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Results 201 - 250 of 1278
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Klassen Roland - - 2006
Killer-toxin complexes produced by Kluyveromyces lactis and Pichia acaciae inhibit cell proliferation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Analysis of their actions in haploid MATalpha cells revealed that introduction of the opposite mating-type locus (MATa) significantly suppressed antizymosis. Together with resistance expressed by MATa/MATalpha diploids, the reciprocal action of MATa or MATalpha in ...
Keszthelyi A - - 2006
The basidiomycetous yeast Filobasidium capsuligenum produces a killer toxin (FC-1) which is highly effective against the opportunistic fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. The aim of this work was to study the effect of the toxin on C. neoformans cells. The sensitivities of strains representing eight molecular subtypes (VNI-IV and VGI-IV) of ...
McNichol Beth A - - 2006
Cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1 (CNF1) and dermonecrotic toxin (DNT) share homology within their catalytic domains and possess deamidase and transglutaminase activities. Although each toxin has a preferred enzymatic activity (i.e. deamidation for CNF1 and transglutamination for DNT) as well as target substrates, both modify a specific glutamine residue in ...
Ghosh A - - 2006
Cholera toxin gene-negative Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139 strain PL-21 is the etiologic agent of cholera-like syndrome. Hemagglutinin protease (HAP) is one of the major secretory proteins of PL-21. The mature 45-kDa and processed 35-kDa forms of HAP were purified in the presence and absence of EDTA from culture supernatants of ...
Rahman M Mahbubur - - 2006
Insects, like many other multicellular organisms, are able to recognise and inactivate potential pathogens and toxins in the absence of cells. Here we show that the recognition and inactivation of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and bacteria is mediated by lipophorin particles, which are the lipid carrier in insects. In immune-induced insects sub-populations ...
Husmann Matthias - - 2006
Following the observation that cells are able to recover from membrane lesions incurred by Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin and streptolysin O (SLO), we investigated the role of p38 in this process. p38 phosphorylation occurred in response to attack by both toxins, commencing within minutes after toxin treatment and waning after several ...
Yanase Yuhki - - 2007
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors detected large angle of resonance (AR) changes, when RBL-2H3 rat mast cells were cultured and activated on a sensor chip. Here, we demonstrated that PAM212 mouse keratinocytes also showed a large change in AR, when EGF-stimulated. We explored these changes due to intracellular reactions, through ...
Pastrana Diana V - - 2006
Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE) inhibits protein synthesis by NAD-dependent ADP-ribosylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2. Traditionally, toxin activity has been characterized, either in living cells or cell-free systems, using radioactive compounds for quantification. The increased costs of radioactive waste disposal together with heightened security concerns have made the use of ...
Prior Sandra - - 2006
Recombinant, genetically-detoxified adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) constructs from Bordetella pertussis have been developed as potential antigen delivery systems and as promising antigen candidates for inclusion in acellular pertussis vaccines. The major toxic effects of native CyaA are attributed to its enzymatic activity following delivery to cells of the innate immune ...
Sasaki Taku-Kemal - - 2006
Shiga toxin (Stx) produced by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli is a critical factor in the onset of hemolytic uremic syndrome. The current study was designed to assess whether n-3 and (or) n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) act as a valuable adjunct to prevent the cell injury of renal tubule cells in ...
Paddle Brian M - - 2006
The excretion of protein toxins by vegetative cells of Bacillus anthracis is critical to the development of the lethal consequences of anthrax, particularly inhalational anthrax. Whilst the lung macrophages and other phagocytic cells transfer the spores from the lung cavities into the lymphatic system, and provide an initial germination site ...
Hontz Jill S - - 2006
Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) is a secreted protein toxin produced by several bacterial pathogens. The biologically active CDT subunit CdtB is an active homolog of mammalian type I DNase. Internalization of CdtB and subsequent translocation into the nucleus of target cells results in DNA-strand breaks, leading to cell-cycle arrest and ...
Wang H - - 2006
Nitrogenase activity in Rhodospirillum rubrum is post-translationally regulated by DRAG (dinitrogenase reductase glycohydrolase) and DRAT (dinitrogenase reductase ADP-ribosylation transferase). When a sudden increase in fixed nitrogen concentration or energy depletion is sensed by the cells, DRAG is inactivated and DRAT activated. We propose that the regulation of DRAG is dependent ...
Kehr Jan-Christoph - - 2006
Microcystin, a hepatotoxin that represents a serious health risk for humans and livestock, is produced by the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa in freshwater bodies worldwide. Here we describe the discovery of a lectin, microvirin (MVN), in M. aeruginosa PCC7806 that shares 33% identity with the potent anti-HIV protein cyanovirin-N from ...
Hayashi Rumiko - - 2006
We performed a neuroblastoma cell (Neuro2a) culture assay modified slightly from a method reported previously to provide a simple and sensitive evaluation of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxicity in shellfish. The cell bioassay was just as sensitive for C-toxins as for gonyautoxins. The sensitivity of our cell bioassay was 4 ...
Michos Athanasios - - 2006
Streptolysin O (SLO) is a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin produced by the important human pathogen, group A Streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes or GAS). In addition to its cytolytic activity, SLO mediates the translocation of GAS NAD-glycohydrolase (NADase) into human epithelial cells in vitro. Production of both NADase and SLO is associated with augmented ...
Mahar A N - - 2006
Larvae of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, and the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, and nymphs of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria were controlled by the application of either cell suspensions from the bacterium, Xenorhabdus nematophila or filtrates containing cell-free toxins. Since there was no significant differences between the two treatments ...
Johansson David - - 2006
The present study examined the possibility to enhance lung cancer cell cytotoxicity and apoptosis of the anticancer drug cisplatin by exposure with adenylate cyclase (AC) toxin from Bordetella pertussis. A malignant mesothelioma cell line (P31) and a small-cell lung cancer cell line (U1690) were exposed to increasing concentrations of cisplatin ...
Riley Mark R - - 2006
This work describes the development of a biologically based sensing technique to quantify chemical agents that pose inhalation health hazards. The approach utilizes cultured epithelial cells (A549 human type II pneumocytes) of the lung, exposed to potential toxins and monitored through the noninvasive means of infrared spectroscopy to quantify changes ...
Koch-Nolte Friedrich - - 2006
Many bacterial toxins kill animal cells by adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylating intracellular target proteins. Mammalian cells express toxin-related cell surface ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs) that transfer ADP-ribose from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto arginine residues of other membrane proteins. The association of these glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored ectoenzymes with glycolipid rafts focuses them onto components ...
Veeranagouda Yaligara - - 2006
The solvent-tolerant bacterium Enterobacter sp. VKGH12 is able to grow in toxic concentrations of n-butanol up to 1.5 % (volume in volume) as the sole carbon and energy source. Morphology changes in the cells growing on increasing concentrations of n-butanol were observed. The size of the bacteria decreased with increasing ...
Kreitman Robert J - - 2006
Immunotoxins are proteins that contain a toxin along with an antibody or growth factor that binds specifically to target cells. Nearly all protein toxins work by enzymatically inhibiting protein synthesis. For the immunotoxin to work, it must bind to and be internalized by the target cells, and the enzymatic fragment ...
Türeli, Akif Emre
Some yeast strains under certain conditions secrete into the medium polypeptide toxins which are inhibitory to sensitive cells. These yeast strains are termed as killer yeasts and their toxins are designated as killer proteins or killer toxins. Killer proteins are classified into 11 typical types (K1-K11). These toxins have different ...
Yamashita Satoko - - 2005
Bacillus thuringiensis strain A1462 produced two parasporal inclusion proteins with a molecular mass of 88 kDa that were converted to 64-kDa toxins when activated by proteinase K digestion. Both toxins exhibited strong cytocidal activity against two human cancer cell lines, HL60 (myeloid leukemia cells) and HepG2 (liver cancer cells), while ...
Tveit Heidi - - 2005
The cellular compartment and purpose of the proteolytic processing of the prion protein (PrP) are still under debate. We have studied ovine PrP constructs expressed in four cell lines; murine neuroblastoma cells (N2a), human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y), dog kidney epithelial cells (MDCK), and human furin-deficient colon cancer cells (LoVo). Cleavage ...
Summerton James E - - 2005
Delivering large molecules into the cytosol of animal cells without damaging the cells has been one of the toughest challenges in biology. Endo-Porter is a weak-base amphiphilic peptide that was designed to deliver morpholino antisense oligomers and other non-ionic substances into the cytosol/nuclear compartment of cells by an endocytosis-mediated process ...
Izgü Fatih - - 2005
K5-type yeast killer toxin secreted by P. anomala NCYC 434 cells has a broad killing spectrum. Competitive inhibiton of killer activity showed that glucans, mainly the beta-1,3 glucan, represent the primary toxin binding site within the cell wall of sensitive cells. Its hydrolytic activity on laminarin in an exo-like fashion ...
Zhang X - - 2005
The specific role of cadherin receptors in cytotoxicity involving Cry toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis and their interactions with cell membrane has not been defined. To elucidate the involvement of toxin-membrane and toxin-receptor interactions in cytotoxicity, we established a cell-based system utilizing High Five insect cells stably expressing BT-R1, the cadherin ...
Zhao Luyi - - 2005
Inhibition of protein synthesis is a common mechanism by which bacterial and plant toxins injure human cells. Examples of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis include shiga toxins of Escherichia coli, diphtheria toxin, Pseudomonas exotoxin A and the plant toxin ricin. In order to facilitate studies on toxin pathogenesis and to ...
Erickson Heidi A - - 2006
Immunotoxins are targeted therapeutics designed to kill cancer cells. The targeting moiety of an immunotoxin selectively binds to a tumor cell and targets it for death via an attached toxin. Because the toxins are typically of plant or bacterial origin, their clinical use is limited by immunogenicity and nonspecific toxicity. ...
Hong Jia - - 2005
Anthrax edema factor (EF) is a highly active calmodulin-dependent adenylyl cyclase toxin that can potently raise intracellular cAMP levels causing a broad range of tissue damage. EF needs anthrax protective antigen (PA) to enter into the host cell and together they form edema toxin. Here, we examine factors that are ...
Natarajan A - - 2006
The threat of environmental pollution, biological warfare agent dissemination and new diseases in recent decades has increased research into cell-based biosensors. The creation of this class of sensors could specifically aid the detection of toxic chemicals and their effects in the environment, such as pyrethroid pesticides. Pyrethroids are synthetic pesticides ...
Abi-Habib Ralph J - - 2005
Anthrax lethal toxin, composed of protective antigen and lethal factor, was tested for cytotoxicity to human melanoma cell lines and normal human cells. Eleven of 18 melanoma cell lines were sensitive to anthrax lethal toxin (IC(50) < 400 pmol/L) and 10 of these 11 sensitive cell lines carried the V599E ...
Omoe Katsuhiko - - 2005
We investigated the biological properties of a novel staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE)-like toxin type P (SElP). SElP induced a substantial proliferative response and the production of cytokines interleukin-2, gamma interferon, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-4 from human T cells when administered at a concentration of 0.4 pM (0.01 ng/ml) or ...
Müller Tobias - - 2005
Uridine nucleotides and UDP-glucose are endogenous molecules, which are released into the extracellular environment in a lytic manner after cell damage, as well as by regulated nonlytic mechanisms. Recently, a UDP-glucose-specific G(i) protein-coupled P2Y receptor, namely P2Y(14), has been cloned. In this study, we demonstrated expression of the P2Y(14) mRNA ...
Pichardo S - - 2005
Cyanobacterial toxins, especially microcystins (MC), are found in eutrophied waters through the world. Acute poisonings of animals and humans has been reported following MC exposure. In the present study, two fish cell lines, PLHC-1 and RTG-2, were evaluated after exposure to the cyanobacterial toxins MC-LR and MC-RR. The effects of ...
Torgersen Maria L - - 2005
Shiga toxin can be internalized by clathrin-dependent endocytosis in different cell lines, although it binds specifically to the glycosphingolipid Gb3. It has been demonstrated previously that the toxin can induce recruitment of the toxin-receptor complex to clathrin-coated pits, but whether this process is concentration-dependent or which part of the toxin ...
Mise Koji - - 2005
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans produces a toxin called cytolethal distending toxin (CDT), which causes host cell DNA damage leading to the induction of DNA damage checkpoint pathways. CDT consists of three subunits, CdtA, CdtB, and CdtC. CdtB is the active subunit of CDT and exerts its effect as a nuclease that damages ...
Handel Mary Ann - - 2005
The events and tempo of mammalian meiosis show sexual dimorphism with gametogenic context having a significant influence on both chromosome dynamics and cell cycle transitions. However, although some regulators of the meiotic cell cycle may differ between males and females, there appears to be extraordinary conservation of key components in ...
Voth Daniel E - - 2005
Oedema factor (OF) and protective antigen (PA) are secreted by Bacillus anthracis, and their binary combination yields oedema toxin (OT). Following PA-mediated delivery to the cytosol, OF functions as an adenylate cyclase generating high levels of cAMP. To assess OT as a possible cause of tissue damage and cell death, ...
Hickey Thomas E - - 2005
Campylobacter jejuni 81-176 is capable of extensive replication within human monocytic cell vacuoles and induces apoptotic death via cytolethal distending toxin.
Brito Gerly A C - - 2005
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Clostridium difficile toxin A (TxA) on intestinal epithelial cell migration, apoptosis, and transepithelial resistance and to evaluate the effect of glutamine (Gln) and its stable derivative, alanyl-glutamine (Ala-Gln), on TxA-induced damage. Migration was measured in rat intestinal epithelial cells ...
Kanno Fumio F Department of Periodontics, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 240 South 40th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6030, - - 2005
The cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a typical member of this Gram-negative bacterium holotoxin family that targets a wide spectrum of eukarytotic cells, typically causing cell cycle arrest at either the G(1) or G(2)/M phase of the cell cycle. In view of the possible role of the ...
Ceelen Liesbeth M - - 2006
Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) is a bacterial protein that is widely distributed among gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp., enterohepatic Helicobacter spp., Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Haemophilus ducreyi. In vitro studies demonstrated that it is able to stop proliferation of various cell lines. The toxin is composed of three subunits ...
Shin Dong-Jun - - 2005
In eukaryotic cells, various proteins are anchored to the plasma membrane through glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI). To study the biosynthetic pathways and modifications of GPI, various mutant cells have been isolated from the cells of Chinese hamster ovaries (CHO) supplemented with several exogenous genes involved in GPI biosynthesis using aerolysin, a toxin ...
Guiral Sébastien - - 2005
Natural competence for genetic transformation is the best-characterized feature of the major human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. Recent studies have shown the virulence of competence-deficient mutants to be attenuated, but the nature of the connection between competence and virulence remained unknown. Here we document the release, triggered by competent cells, of ...
Akifusa Sumio - - 2005
Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT), which is encoded by three genes, cdtA, cdtB and cdtC, is now recognized to have a growing list of biological actions, including inhibition of cell cycle progression, promotion of apoptosis and stimulation of cytokine secretion. It appears that internalization of CDT is essential, at least for ...
Böhnel H - - 2005
Toxins of Clostridium botulinum (types A-G) are known as 'neurotoxins', causing the clinically well-known picture of flaccid muscular paralysis. The molecular biological background is the blocking of acetylcholine secretion in neuromuscular junctions by enzymatic cleavage of molecules forming the machinery of exocytosis. Two 'non-neurotoxins' (types C2, C3) are produced by ...
Wising Catharina - - 2005
Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of the sexually transmitted disease chancroid, produces a cytolethal distending toxin (HdCDT) that inhibits cultured cell proliferation, leading to cell death. A rabbit model of dermal infection was used to investigate the roles of H. ducreyi bacteria and HdCDT in the development, clinical appearance, and ...
Spilsberg Bjørn - - 2005
Diphtheria toxin is translocated across cellular membranes when receptor-bound toxin is exposed to low pH. To study the role of sphingolipids for toxin translocation, both a mutant cell line lacking the first enzyme in de novo sphingolipid synthesis, serine palmitoyltransferase, and a specific inhibitor of the same enzyme, myriocin, were ...
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