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Asphahani Fareid - - 2007
Cell-based impedance biosensing is an emerging technology that can be used to non-invasively and instantaneously detect and analyze cell responses to chemical and biological agents. This article highlights the fabrication and measurement technologies of cell impedance sensors, and their application in toxin detection and anti-cancer drug screening. We start with ...
Daly Robert I - - 2007
The proliferation of cyanobacteria in drinking water sources is problematic for water authorities as they can interfere with water treatment processes. Studies have shown that oxidants such as chlorine can enhance the coagulation of cyanobacteria; however, chlorine can potentially lyse cyanobacterial cells, releasing toxic metabolites. Chlorine also has the potential ...
Mukherjee Gayatri - - 2008
Vibrio cholerae hemolysin (HlyA) can exist as a monomer with hemolytic activity and an oligomer that agglutinates erythrocytes. Biochemical differences accompanying the change in state of aggregation led us to weigh possible differences between the two forms from mucosal immunoregulation perspective. HlyA oligomer-treated murine B-1a cells up-regulated TLR2 and involved ...
Gaddis Brandon D - - 2007
An inhibitor of anthrax lethal toxin mediated cell death (1) was identified by a medium throughput cell-based screen. This compound was determined to specifically inhibit anthrax lethal factor (LF), and subsequent SAR studies produced an even more potent inhibitor (4). Mechanistic studies identified these agents as uncompetitive inhibitors of LF ...
Kato Jiro - - 2007
Cholera toxin (CT) produced by Vibrio cholerae causes the devastating diarrhea of cholera by catalyzing the ADP-ribosylation of the alpha subunit of the intestinal Gs protein (Gsalpha), leading to characteristic water and electrolyte losses. Mammalian cells contain ADP-ribosyltransferases similar to CT and an ADP-ribosyl(arginine)protein hydrolase (ADPRH), which cleaves the ADP-ribose-(arginine)protein ...
Nascimento Fábio Dupart - - 2007
Recently we have shown that crotamine, a toxin from the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, belongs to the family of cell-penetrating peptides. Moreover, crotamine was demonstrated to be a marker of centrioles, of cell cycle, and of actively proliferating cells. Herein we show that this toxin at non-toxic ...
Ratner Adam J - - 2007
During mucosal colonization, epithelial cells are concurrently exposed to numerous microbial species. Epithelial cytokine production is an early component of innate immunity and contributes to mucosal defence. We have previously demonstrated a synergistic response of respiratory epithelial cells to costimulation by two human pathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. Here ...
de Aguirres Aline B - - 2007
GRX cell line represents hepatic stellate cell and can be transformed from an actively proliferation myofibroblast phenotype into a quiescent fat-storing lipocyte phenotype. Both express the same gangliosides (GM3, GM2, GM1 and GD1a), which are resolved as doublets on HPTLC. Upper/lower band ratio is increased in lipocyte-like cells and the ...
Stockert Richard J RJ The Marion Bessin Liver Research Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. - - 2007
To isolate mutant liver cells defective in the endocytic pathway, a selection strategy using toxic ligands for two distinct membrane receptors was utilized. Rare survivors termed trafficking mutants (Trf2-Trf7) were stable and more resistant than the parental HuH-7 cells to both toxin conjugates. They differed from the previously isolated Trf1 ...
Wang Zhanhui - - 2007
In this paper, we report on the development of a multilayer elastomeric microfluidic array platform for the high-throughput cell cytotoxicity screening of mammalian cell lines. Microfluidic channels in the platform for cell seeding are orthogonal to channels for toxin exposure, and within each channel intersection is a circular chamber with ...
Niwa Koichi - - 2007
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is produced as a large toxin complex (TC) associated with nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (NTNHA) and three hemagglutinin subcomponents (HA-70, -33 and -17). To assess the role of nontoxic components in the oral intoxication of botulinum TCs, we investigated the permeability of serotype D strain 4947 BoNT and its ...
Rodríguez Montserrat - - 2007
Onconase is an RNase with a very specific property because it is selectively toxic to transformed cells. This toxin is thought to recognize cell surface receptors, and the protection conferred by metabolic poisons against Onconase toxicity indicated that this RNase relies on endocytic uptake to kill cells. Nevertheless, its internalization ...
Peyrou Mathieu - - 2007
The cytoprotection of LLC-PK1 cells afforded by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress preconditioning suggests that the ER plays an important role during drug-induced renal toxicity. However, in vitro studies have been largely limited to LLC-PK1 cells and model toxins. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that cytoprotection following ER stress preconditioning is ...
Chang Jason Y - - 2007
Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental toxin that causes severe neurological complications in humans and experimental animals. MeHg caused IL-6 release from the rat C6 glioma cells, the human U251HF glioma cells and the human retina pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells. These results plus those we reported earlier using mouse N9 microglia ...
Krishnamoorthy, Paramanandham; Dr. ALM. ...
Forty-eight, newly hatched, unsexed broiler chicks were fed diets containing 45 ppm chlorpyriphos, an organophosphorus compound and 0.5 ppm T-2, a mycotoxin, singly and in combination for 28 days from day of hatch to study of pathological effects. Gross, pale, enlarged liver, distended gall bladder and streaks of haemorrhages in ...
Rossetto Ornella - - 2007
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a bacterial toxin that causes paralysis. Recent models have suggested that BoNT recognizes and enters nerve endings by interacting with protein receptors and gangliosides, which are glycosphingolipid components of the cell membrane that modulate cell signaling. Recent structures provide insight into how BoNT interacts with these ...
Levina Aviva - - 2007
Very different biological activities are usually ascribed to Cr(VI) (a toxin and carcinogen) and Cr(III) (an antidiabetic agent), although recent evidence suggests that both these types of actions are likely to arise from cellular uptake of varying concentrations of Cr(VI). The first systematic study of XANES spectra of Cr(III) complexes ...
Pust Sascha - - 2007
The virulence factor SpvB is a crucial component for the intracellular growth and infection process of Salmonella enterica. The SpvB protein mediates the ADP-ribosylation of actin in infected cells and is assumed to be delivered directly from the engulfed bacteria into the host cell cytosol. Here we used the binary ...
Zhu Li - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To develop an in situ PCR in combination with flow cytometry (ISPCR-FCM) for monitoring cholera toxin positive Vibrio cholerae. METHODS: In running this method, 4% paraformaldehyde was used to fix the Vibrio cholerae cells and 1 mg/mL lysozyme for 20 min to permeabilize the cells. Before the PCR thermal ...
Katayama Hideki - - 2007
Parasporin-1 is a novel non-insecticidal inclusion protein from Bacillus thuringiensis that is cytotoxic to specific mammalian cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of parasporin-1 on toxin-sensitive cell lines to elucidate the cytotoxic mechanism of parasporin-1. Parasporin-1 is not a membrane pore-forming toxin as evidenced by measurements of lactate ...
Lahl Katharina - - 2007
The scurfy mutant mouse strain suffers from a fatal lymphoproliferative disease leading to early death within 3-4 wk of age. A frame-shift mutation of the forkhead box transcription factor Foxp3 has been identified as the molecular cause of this multiorgan autoimmune disease. Foxp3 is a central control element in the ...
TAFT, SARAH C
Bacillus anthracis is a high priority biothreat agent because of two virulence factors, an anti-phagocytic capsule and an exotoxin, consisting of protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF), and edema factor (EF). These virulence factors inhibit the host immune responses, allowing the bacilli to rapidly multiply and overwhelm the host. While ...
LAABIR, Mohamed
Adult oysters Crassostrea gigas were experimentally fed with Alexandrium catenella and Alexandrium minutum which are responsible for recurrent toxic blooms in French coastal waters. C. gigas produced faeces and pseudofaeces containing intact and viable temporary pellicular cysts of these two Paralytic toxin producing species. When incubated in favourable conditions, these ...
Broeck Davy Vanden - - 2007
The involvement of the clathrin-mediated endocytic internalization route in the uptake of cholera toxin (CT) was investigated using different cell lines, including the human intestinal Caco-2 and T84 cell lines, green monkey Vero cells, SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Suppression of the clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway by classical ...
Miyagawa Atsushi - - 2007
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Glycolipids are one component of cell membranes, and are found most prevalently at the surface of the plasma membrane. Animal cells take in amphipathic glycosides, which are later glycosylated after assimilation in biosynthetic pathways. Gycosylated glycosides are released outside of cells to the surrounding culture medium. This represents ...
Fu Yue-Jun - - 2007
Chlorotoxin, one of the key toxins in scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus venom, has been shown to bind specifically to glioma cell surface as a specific chloride channel blocker. In this study, a purified, recombinant chlorotoxin-like peptide from the scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch (named rBmK CTa) was characterized by in vivo and ...
Tian P - - 2006
AIMS: To determine if histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) present in oyster gastrointestinal (GI) cells mediate accumulation of human noroviruses (NoV) in oyster GI cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: HBGA-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were used to determine the presence of the corresponding HBGA in oyster GI cells. All oyster samples tested contained ...
Biswas Debabrata - - 2006
Campylobacter jejuni produces cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) that causes host cells to arrest during their cell cycle and that is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diarrhea in humans. To assess the role of CDT in adherence and invasion of different cultured host cells (HeLa and HD-11) and in colonization ...
Paton J C - - 2006
The pathway and the efficiency of intracellular trafficking of Shiga toxin differ between cell types, and this impacts on susceptibility to cytotoxicity. Warnier et al. demonstrate that in cell types targeted during human disease, Shiga toxin undergoes retrograde transport via the trans-Golgi network to the endoplasmic reticulum, albeit less efficiently ...
Hattula Katarina - - 2006
Rab8 has a drastic effect on cell shape, but the membrane trafficking route it regulates is poorly defined. Here, we show that endogenous and ectopically expressed Rab8 is associated with macropinosomes generated at ruffling membrane domains. These macropinosomes fuse or transform into tubules that move toward the cell center, from ...
Li Xiao-Ping - - 2007
The plant toxin ricin is one of the most potent and lethal substances known. Ricin inhibits protein synthesis by removing a specific adenine from the highly conserved alpha-sarcin/ricin loop in the large rRNA. Very little is known about how ricin interacts with ribosomes and the molecular mechanism by which it ...
Tian Liantian - - 2006
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 (mGluR6) is a group III, pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G protein coupled mGluR that plays a specialized role in the retina. Retinal ON bipolar cells, which receive direct glutamatergic input from photoreceptor cells, express mGluR6 as their primary postsynaptic glutamate receptor. Activation of mGluR6 in these cells ...
Wisløff Helene - - 2007
Narthecium ossifragum, a perennial herb of the lily family, causes toxic renal tubular necrosis in several ruminant species. 3-Methoxy-2(5H)-furanone (3M2F) has been identified as a nephrotoxin present in N. ossifragum extracts. We studied effects of three different 3M2F-containing fractions isolated from N. ossifragum and synthetic 3M2F on the porcine kidney ...
Yuan Hai-Yong - - 2006
In plant cells, cytoskeletons play important roles in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, little is known about the dynamics of cytoskeletons when cells are attacked by unphysical stress factors such as elicitors and toxins. We report here that the toxin of Verticillium dahliae (VD toxin) induced changes of ...
Paton Adrienne W - - 2006
AB5 toxins are produced by pathogenic bacteria and consist of enzymatic A subunits that corrupt essential eukaryotic cell functions, and pentameric B subunits that mediate uptake into the target cell. AB5 toxins include the Shiga, cholera and pertussis toxins and a recently discovered fourth family, subtilase cytotoxin, which is produced ...
Watson Peter - - 2006
There is a vast number of bacterial and plant toxins that affect cytosolic targets in mammalian cells, and whether the purpose of the toxin is to act as a defence mechanism against predators, or to cause deliberate cell death in order to form an environment more suitable for bacterial growth, ...
Smith James L - - 2006
Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) is a bacterial toxin that initiates a eukaryotic cell cycle block at the G2 stage prior to mitosis. CDT is produced by a number of bacterial pathogens including: Campylobacter species, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, Shigella dystenteriae, enterohepatic Helicobacter species, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (the cause of ...
Fiorentini Carla - - 2006
Cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 is a bacterial protein toxin from Escherichia coli that is able to activate the Rho GTPases and to hinder apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe. Upon exposure to toxin, cells undergo a complex framework of changes, including cytoskeleton remodeling and multinucleation. These cells also show a high survival ...
Heussner A H - - 2007
In the present study an in vitro model of subchronic repeated exposure to OTA and OTB was employed to generate ochratoxin-derived subpopulations of human and porcine proximal tubular cells (HKC, IHKE, PKC, LLC-PK1). These cell subpopulations were subsequently used to investigate effects on cell proliferation rates, expression of marker proteins ...
Yanagisawa Makoto - - 2006
Gangliosides, sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids, are ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells and are primarily localized in the plasma membrane. Cholera toxin B subunit (Ctxb), a component of a heat-labile enterotoxin produced by Vibrio cholerae, has been frequently used as a probe to detect GM1 ganglioside because of its high affinity ...
Lajus Sophie - - 2006
Alpha-latrotoxin (alpha-LTX) binds to several cell surface receptors including receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase sigma (RPTPsigma). Here we demonstrate that transient overexpression of the short splice variant 3 conferred alpha-LTX induced secretion to hamster insulinoma (HIT-15) cells. In contrast, the long splice variant 2 containing four additional extracellular fibronectin-III domains was inactive ...
Ivankovic Milena - - 2006
Protein synthesis elongation factor 2 (EF-2) from eukaryotes contains a conserved post-translationally modified histidine residue known as diphthamide. Diphthamide is a unique site of ADP-ribosylation by diphtheria toxin (DT), which is responsible for cell killing. In this report, we describe the construction of DT-resistant HeLa cell lines by engineering the ...
Schwartz Michael P - - 2006
The intensity of light scattered from a porous Si photonic crystal is used to monitor physiological changes in primary rat hepatocytes. The cells are seeded on the surface of a porous Si photonic crystal that has been filled with polystyrene and treated with an O2 plasma. Light resonant with the ...
Lioy Virginia S - - 2006
The toxin-antitoxin operon of pSM19035 encodes three proteins: the omega global regulator, the epsilon labile antitoxin and the stable zeta toxin. Accumulation of zeta toxin free of epsilon antitoxin induced loss of cell proliferation in both Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli cells. Induction of a zeta variant (zetaY83C) triggered stasis, ...
Galván Estela M - - 2006
Human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT29-ATCC) and the clone HT29-5F7 were cultured under conditions that differentiate cells to a polarized intestinal phenotype. Differentiated cells showed the presence of junctional complexes and intercellular lumina bordered by microvilli. Intestinal brush border hydrolase activities (sucrase, aminopeptidase N, lactase and maltase) were detected mainly in ...
Falzano Loredana - - 2006
Evidence is accumulating that a growing number of bacterial toxins act by modulating the eukaryotic cell cycle machinery. In this context, we provide evidence that a protein toxin named cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1) from uropathogenic Escherichia coli is able to block cell cycle G(2)/M transition in the uroepithelial cell ...
Kitada Sakae - - 2006
Parasporin-2, a new crystal protein derived from noninsecticidal and nonhemolytic Bacillus thuringiensis, recognizes and kills human liver and colon cancer cells as well as some classes of human cultured cells. Here we report that a potent proteinase K-resistant parasporin-2 toxin shows specific binding to and a variety of cytocidal effects ...
Samsur Mohamad - - 2006
A toxic dinoflagellate responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), Alexandrium catenella (Ac) was fed to the short-necked clam Tapes japonica, and the accumulation and depuration profiles of PSP toxins were investigated by means of high-performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization (HPLC-FLD). The short-necked clams ingested more than 99% of ...
Watzin Mary C - - 2006
The increasing incidence of toxic cyanobacteria blooms worldwide has created a need for practical and efficient monitoring in order to protect public health. We developed a monitoring and alert framework based on World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations and applied it on Lake Champlain during the summers of 2002-2004. The protocol ...
Mantis Nicholas J - - 2006
Epithelial cells of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts are extremely vulnerable to the cytotoxic effects of ricin, a Shiga-like toxin with ribosome-inactivating properties. While mucosal immunity to ricin correlates with secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibody levels in vivo, the potential of IgA to protect epithelial cells from ricin in vitro ...
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