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Guiral Sébastien - - 2005
Natural competence for genetic transformation is the best-characterized feature of the major human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. Recent studies have shown the virulence of competence-deficient mutants to be attenuated, but the nature of the connection between competence and virulence remained unknown. Here we document the release, triggered by competent cells, of ...
Akifusa Sumio - - 2005
Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT), which is encoded by three genes, cdtA, cdtB and cdtC, is now recognized to have a growing list of biological actions, including inhibition of cell cycle progression, promotion of apoptosis and stimulation of cytokine secretion. It appears that internalization of CDT is essential, at least for ...
Böhnel H - - 2005
Toxins of Clostridium botulinum (types A-G) are known as 'neurotoxins', causing the clinically well-known picture of flaccid muscular paralysis. The molecular biological background is the blocking of acetylcholine secretion in neuromuscular junctions by enzymatic cleavage of molecules forming the machinery of exocytosis. Two 'non-neurotoxins' (types C2, C3) are produced by ...
Wising Catharina - - 2005
Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of the sexually transmitted disease chancroid, produces a cytolethal distending toxin (HdCDT) that inhibits cultured cell proliferation, leading to cell death. A rabbit model of dermal infection was used to investigate the roles of H. ducreyi bacteria and HdCDT in the development, clinical appearance, and ...
Spilsberg Bjørn - - 2005
Diphtheria toxin is translocated across cellular membranes when receptor-bound toxin is exposed to low pH. To study the role of sphingolipids for toxin translocation, both a mutant cell line lacking the first enzyme in de novo sphingolipid synthesis, serine palmitoyltransferase, and a specific inhibitor of the same enzyme, myriocin, were ...
Carreño Flávia R - - 2005
Endopeptidase 24.15 (ep24.15: EC3.4.24.15), a secreted protein involved in peptide metabolism, is unusual in that it does not contain a signal peptide sequence. In this work, we describe the physical interaction between ep24.15 and 14-3-3 epsilon, one isoform of a family of ubiquitous phosphoserine/threonine-scaffold proteins that organizes cell signaling and ...
Blum Stefan - - 2005
Fibronectin (FN) is a multifunctional extracellular matrix glycoprotein, which participates in cell migration and signalling to adhering cells. Due to alternative splicing and post-translational modifications, different isoforms of FN are generated by a wide variety of cells. T lymphocytes synthesize a surface-associated isoform of FN, containing the two 'extradomains' EDA ...
Krebs Christian - - 2005
ADP-ribosyltransferase-2 (ART2), a GPI-anchored, toxin-related ADP-ribosylating ectoenzyme, is prominently expressed by murine T cells but not by B cells. Upon exposure of T cells to NAD, the substrate for ADP-ribosylation, ART2 catalyzes ADP-ribosylation of the P2X7 purinoceptor and other functionally important cell surface proteins. This in turn activates P2X7 and ...
MARCAILLOU-LE BAUT, Claire
Blooms of Dinophysis in French coastal waters are implicated in most bans on marketing commercial bivalves. However, the relation between Dinophysis cell density and shellfish toxicity is not always consistent. Discrepancies may be due to the simple fact that it is nearly impossible to compare an integral over a few ...
Heywood Wendy - - 2005
Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) is a novel bacterial toxin that is produced by a variety of pathogenic bacteria. The mechanism of cytotoxicity of CDT is unique in that it enters into eukaryotic cells and breaks double-stranded DNA. This initiates the cell's own DNA damage-response mechanisms, resulting in the arrest of ...
Klassen Roland - - 2005
The cellular response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to a linear plasmid encoded killer toxin from Pichia acaciae was analysed. As for the Kluyveromyces lactis zymocin, such toxin was recently shown to bind to the target cell's chitin and probably acts by facilitating the import of a toxin subunit. However, as distinct ...
Carreras Isabel - - 2005
Clusterin (apolipoprotein J) is a highly conserved, multifunctional, vertebrate glycoprotein. Several isoforms of clusterin have been described including the predominant secreted isoform (sCLU) and several nuclear isoforms (nCLU) associated with cell death. sCLU has been shown to bind a variety of partly unfolded, stressed proteins including those associated with Lewy ...
Lewis K - - 2005
This review addresses a long-standing puzzle in the life and death of bacterial populations--the existence of a small fraction of essentially invulnerable cells. Bacterial populations produce persisters, cells that neither grow nor die in the presence of bactericidal agents, and thus exhibit multidrug tolerance (MDT). The mechanism of MDT and ...
Gekle Michael - - 2005
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a ubiquitous fungal metabolite with nephrotoxic, carcinogenic, and apoptotic potential. Toxicokinetics make the kidney the primary target organ for OTA. Due to its widespread occurrence in improperly stored foodstuff the complete and safe avoidance of OTA for humans is impossible. There are several reports showing a ...
Tcherniuk Sergey O - - 2005
The use of cytotoxic agents to eliminate cancer cells is limited because of their nonselective toxicity and unwanted side effects. One of the strategies to overcome these limitations is to use latent prodrugs that become toxic in situ after being enzymatically activated in target cells. In this work we describe ...
Sun Qiang - - 2005
In a screen of signal peptide-containing proteins from a mouse hypothetical protein library, we identified the mouse UDP-GlcNAc:lysosomal enzyme N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase-gamma chain (GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase-gamma) (GenBank accession no. , HYP36 in this study). The mouse GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase-gamma was localized in the Golgi complex in cells and was expressed ubiquitously in mouse tissues, as shown ...
Sano Renata - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Gangliosides are building blocks of cell membranes and their biosynthesis and degradation have been extensively studied in the past. Regulation of the metabolism of these glycolipids controls fundamental cell functions. G(M1)-gangliosidosis, a neurodegenerative glycosphingolipid storage disease, is caused by deficiency of lysosomal beta-galactosidase with consequent disruption of the normal ...
Zorko Matjaz - - 2005
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are short peptides of less than 30 amino acids that are able to penetrate cell membranes and translocate different cargoes into cells. The only common feature of these peptides appears to be that they are amphipathic and net positively charged. The mechanism of cell translocation is not ...
Rozanov Dmitri V - - 2005
Protective antigen (PA) and lethal factor (LF) are the two components of anthrax lethal toxin. PA is responsible for interacting with cell receptors and for the subsequent translocation of LF inside the cell compartment. A re-engineered toxin comprised of PA and a fusion chimera LF/Pseudomonas exotoxin (FP59) is a promising ...
Aktories K - - 2005
Rho proteins are master regulators of a large array of cellular functions, including control of cell morphology, cell migration and polarity, transcriptional activation, and cell cycle progression. They are the eukaryotic targets of various bacterial protein toxins and effectors, which activate or inactivate the GTPases. Here Rho-inactivating toxins and effectors ...
Vidal L L Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Health Sciences Center, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8101, - - 2005
The hypocretins (Hcrt; also known as orexins) and melanin-concentrating hormone comprise distinct families of neuropeptides synthesized in cells located in the lateral hypothalamus and adjacent areas. The Hcrts are thought to modulate food intake and sleep/wake patterns in mammals. Melanin-concentrating hormone has a well-documented role in energy metabolism. A moderate ...
Gupta Bhawna - - 2005
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been used to overcome the lipophilic barrier of the cellular membranes and deliver large molecules and even small particles inside the cell for their biological actions. CPPs are being used to deliver inside cell a large variety of cargoes such as proteins, DNA, antibodies, contrast (imaging) ...
Meyer-Ficca Mirella L - - 2005
The importance of poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism in the maintenance of genomic integrity following genotoxic stress has long been firmly established. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and its catabolic counterpart, poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) play major roles in the modulation of cell responses to genotoxic stress. Recent discoveries of a number of other enzymes with ...
Lu Quan - - 2004
The lethality of infection by Bacillus anthracis is largely due to its plasmid-encoded toxins, which consist of a carrier protein, the protective antigen (PA), in combination with either the lethal-factor or edema-factor moiety. During B. anthracis infections, PA secreted by bacteria binds to membrane receptors of susceptible cells, is cleaved ...
Hang'ombe Mudenda B - - 2004
Alpha-toxin is an important agent of the virulence of Clostridium septicum. We examined cytotoxicity for alpha-toxin to various mammalian cells with recombinant toxin fused with a histidine-tag at the amino-terminal. The recombinant toxin retained the activity indistinguishable from the native form. Mammalian nucleated cells examined in this study are more ...
Shin Dong-Jun - - 2004
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors various proteins to the membrane of eukaryotic cells. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a hematopoietic stem cell disorder that is primarily due to the lack of GPI-anchored proteins on the surface of blood cells. To detect the GPI-deficient cells in PNH patients, we modified alpha toxin, a ...
Gerhard Ralf - - 2005
Clostridium difficile toxin A monoglucosylates the Rho family GTPases Rho, Rac, and Cdc42. Glucosylation leads to the functional inactivation of Rho GTPases and causes disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. A cDNA microarray revealed the immediate early gene rhoB as the gene that was predominantly up-regulated in colonic CaCo-2 cells after ...
Ohara Masaru - - 2004
Cytolethal distending toxin (Cdt) is a newly added member of bacterial protein toxins that hijack the control system of eukaryotic cells. Cdts are produced by several pathogenic bacteria causing chronic infectious diseases. They are composed of three subunits, CdtA, CdtB and CdtC, which together form a ternary complex. CdtB is ...
Gray M C - - 2004
Adenylate cyclase (AC) toxin is present on the surface of Bordetella pertussis organisms and their addition to eukaryotic cells results in increases in intracellular cAMP. To test the hypothesis that surface-bound toxin is the source for intoxication of cells when incubated with B. pertussis, we characterized the requirements of intoxication ...
Rocha Flavio G - - 2004
Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is an endogenous hormone with potent and specific intestinotrophic activity in vivo and in vitro. The aim of this study was to define the initial signal transduction mechanisms mediating the proliferative actions of GLP-2 on intestinal epithelial cells. The proliferative actions of GLP-2 on the human ...
Dierksen Karen P - - 2004
A cytosensor based on living chromatophores from Betta splendens Siamese fighting fish was used to test several classes of biologically active agents. Tested agents include neurotransmitters, adenyl cyclase activators, cytoskeleton effectors, cell membrane effectors and protein synthesis inhibitors. Characteristic cell responses were analyzed, and potential cytosensor applications were considered. Streptococcus ...
Chen Ming - - 2004
Prenatal exposure to excessive glucocorticoids may alter the developing fetus inducing metabolic and endocrine imbalance in various organs, including the kidney. This study aimed at evaluating whether prenatal exposure to high levels of glucocorticoids adversely affects renal cell survival and predisposes to renal cell death. Pregnant rats were injected with ...
Barth Holger - - 2004
Certain pathogenic species of Bacillus and Clostridium have developed unique methods for intoxicating cells that employ the classic enzymatic "A-B" paradigm for protein toxins. The binary toxins produced by B. anthracis, B. cereus, C. botulinum, C. difficile, C. perfringens, and C. spiroforme consist of components not physically associated in solution ...
Samdal I A - - 2004
Picked cells of Protoceratium reticulatum collected from five locations in Norway were shown by ELISA analysis to contain yessotoxins (YTXs). The production of yessotoxin (YTX) was verified by culturing followed by LC-MS analysis of one of the Norwegian isolates. This is the first report of the biogenic origin of YTXs ...
Nishikawa Atsushi - - 2004
Orally ingested botulinum toxin enters the circulatory system and eventually reaches the peripheral nerves, where it elicits a response of neurological dysfunction. In this study, we report the important findings concerning the mechanism of Clostridium botulinum type C progenitor toxin (C16S) endocytic mechanism. C16S toxin bound to high molecular weight ...
Introduction During sporulation, the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thurigiensis (Bt) expresses insecticidal crystal proteins known as -endo- toxins, which are grouped into two major families: Cry and Cyt -endotoxins (Crickmore et al., 1998). Depending on the bacterial isolates, these crystal proteins are toxic towards a variety of insect larvae of the ...
Li, Ying-Zhang
The different resistance of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars to crude toxin of Verticillium dahliae (VD) was correlated with the activities of chitinase and β-1, 3-glucanase in callus cells. The activities of chitinase and β-1, 3-glucanase in the callus cells treated with the VD-toxin were increased to the higher level ...
Woo Jung Hee - - 2004
The bivalent anti-T-cell immunotoxin A-dmDT390-bisFv(G(4)S) was developed for treatment of T-cell leukemia and autoimmune diseases and for tolerance induction for transplantation. This immunotoxin was produced extracellularly in toxin-sensitive Pichia pastoris JW102 (Mut(+)) under control of the AOX1 promoter. There were two major barriers to efficient immunotoxin production, the toxicity of ...
Garcia L B - - 2004
The post-antibiotic effect (PAE) of penicillin was measured in vitro against a group A streptococcal strain by the kinetic growth method. The duration of the effect was 2.8 h. The bacterial morphology and some streptococcal products were analyzed during and after the PAE, after being exposed to penicillin in a ...
Mehlgarten Constance - - 2004
Zymocin, a three-subunit (alpha beta gamma) toxin complex from Kluyveromyces lactis, imposes a cell cycle block on Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Phenotypic analysis of the resistant kti10 mutant implies a membrane defect, suggesting that KTI10 represents a gene involved early in the zymocin response. Consistently, KTI10 is shown here to be allelic ...
Lauvrak Silje U - - 2004
It has previously been shown that Shiga toxin, despite being bound to a glycolipid receptor, can be efficiently endocytosed from clathrin-coated pits. However, clathrin-independent endocytosis is also responsible for a proportion of the toxin uptake in some cells. After endocytosis the toxin can be transported in retrograde fashion to the ...
Min Kyung Nan - - 2004
Trichostatin A, an antifungal antibiotics, and HC-toxin are potent and specific inhibitors of histone deacetylase activity. Histone deacetylase inhibitors are new class of chemotherapeutic drugs able to induce tumor cell apoptosis and/or cell cycle arrest. In this study, the antiproliferative activities of trichostatin A and HC-toxin were compared between estrogen ...
Haug Gerd - - 2004
The heat shock protein Hsp90 is essential for uptake of the binary actin ADP-ribosylating toxins Clostridium perfringens iota-toxin and Clostridium difficile transferase into eukaryotic cells. Inhibition of Hsp90 by its specific inhibitor radicicol delayed intoxication of Vero cells by these toxins. A common Hsp90-dependent mechanism for their translocation is discussed.
Hale Martha L - - 2004
Clostridium perfringens iota-toxin consists of two separate proteins identified as a cell binding protein, iota b (Ib), which forms high-molecular-weight complexes on cells generating Na(+)/K(+)-permeable pores through which iota a (Ia), an ADP-ribosyltransferase, presumably enters the cytosol. Identity of the cell receptor and membrane domains involved in Ib binding, oligomer ...
Ohsaki Yuki - - 2004
Theta-toxin (perfringolysin O) binds to cell surface cholesterol and forms oligomeric pores that cause membrane damage. Both in cytotoxicity and cell survival assays, a mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell line NPC1(-) that lacked Niemann-Pick C1 showed reduced sensitivity to theta-toxin, compared with wild-type (wt) cells. BCtheta is a derivative of ...
Dowling A J - - 2004
Photorhabdus bacteria produce a number of toxins to kill their insect hosts. The expression of one of these, Makes caterpillars floppy (Mcf), is sufficient to allow Escherichia coli to persist within and kill caterpillars. Mcf causes shedding of the insect midgut epithelium and destructive blebbing of haemocytes suggesting it may ...
FitzGerald David J - - 2004
Recombinant immunotoxins are antibody-toxin chimeric molecules that kill cancer cells via binding to a surface antigen, internalization and delivery of the toxin moiety to the cell cytosol. In the cytosol, toxins catalytically inhibit a critical cell function and cause cell death. The antibody portion of the chimera targets antigens that ...
Haghjoo Erik - - 2004
Many bacterial pathogens encode the cytolethal distending toxin (CDT), which causes host cells to arrest during their cell cycle by inflicting DNA damage. CDT is composed of three proteins, CdtA, CdtB, and CdtC. CdtB is the enzymatically active or A subunit, which possesses DNase I-like activity, whereas CdtA and CdtC ...
Leong Sandric Chee Yew - - 2004
Nitrogen (N) supply in pulses was simulated by exposing Alexandrium tamarense which was acclimatized at low N concentration (6 microM-N) to sudden increase in concentrations of nitrate, ammonium and urea, and the variability in toxicity due to nutrient status of A. tamarense was examined. The toxin composition did not vary ...
Pang Hao - - 2004
Cholera toxin is associated with caveolae and raft domains in various cell types and previous studies have shown that cholera toxin can be internalized by caveolae/raft-dependent endocytosis as well as by other pathways. We undertook the study of cholera toxin endocytosis in CaCo-2 and HeLa cells. CaCo-2 cells do not ...
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