regulation of PCNA ubiquitination by p21, also ...
Howangyin Kiave-Yune - - 2011
The acquisition by T cells of exogenous ligands originally expressed by APC has been already described. However, reports essentially focused on the outward signaling of acquired ligands and their effects on surroundings cells. We investigated the function of transferred receptors (not ligands) on the T cells that acquired them (not ...
Koh Won-Gun - - 2011
Cell-based biosensors constitute a promising field that has numerous applications ranging from pharmaceutical screening to detection of pathogen and toxicant. The trends toward miniaturization of cell-based biosensor continue to spur development of cell microarray integrated into microfluidic devices. For cell-based biosensors to be useful for larger applications, several technical goals ...
Agarwal Prashant - - 2011
Though RhD sensitization in RhD-negative mothers is now almost eradicated in the developed world, it continues to be a major health problem in developing nations like India. Inadequate immunoprophylaxis is the main reason. Adequate dose calculation of anti-D Ig is possible through estimation of correct feto-maternal hemorrhage (FMH) volume. In ...
Boesch-Saadatmandi Christine - - 2011
The present investigation aimed to compare fetal calf serum (FCS) and Tween 40 with the commonly employed tetrahydrofuran (THF) with respect to cytotoxicity, stability of the solubilized carotenoids, and uptake and accumulation of the xanthophylls astaxanthin (AX) and canthaxanthin (CX) in cultured human liver cells (HepG2). Incubation of HepG2 cells ...
Hsu Fang-Yu - - 2011
Vibrio vulnificus secretes a multifunctional cytotoxin RtxA (VvRtxA), which plays a major role in the bacterial pathogenesis. The lack of an efficient VvRtxA detection tool has hampered the progress of V. vulnificus pathogenesis research. This study aims to isolate VvRtxA specific single-chain variable fragments (scFv) to serve as a detection ...
Kerkis Irina - - 2010
Molecules isolated from animals, insects, plants or microorganisms can provide prototypes for design of biopharmaceutical products. Some venom toxins and their derivatives are used in medicine, while others provide templates for development of new drugs. The mild toxin, crotamine, a small basic low-molecular-weight polypeptide purified from the venom of a ...
Vom Dorp Frank - - 2011
Introduction: Migration of cells involves a complex signaling network. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the impact of Rho-kinase (ROK) on G protein-coupled receptor-induced migration of human transitional cell carcinoma cells in an in vitro experimental setting. Materials and Methods: Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) was measured with ...
Torgersen Maria L - - 2011
Infection with Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing, gram-negative bacteria can induce serious conditions such as dysentery and hemolytic uremic syndrome. In target cells, Stx is internalized by endocytosis, and travels through the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum to reach the cytosol, where it inhibits protein synthesis. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediates ...
Kreimeyer Isa - - 2011
Toxin A and toxin B from Clostridium difficile are the causative agents of the antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis. They are of an A/B structure type and possess inositol hexakisphosphate-inducible autoproteolytic activity to release their glucosyltransferase domain to the cytoplasm of target cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of extracellular ...
An Ming M Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, P.O. Box 208114, New Haven, CT 06520, - - 2010
We find that pH-(low)-insertion-peptide (pHLIP)-facilitated translocation of phalloidin, a cell-impermeable polar toxin, inhibits the proliferation of cancer cells in a pH-dependent fashion. The monomeric pHLIP inserts its C terminus across a membrane under slightly acidic conditions (pH 6-6.5), forming a transmembrane helix. The delivery construct carries phalloidin linked to its ...
Ochigava Irma - - 2011
Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human bacterial pathogen, and the increase in antibiotic resistance demands the development of new antimicrobial compounds. Several reports have suggested that yeast killer toxins show activity against bacteria and we therefore investigated the activity of K9 killer toxin from the yeast Williopsis saturnus var. mrakii ...
González-Pastor José Eduardo - - 2011
A social behavior named cannibalism has been described during the early stages of sporulation of the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis. This phenomenon is based on the heterogeneity of sporulating populations, constituted by at least two cell types: (1) sporulating cells, in which the master regulator of sporulation Spo0A is active, and ...
Gray Mary C MC Department of Medicine, Box 800419, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, - - 2011
Bacillus anthracis oedema toxin (ET) and Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) enter host cells and produce cAMP. To understand the cellular consequences, we exposed J774 cells to these toxins at ng ml(-1) (pM) concentrations, then followed cell number and changes in cell signalling pathways. Under these conditions, both toxins ...
Gupta Vijay R - - 2010
Plasma membrane sphingomyelin (SM) binds the Helicobacter pylori vacuolating toxin (VacA) to the surface of epithelial cells. To evaluate the importance of SM for VacA cellular entry, we characterized toxin uptake and trafficking within cells enriched with synthetic variants of SM, whose intracellular trafficking properties are strictly dependent on the ...
Sousa Maria Esmeralda C - - 2010
The interaction of Cry toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis in the midgut of some insect larvae determines their efficacies as insecticides, due to the expression and availability of sites of action of the toxin in the midgut. Researches point out cases of resistance to Cry toxin due to alterations in the ...
Bachran Diana - - 2010
Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a very promising approach since it is overexpressed in about 90% of cervical tumors. Here, we quantified the toxic effect of SE, a targeted toxin consisting of epidermal growth factor (EGF) ...
Zumbrun Steven D SD Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814-4799, - - 2010
Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing E. coli (STEC) bacteria are not enteroinvasive but can cause hemorrhagic colitis. In some STEC-infected individuals, a life-threatening sequela of infection called the hemolytic uremic syndrome may develop that can lead to kidney failure. This syndrome is linked to the production of ...
Ryder Alex B - - 2010
We explored the use of a real-time cell analysis (RTCA) system for the assessment of Clostridium difficile toxins in human stool specimens by monitoring the dynamic responses of the HS27 cells to tcdB toxins. The C. difficile toxin caused cytotoxic effects on the cells, which resulted in a dose-dependent and ...
Hoffmann Petra - - 2010
Shiga toxin (Stx, synonymous to verotoxin, VT) binds with high and low affinity to the globo-series neutral glycosphingolipids (GSLs), globotriaosylceramide (Gb3Cer or Galalpha4Galbeta4Glcbeta1Cer, also known as CD77) and globotetraosylceramide (Gb4Cer or GalNAcbeta3Galalpha4Galbeta4Glcbeta1Cer), respectively, which represent the targets of Stxs on many different cell types. B-cell-derived Raji cells and THP-1 cells ...
Potala Sirisha - - 2011
The current treatment strategies, chemotherapy and radiation therapy being used for the management of cancer are deficient in targeted approach leading to treatment related toxicities and relapse. Contrarily, fusion toxins exhibit remarkable tumor specificity thus emerging as an alternative therapy for the treatment of cancer. Diphtheria toxin-HN-1 peptide (DT/HN-1) is ...
Lyu Mi-Ae - - 2010
Aberrant signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 signaling participates in the development and progress of human cancers. We previously generated a highly cytotoxic fusion toxin designated rGel/BLyS for receptor-mediated delivery of the rGel toxin to malignant B-cells. In this study, we examined this fusion toxin for its ability to ...
Zemljic Mateja - - 2010
We have used recombinant repetitive domain of Clostridium difficile toxin B obtained from two different strains, rec-TcdB3(10463) and rec-TcdB3(8864) and a model intestinal epithelial cell line(s) to characterize their cytotoxic and cytopathic effect and influence on tight-junction organization. Both recombinant receptor binding domains caused intestinal epithelial cell damage, decreased transepithelial ...
Lewis Michelle - - 2010
The Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin, a select agent, is responsible for a severe, often fatal enterotoxemia characterized by edema in the heart, lungs, kidney, and brain. The toxin is believed to be an oligomeric pore-forming toxin. Currently, there is no effective therapy for countering the cytotoxic activity of the toxin ...
Traini Roberta - - 2010
Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE)-based immunotoxins (antibody-toxin fusion proteins) have achieved frequent complete remissions in patients with hairy cell leukemia but far fewer objective responses in other cancers. To address possible mechanisms of resistance, we investigated immunotoxin activity in a model system using the colon cancer cell line, DLD1. Despite causing complete ...
Rotem Eitan - - 2010
In the face of antibiotics, bacterial populations avoid extinction by harboring a subpopulation of dormant cells that are largely drug insensitive. This phenomenon, termed "persistence," is a major obstacle for the treatment of a number of infectious diseases. The mechanism that generates both actively growing as well as dormant cells ...
Fernandez Miyakawa Mariano E - - 2011
Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin (ETX) is responsible for a fatal enterotoxemia in different animal species, producing extensive renal damage, neurological disturbance and edema of lungs, heart and kidneys. However, there is no information about the susceptibility of humans to ETX. Here, we report that primary cultures of human renal tubular ...
Stamer W Daniel - - 2010
Bimatoprost is a widely used ocular hypotensive agent to treat glaucoma. It lowers intraocular pressure in humans by increasing both pressure-independent (uveoscleral) and pressure-dependent (conventional) aqueous humor outflow. The present study specifically examines bimatoprost effects on the cells that populate human outflow tissues. The authors tested for prostamide receptor activation ...
Inui Ken - - 2010
Clostridium botulinum produces a large toxin complex (L-TC) composed of neurotoxin (BoNT) and non-toxic proteins. In animal botulism, BoNT or L-TC is absorbed via the intestinal epithelium. To establish the cellular mechanisms of botulinum toxin absorption, we used cultured rat intestinal epithelial cells to test the binding and transport of ...
Sundriyal Amit - - 2010
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a serious problem within the healthcare environment where the bacterium causes symptoms ranging from mild diarrhoea to life-threatening colitis. In addition to its principal virulence factors, Toxin A and Toxin B, some C. difficile strains produce a binary toxin (CDT) composed of two sub-units namely ...
Seaman Matthew N J MN Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0XY, UK. - - 2010
To inhibit protein synthesis and induce cell death, plant ricin toxin and bacterial Shiga toxins enter the cell through the endocytic and retrograde secretory pathways. Stechmann et al. (2010) now identify two small-molecule inhibitors that selectively block endosome-to-Golgi retrieval of ricin and Shiga toxins and protect mice from ricin's deadly ...
Eshraghi Aria - - 2010
Cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs) are tripartite protein exotoxins produced by a diverse group of pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. Based on their ability to induce DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis of cultured cells, CDTs are proposed to enhance virulence by blocking cellular division and/or directly killing epithelial and immune cells. ...
Klarić Maja Segvić - - 2010
This study was aimed at investigating the genotoxic potential of single beauvericin (BEA) and ochratoxin A (OTA) as well as their interaction in porcine kidney epithelial PK15 cells and human leukocytes using the alkaline comet assay. IC(50) of BEA (5.0 +/- 0.6) and OTA (15.8 +/- 1.5) estimated by MTT ...
Kakutani Hideki - - 2010
Claudin (CL)-4, a tight junction protein, is overexpressed in some human neoplasias, including ovarian, breast, pancreatic and prostate cancers. The targeting of CL-4 is a novel strategy for tumor therapy. We previously found that the C-terminal fragment of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE) binds to CL-4. In the present study, we ...
Louzao M Carmen - - 2010
Palytoxin is a large and complex polyhydroxylated molecule with potent neurotoxic activity. Dinoflagellates from the Ostreopsis genera were demonstrated to be producers of this compound and analogues. Even though initially palytoxin appearance was restricted to tropical areas, the recent occurrence of Ostreopsis outbreaks in Mediterranean Sea point to a worldwide ...
Wising Catharina - - 2010
The Haemophilus ducreyi cytolethal distending toxin (HdCDT) catalytic subunit CdtB has DNase-like activity and mediates DNA damage after its delivery into target cells. We constructed a replication-deficient adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vector expressing CdtB and investigated the toxic properties of this vector on HeLa cells. Ad5CdtB caused loss of cell ...
Moen Scott T - - 2010
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) produces the ADP-ribosyltransferase toxin known as heat-labile enterotoxin (LT). In addition to the toxic effect of LT resulting in increases of cyclic AMP (cAMP) and disturbance of cellular metabolic processes, this toxin promotes bacterial adherence to intestinal epithelial cells (A. M. Johnson, R. S. Kaushik, D. ...
Mafra Luiz L LL - - 2010
The neurotoxin domoic acid (DA), produced by diatoms Pseudo-nitzschia spp., is transferred to humans via consumption of contaminated bivalves. This study examines feeding mechanisms, namely reduced filtration, pre-ingestive rejection and poor absorption, that might explain the comparatively low DA levels commonly found in oysters during toxic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms. Clearance rate ...
Fahrer J?rg - - 2010
The C2 toxin of Clostridium botulinum is a binary bacterial protein toxin, comprising the enzyme component C2I and the separate binding/translocation component C2IIa. C2IIa mediates the transport of C2I into the host cell cytosol. The N-terminal domain of C2I (C2IN) is enzymatically inactive but essential for C2IIa-mediated internalization of C2I. ...
Papatheodorou Panagiotis - - 2010
Clostridium difficile toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB), C. sordellii lethal toxin (TcsL) and C. novyi alpha-toxin (TcnA) are important pathogenicity factors, which represent the family of the clostridial glucosylating toxins (CGTs). Toxin A and B are associated with antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembraneous colitis. Lethal toxin is involved in ...
Spooner Robert A - - 2010
A significant number of therapeutic targets reside inside cells and intracellular organelles. Therapeutics therefore must be able to gain access to cellular compartments, and be able to interact specifically with a given molecule to exert a desired effect. Many naturally occurring toxins perform such targeting with apparent ease, making them ...
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