Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1277
< 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 >
Ohlrogge Wiebke - - 2002
This is the first study reporting the inactivation of a member of the mouse gene family of toxin-related ecto-ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs). Transfer of the ADP-ribose moiety from NAD onto extracellular arginine residues on T-cell membrane proteins is mediated by glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked cell surface ARTs. Exposure of T cells to ecto-NAD blocks T-cell ...
Stiles Bradley G - - 2002
Clostridium perfringens type E iota toxin consists of two unlinked proteins designated as iota a (Ia; molecular mass approximately 47 kDa), an ADP-ribosyltransferase and iota b (Ib; molecular mass approximately 81 kDa) which binds to the cell surface and facilitates Ia entry into the cytosol. By Western-blot analysis, Ib incubated ...
Teter Ken - - 2002
Many plant and bacterial toxins act upon cytosolic targets and must therefore penetrate a membrane barrier to function. One such class of toxins enters the cytosol after delivery to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). These proteins, which include cholera toxin (CT), Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (ETA), and ricin, move from the ...
Van Leeuwen Frank N - - 2003
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a serum-borne phospholipid that activates its own G protein-coupled receptors present in numerous cell types. In addition to stimulating cell proliferation, LPA also induces cytoskeletal changes and promotes cell migration in a RhoA- and Rac-dependent manner. Whereas RhoA is activated via Galpha(12/13)-linked Rho-specific guanine nucleotide exchange ...
Kumar Praveen - - 2002
The anthrax edema toxin comprises two proteins: protective antigen and edema factor. Anthrax protective antigen binds to the receptors on the surface of target cells and facilitates the entry of edema factor into these target cells. Edema factor (EF) is an adenylate cyclase that catalyzes the synthesis of cyclic AMP ...
Truitt William A - - 2002
We tested the significance of a population of lumbar spinothalamic cells for male sexual behavior in rats. These cells are positioned to relay ejaculation-related signals from reproductive organs to the brain, and they express neurokinin-1 receptors. Ablation of these neurons by the selective toxin SSP-saporin resulted in a complete disruption ...
Mattei Vincenzo - - 2002
In this report we demonstrated that cellular prion protein is strictly associated with gangliosides in microdomains of neural and lymphocytic cells. We preliminarily investigated the protein distribution on the plasma membrane of human neuroblastoma cells, revealing the presence of large clusters. In order to evaluate its possible role in tyrosine ...
Stiles Bradley G - - 2002
Clostridium botulinum C2 enterotoxin consists of two unlinked proteins designated as C2II, which recognizes a cell-surface glycoprotein and translocates an ADP-ribosyltransferase, C2I, into the cytosol of a targeted cell. Fluorescence-activated cytometry was used to study the cellular interactions of Alexa488-labeled C2I (C2I-A488) and proteolytically activated C2II (C2IIa-A488). The binding of ...
Schmitt Manfred J - - 2002
Since the initial discovery of the yeast killer system almost 40 years ago, intensive studies have substantially strengthened our knowledge in many areas of biology and provided deeper insights into basic aspects of eukaryotic cell biology as well as into virus-host cell interactions and general yeast virology. Analysis of killer ...
DiRienzo J M - - 2002
The periodontal pathogen Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans produces cytolethal distending toxin (CDT), a complex multicomponent toxin that arrests the growth of many types of eukaryotic cell. The kinetics of the effects of CDT-containing extracts, from an invasive strain of this bacterium, were examined on epithelial-like cells routinely used in invasion studies. Both ...
Schraw Wayne - - 2002
A variety of extracellular ligands and pathogens interact with raft domains in the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells. In this study, we examined the role of lipid rafts and raft-associated glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins in the process by which Helicobacter pylori vacuolating toxin (VacA) intoxicates cells. We first investigated whether GPI-anchored ...
Willhite David C - - 2002
The Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) binds and enters mammalian cells to induce cellular vacuolation. To investigate the quaternary structure of VacA within the intracellular environment where toxin cytotoxicity is elaborated, we employed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy. HeLa cells coexpressing full-length and truncated forms of VacA fused to ...
Qiao Jian - - 2002
The development of suicide gene therapy with gene products that are directly toxic to cells, such as the A subunit of diphtheria toxin (DT-A), has been hampered by the difficulty of engineering recombinant viruses. DT-A is a strong inhibitor of protein synthesis that acts by ADP-ribosylating elongation factor 2, and ...
Moschioni Monica - - 2002
Several strains of Vibrio cholerae secrete a haemolytic toxin of 63 kDa, termed V. cholerae cytolysin (VCC). This toxin causes extensive vacuolation and death of cells in culture and forms an anion-selective channel in planar lipid bilayers and in cells. Here, we identify inhibitors of the VCC anion channel and ...
Vey Alain - - 2002
Destruxins (DTXs) are cyclic peptide toxins secreted by the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae. The effects of DTX E, the most active compound of this family on haemocytes, the immunocompetent insect cells, and on the dynamics and efficacy of the multicellular defense of insect hosts have been investigated. Ultrastructural ...
Klein Daniela - - 2002
We have shown that urea-extracted cell wall of entomopathogenic Bacillus sphaericus 2297 and some other strains is a potent larvicide against Culex pipiens mosquitoes, with 50% lethal concentrations comparable to that of the well-known B. sphaericus binary toxin, with which it acts synergistically. The wall toxicity develops in B. sphaericus ...
Iacovelli L - - 2002
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a naturally occurring phospholipid that activates a variety of biological activities including cell proliferation. Three mammalian LPA receptor (LPAr) subtypes have been identified by molecular cloning, named lp(A1), lp(A2) and lp(A3), that are coupled to heterotrimeric G-proteins for signal transduction. The LPAr are endogenously expressed in ...
Burvall Karin - - 2002
A Cytosensor microphysiometer, which measures extracellular acidification rate (ECAR), was used to study the early metabolic activation by organic dust from a swine confinement building in a human airway epithelial cell line, A549. The dust is known to cause an intense airway inflammatory reaction following inhalation in vivo and cytokine ...
Corrêa Mário César MC - - 2002
Skmel-28 human melanoma cells were treated with jararhagin (Jara), a metalloproteinase disintegrin isolated from Bothrops jararaca snake venom, and Jari (Jara with the catalytic domain inactivated). Following treatments, monolayer cells lost cytoplasmic expansions acquiring round shapes, detached and formed cell clusters in suspension. Cytotoxicity effect of Jari was dramatically increased ...
Joshi Bharat H - - 2002
Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) is characterized by a high proliferation index and marked propensity for local invasion resulting in poor prognosis for these patients. To develop tumor-targeted novel therapeutic agents, here we demonstrate that SCCHN cell lines express receptors for an immune regulatory cytokine, interleukin ...
Ji Sheng Jian - - 2002
The nucleotide sequence deduced from the amino acid sequence of the scorpion insectotoxin AaIT was chemically synthesized and was expressed in Escherichia coli. The authenticity of this in vitro expressed peptide was confirmed by N-terminal peptide sequencing. Two groups of bioassays, artificial diet incorporation assay and contact insecticidal effect assay, ...
Bitner R S - - 2002
The alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit can be assembled to form a homomeric-pentamer with high permeability to calcium. Although the expression of the alpha 7-nAChR has been demonstrated throughout the CNS, the neurochemical phenotype of neurons expressing alpha 7 remains to a large extent unknown. Using an antibody ...
Ricordy R - - 2002
Aflatoxin B1 is a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticum, which may be present as a food contaminant. It is known to cause acute toxic effects and act as a carcinogenic agent. The carcinogenic action has been related to its ability to form unstable adducts with DNA, which ...
Pessina Augusto - - 2002
The studies on the inhibitory effect exerted by Cholera Toxin (CT) on cell growth and proliferation indicate a remarkable heterogeneity of cell response suggesting that the inhibition represents the final event of many different ways or mechanisms. After CT binding, cAMP accumulation may not occur (as in L1210 leukemia cells) ...
Nagahama Masahiro - - 2002
Clostridium perfringens iota-toxin is a binary toxin consisting of two individual proteins, the binding component (Ib) and the enzyme component (Ia). Wild-type Ib bound to Vero cells at 4 and 37 degrees C and formed oligomers at 37 degrees C but not at 4 degrees C. The Ib-induced K(+) release ...
Rusnati Marco - - 2002
Free gangliosides bind fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), thus preventing cell interaction and biological activity of the growth factor in endothelial cells. Here we investigated the role of cell-associated gangliosides in mediating the biological activity of FGF2. Treatment of endothelial cells of different origin with the ganglioside biosynthesis inhibitors fumonisin ...
Sindiće Aleksandra - - 2002
Membrane guanylate cyclase C (GC-C) is the receptor for guanylin, uroguanylin, and heat-stable enterotoxin (STa) in the intestine. GC-C-deficient mice show resistance to STa in intestine but saluretic and diuretic effects of uroguanylin and STa are not disturbed. Here we describe the cellular effects of these peptides using immortalized human ...
de Haan Lolke - - 2002
An ability to deliver macromolecules into the intracellular compartments of mammalian cells offers enormous potential for development of new therapeutics directed against intracellular targets. Unfortunately, most peptides or proteins are too large to enter the cell cytosol unaided, and any uptake that does occur primarily results in their entry into ...
Sciannamblo Mariateresa - - 2002
In this study we show that the ganglioside content and pattern of human skin fibroblasts change along the process of cell subculture progression by varying the cell density. GM3, GD3 and GD1a were components of the total cell ganglioside mixtures extracted from cells, but GD1a was in all the extracts ...
Frankel Arthur E - - 2002
Patients with widespread cancer respond initially to combination chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and/or radiotherapy, but most relapse with chemoresistant disease. Novel methods of killing resistant neoplastic stem cells are needed. One such approach is therapy with targeted toxins composed of tumor cell selective ligands covalently linked to group I peptide toxins (group ...
Kolset Svein Olav - - 2002
Brefeldin A (BFA) perturbs the organization of the Golgi apparatus, such that Golgi stack components are fused with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and separated from the trans-Golgi network. In many cell types, BFA blocks the secretion of macromolecules but still allows the action of Golgi enzymes in the ER. Treatment ...
Lara-Tejero María - - 2002
The coevolution of bacterial pathogens and their hosts has contributed to the development of very complex and sophisticated functional pathogen--host interfaces. Thus, well-adapted pathogens have evolved a variety of strategies to manipulate host cell functions precisely. For example, a group of unrelated Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria have evolved a toxin, known ...
Thomas Patrick B - - 2002
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Despite aggressive treatment with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, the prognosis for many children with neuroblastoma remains poor. Targeted toxins represent novel cancer therapeutics designed to selectively target and kill cancer cells. The authors have developed a novel fusion toxin, DT5F11, consisting of truncated diphtheria toxin (DT(A)) linked to a ...
Pooyan Shahriar S Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, Rutgers, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, - - 2002
N-Formyl-methionyl peptides can specifically bind to surface receptors on phagocytic cells. A single copy of N-formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine (fMLF) covalently linked to a poly(ethylene glycol)-based polymer displayed reduced binding avidity (K(d) = 190 nM) for differentiated HL-60 cells relative to free fMLF (K(d) = 28 nM). Increasing the number of fMLF residues ...
Richard Jean François - - 2002
Iota-toxin from Clostridium perfringens type E is a binary toxin consisting of two independent proteins, an enzymatic Ia and binding Ib component. Ia catalyses ADP-ribosylation of actin monomers, thus disrupting the actin cytoskeleton. In this report, we show that Ia plus Ib applied apically or basolaterally induce a rapid decrease ...
Silverman Gregg J - - 2002
Recent reports have shown that protein A of Staphylococcus aureus (SpA) is a specific toxin for B cells by virtue of specific binding interactions with conserved sites on the V(H) region of the B-cell antigen receptor. The structural basis for these Fab-binding interactions has recently been revealed in crystallographic analyses, ...
Nakagawa Yoshiaki - - 2002
Inhibition of the binding of [3H]ponasterone A ([3H]PoA) by ecdysone agonists including diacylhydrazines such as RH-5849, tebufenozide (RH-5992) and methoxyfenozide (RH-2485) was examined in intact Drosophila Kc cells. The reciprocal logarithm of the concentration at which there is 50% inhibition of [3H]PoA binding, pIC(50) (M), was determined as the binding ...
Hirst Robert A - - 2002
The Streptococcus pneumoniae pore-forming toxin, pneumolysin, is an important virulence factor in pneumococcal pneumonia. The effect of pneumolysin on human lung epithelial and monocyte cell viability was compared. Pneumolysin caused a dose-dependent loss of viability of human lung epithelial (A549 and L132) and monocyte (U937 and THP-1) cell lines. Analysis ...
Glowala Magdalena - - 2002
Exposure of Chinese hamster V79 cells to extracts of airborne pollutants induced formation of multipolar or incomplete mitotic spindles. To find out whether overexpression of the HSP70 chaperone protein could protect spindles against airborne toxins we constructed V79 cells stably transfected with an expression vector containing rat heat-inducible hsp70.1 gene ...
Patocka Jirí - - 2002
The anthrax toxin comprises three proteins. When they work together, they can kill humans, especially after spores of the bacteria have been inhaled. One anthrax protein, called protective antigen (PA), chaperones the two other toxins into human or animal cells and shields them from the body's immune system. The second, ...
Jarrard Leonard E - - 2002
Although many of the problems associated with the use of conventional lesion techniques (aspiration, electrolytic, radiofrequency) can be avoided by employing focal injections of excitotoxins, experience gained over the past 12 years has shown that considerable care must be exercised with this newer method, to limit the cell loss to ...
Motojima Masaru - - 2002
A direct effect of uraemic toxins in promoting progression of chronic renal disease has not been established. In this study, we investigated the toxic effects of organic anions which characteristically appeared in the patients with progressive renal disease on renal proximal tubular cells expressing human organic anion transporter (hOAT) 1. ...
Walev Iwan - - 2002
Streptolysin O (SLO), archetype of a cholesterol-binding bacterial cytolysin, forms large pores in the plasma membrane of mammalian cells. We have recently reported that when a limited number of pores are generated in a cell, they can be sealed in a Ca++-dependent process. Here, we show that resealing is followed ...
Kawakami Mariko - - 2002
Interleukin 13 receptor (IL-13R)-targeted cytotoxin, IL13-PE38QQR, composed of IL-13 and a mutated form of Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE), is found to be highly and specifically cytotoxic to human solid cancer cell lines. However, the mechanism of tumor cell death mediated by IL-13 toxin is still not known. To elucidate the mechanism, ...
Guihard G - - 2001
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins are efficient, environment-friendly biological insecticides. Their molecular mode of action on target insect cells remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between the conformational state of the Cry1C toxin and its ionophoric activity on live Sf9 cells of Spodoptera frugiperda, ...
Scott M E - - 2001
Bacteria have long been thought of as little more than sacks of homogeneously distributed enzymes. However, recent cytological studies indicate that bacteria are compartmentalized with proteins involved in processes such as cell division, motility, chemotaxis, and development located at distinct sites. We have used the green fluorescent protein as a ...
Chaiyanan S - - 2001
Vibrio cholerae is capable of transforming into a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state, and, in doing so, undergoes alteration in cell morphology. In the study reported here, Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 cells were maintained in laboratory microcosms prepared with 1% Instant Ocean and incubated at 4 degrees C, i.e., ...
Fivaz M - - 2001
Like a variety of other pathogenic bacteria, Aeromonas hydrophila secretes a pore-forming toxin that contribute to its virulence. The last decade has not only increased our knowledge about the structure of this toxin, called aerolysin, but has also shed light on how it interacts with its target cell and how ...
Cortes-Bratti X - - 2001
The cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs) are a newly discovered family of bacterial protein toxins with the unique ability to interfere with the cell cycle, causing irreversible cell cycle arrest and consequently death of the target cells. CDTs are encoded by three linked genes (cdtA, cdtB and cdtC) and are produced ...
Mukhina G L - - 2001
Aplastic anaemia and paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) are closely related disorders. In PNH, haematopoietic stem cells that harbour PIGA mutations give rise to blood elements that are unable to synthesize glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors. Because the GPI anchor is the receptor for the channel-forming protein aerolysin, PNH cells do not bind ...
< 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 >