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Weng A - - 2008
Saporin, a type I ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), removes adenine residues from the 28S ribosomal RNA as part of a process that leads to inhibition of protein synthesis. However, as shown in this study, neither saporin nor his-tagged saporin (both 0.6-6 pM) exert toxicity on several human cell lines including H-2171, ...
Hayashi Mirian A F - - 2008
Crotamine, one of the main toxic components of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, is a small non-enzymatic basic polypeptide, which causes hind limb paralysis and necrosis of muscle cells. It is well-known that several toxins penetrate into the cytosol through endocytosis, although in many cases the mechanism by which this occurs ...
Cañete Elisabeth - - 2008
The suitability and sensitivity of two neural cell models, NG108-15 and Neuro-2a, to different marine toxins were evaluated under different incubation and exposure times and in the presence or absence of ouabain and veratridine (O/V). NG108-15 cells were more sensitive to pectenotoxin-2 than Neuro-2a cells. For saxitoxin, brevetoxin-3, palytoxin, okadaic ...
De Lorenzo Claudia - - 2008
Immunotoxins are chimeric molecules that specifically target tumor cells, as they are made up of toxins linked to an antibody directed to a specific, cell-surface tumor-associated-antigen (TAA). When the immune moiety is internalized by the tumor cell, it will carry the conjugated toxin into the cell, so that the cell ...
Gupta Pradeep K - - 2008
Diphthamide is a post-translational derivative of histidine in protein synthesis elongation factor-2 (eEF-2) that is present in all eukaryotes with no known normal physiological role. Five proteins Dph1-Dph5 are required for the biosynthesis of diphthamide. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells mutated in the biosynthetic genes lack diphthamide and are resistant ...
Hanashima Tatsuo - - 2008
Shiga-like toxin 1 (Stx1), produced by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, binds to its receptor, globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), on target cell membranes, as a prerequisite for inducing host cell intoxication. To examine further toxin-receptor interactions, we established an Stx1-resistant clone of Vero cells by chemical mutagenesis. The mutant cells, expressed Gb3, but did ...
Lehmann, Mandy
Inhalational anthrax is an acute infectious disease caused by exposure of the lungs to B. anthracis spores. Alveolar macrophages engulf spores causing them to germinate to the vegetative form of B. anthracis, which secretes edema toxin (ET)and lethal toxin (LT). The pathogenesis of inhalational anthrax is characterized by flu-like symptoms, ...
Liu Hui-Kang - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Prevention of pancreatic beta-cell destruction combined with preservation of insulin secretory function is an important goal for cell-based diabetes therapy. This study describes the generation and characteristics of toxin-resistant beta-cells. METHODS: By using iterative exposures to ninhydrin, a new class of robust ninhydrin-tolerant insulin-secreting BRIN-BD11 ninhydrin-tolerant (BRINnt) cells was ...
Aucher Anne - - 2008
Upon recognition of their respective cellular partners, T and B cells acquire their antigens by a process of membrane capture called trogocytosis. Here, we report that various inhibitors of actin polymerization or of kinases involved in intracellular signaling partially or fully inhibited trogocytosis by CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells, whereas ...
Christou Charita M CM Henry Wellcome Building for Molecular Physiology, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN, - - 2008
We have recently shown that the C-type lectin-like receptor, CLEC-2, is expressed on platelets and that it mediates powerful platelet aggregation by the snake venom toxin rhodocytin. In addition, we have provided indirect evidence for an endogenous ligand for CLEC-2 in renal cells expressing HIV-1. This putative ligand facilitates transmission ...
Johansson D - - 2008
alpha-Toxin (alpha-hemolysin) of Staphylococcus aureus is a pore-forming bacterial toxin which after caveolin-1-dependent assembly induces apoptosis in eukaryotic cells. We investigated if a sub-toxic concentration of staphylococcal alpha-toxin could enhance cisplatin-induced apoptosis and overcome acquired cisplatin-resistance in cultured malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) cells. MPM cells (P31wt) and a cisplatin-resistant sub-line ...
Valaitis Algimantas P - - 2008
The insecticidal Cry proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis strains are pore-forming toxins (PFTs) that bind to the midgut brush border membrane and cause extensive damage to the midgut epithelial cells of susceptible insect larvae. Force-feeding B. thuringiensis PFTs to Lymantria dispar larvae elicited rapid and massive shedding of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol ...
Pastrana Diana V - - 2008
Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1, (LRP1) is a large multifunctional receptor that binds more than 25 physiologic ligands. In addition, it functions as the surface receptor for several Rhinoviruses, HIV-tat and Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE). We report that the expression of PE within mammalian cells can serve as a probe ...
Moyer A L - - 2008
Most Bacillus cereus toxin production is controlled by the quorum-sensing-dependent, pleiotropic global regulator plcR, which contributes to the organism's virulence in the eye. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of B. cereus infection and plcR-regulated toxins on the barrier function of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, ...
de Melo Janaina Viana - - 2008
The larvicidal action of the entomopathogen Bacillus sphaericus towards Culex quinquefasciatus is due to the binary (Bin) toxin present in crystals, which are produced during bacterial sporulation. The Bin toxin needs to recognize and bind specifically to a single class of receptors, named Cqm1, which are 60-kDa alpha-glucosidases attached to ...
KIM, JONG-MI
The inhibitory effects of flavanone derivatives on Helicobacter pylori (HP) growth, infection and VacA toxininduced vacuolation were investigated. Among flavanones tested, ponciretin potently inhibited the growth of HP with a MIC value of 0.01 mg/ml and VacA toxin-induced vacuolation in HeLa cells with <TEX>$IC_{50}$</TEX> value of 0.078 mM. However, other ...
Cueva Méndez, Guillermo de ...
Filing Date: 2000-07-17.-- Priority Data: GB 9916810 (1999-07-16).
Ohuchi Shoij P - - 2008
Aptamers are single-stranded nucleic acids with high and specific affinity to a target molecule. Recently, target cell-binding aptamers are studied as molecular tools for the detection and the isolation of desired cells. Here, I developed a method for the selective recovery of target cells employing a bi-functional aptamer. As a ...
Deng Qing - - 2008
Bacterial pathogens utilize toxins to modify or kill host cells. The bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferases are a family of protein toxins that covalently transfer the ADP-ribose portion of NAD to host proteins. Each bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferase toxin modifies a specific host protein(s) that yields a unique pathology. These toxins possess the capacity to ...
Ryan Patricia L - - 2008
The role of the cellular protein LRP6 in anthrax toxin entry is controversial. Previous studies showed that LRP6 was important for efficient intoxication of human M2182 prostate carcinoma cells but other studies performed with cells from gene-knockout mice demonstrated no role for either LRP6 or the related LRP5 protein in ...
Barth Holger - - 2008
Binary bacterial toxins are unique AB-type toxins, composed of two non-linked proteins that act as a binding/translocation component and an enzyme component. All known actin-ADP-ribosylating toxins from clostridia possess this binary structure. This toxin family is comprised of the prototypical Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin, Clostridium perfringens iota toxin, Clostridium difficile ...
Fasano Mauro - - 2008
Dopaminergic neurons are particularly exposed to oxidative stress because dopamine metabolism gives rise to endogenous toxins. Here, two different models for dopamine toxicity have been investigated using proteomics: stable alpha-synuclein-expressing neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells to understand how alpha-synuclein modulates dopamine toxicity at the central level, and cultured T-cell leukaemia (Jurkat) cells ...
Walsh Catherine J - - 2008
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, produce red tide toxins, or brevetoxins. Significant health effects associated with red tide toxin exposure have been reported in sea life and in humans, with brevetoxins documented within immune cells from many species. The objective of this research was to ...
Wang Zhanhui Z Mechanical Engineering Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. - - 2008
A microfluidic array with micro cell sieves was designed to fabricate multiple cells array for high-throughput cell cytotoxicity screening. Micro channels in both directions (column and row) were individually addressable by using a set of elastomeric monolithic array valves, enabling parallel loading of various cell lines in one direction and ...
Ohnishi Hiroe - - 2008
Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent for human whooping cough. It was found that Bordetella pertussis infection caused a change in shape from flat to round in L2 cells, which are derived from rat type 2 alveolar cells. This phenomenon was reproduced using the culture supernatant of B. pertussis, and ...
Premzl Ales - - 2008
Ammodytoxin C (AtxC) is a toxic secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) from the venom of Vipera ammodytes snake. To evaluate its potential to kill cancer cells, the toxin was cross-linked to the monoclonal antibody against cathepsin B which endocytoses upon binding to cathepsin B, an antigen overexpressed on the plasma membrane ...
Banerjee Pratik - - 2008
Cell-based biosensors (CBBs) are becoming important tools for biosecurity applications and rapid diagnostics in food microbiology for their unique capability of detecting physiologically hazardous materials. A multi-well plate-based biosensor containing B-cell hybridoma, Ped-2E9, encapsulated in type I collagen matrix, was developed for rapid detection of viable cells of pathogenic Listeria, ...
Chong Damien C - - 2008
Subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB) is the prototype of a new family of AB5 cytotoxins produced by Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli. Its cytotoxic activity is due to its capacity to enter cells and specifically cleave the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone BiP. However, its trafficking within target cells has not been investigated previously. ...
Rosca Elena V - - 2007
Effective targeting of drugs to cells requires that the drug reach the target cell and interact specifically with it. In this study, we synthesized a biomacromolecular, multivalent construct intended to target glioblastoma tumors. The construct was created by linking three dodecapeptides, reported to bind the alpha 6beta1 integrin, with poly(ethylene ...
Callegari Federica - - 2008
Previous in vitro and in vivo toxicological studies on the effects of yessotoxin (YTX) on E-cadherin have provided conflicting results with regard to alterations of its turnover. We have then studied the effects of YTX on the degradation pathway of E-cadherin in intact cells under controlled conditions, and found that ...
Rozengurt Enrique - - 2007
Molecular sensing by gastrointestinal (GI) cells plays a crucial role in the control of multiple fundamental functions including digestion, regulation of caloric intake, pancreatic insulin secretion, and metabolism, as well as protection from ingested harmful drugs and toxins. These processes are likely to be mediated by the initiation of humoral ...
Higgins Douglas A - - 2007
Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the human disease cholera, uses cell-to-cell communication to control pathogenicity and biofilm formation. This process, known as quorum sensing, relies on the secretion and detection of signalling molecules called autoinducers. At low cell density V. cholerae activates the expression of virulence factors and forms ...
Das Debjani - - 2008
The Drosophila heart is composed of two cell types: cardioblasts (CB) and pericardial cells (PC). Whereas CBs act to maintain rhythmic contractions, the functions of accessory PCs are not clear. The close association between these two cell types has led to speculation of a cardio-regulatory role for PCs. However, we ...
Wang Ying - - 2008
Human chemokine-like factor 1 (CKLF1) exhibits chemotactic effects on leukocytes. A previous study demonstrated that CKLF1 is a functional ligand for human CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4). In this study, N-terminal amino acid sequencing of secreted CKLF1 protein showed that it contains at least two peptides, C27 and C19. To ...
Puhar Andrea - - 2007
The role of Bacillus anthracis virulence factors in its pathogenesis has been subjected to intense investigation with the aim of finding novel preventive and therapeutic protocols. Toxins that are endocytosed and act in the cytosol of host cells have a central role in B. anthracis infection. Understanding of anthrax toxin ...
Ornatowski Wojciech - - 2007
Progressive pulmonary disease and infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa remain an intractable problem in cystic fibrosis (CF). At the cellular level, CF is characterized by organellar hyperacidification, which results in altered protein and lipid glycosylation. Altered pH of the trans-Golgi network (TGN) may further disrupt the protein processing and packaging that ...
Mallikaratchy Prabodhika - - 2007
The identification of tumor related cell membrane protein targets is important in understanding tumor progression, the development of new diagnostic tools, and potentially for identifying new therapeutic targets. Here we present a novel strategy for identifying proteins that are altered in their expression levels in a diseased cell using cell ...
Freche Barbara - - 2007
Invading pathogens are recognized by mammalian cells through dedicated receptors found either at the cell surface or in the cytoplasm. These receptors, like the trans-membrane Toll-like Receptors (TLR) or the cytosolic Nod-like Receptors (NLR), initiate innate immunity after recognition of molecular patterns found in bacteria or viruses, such as LPS, ...
Navarro-García Fernando - - 2007
It has been shown that the autotransporter plasmid-encoded toxin (Pet) of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) produces cytotoxic and enterotoxic effects. Both effects can be explained by the proteolytic activity of Pet on its intracellular target alpha-fodrin (alphaII spectrin). In addition, Pet cytotoxicity and enterotoxicity depend on Pet serine protease activity, ...
Onoprishvili Irma - - 2007
We investigated the effects of morphine and other agonists on the human mu opioid receptor (MOP) expressed in M2 melanoma cells, lacking the actin cytoskeleton protein filamin A and in A7, a subclone of the M2 melanoma cells, stably transfected with filamin A cDNA. The results of binding experiments showed ...
Kim Geun-Bae - - 2007
T-cell depleting anti-CD3 immunotoxins have utility in non-human primate models of transplantation tolerance and autoimmune disease therapy. We recently reported that an affinity matured single-chain (scFv) anti-monkey CD3 antibody, C207, had increased binding to T-cells and increased bioactivity in a diphtheria toxin (DT)-based biscFv immunotoxin compared with the parental antibody, ...
Hussl Simon - - 2007
Nucleotides are released not only from neurons, but also from various other types of cells including fibroblasts, epithelial, endothelial and glial cells. While ATP release from non-neural cells is frequently Ca(2+) independent and mostly non-vesicular, neuronal ATP release is generally believed to occur via exocytosis. To evaluate whether nucleotide release ...
Rahioui Isabelle - - 2007
PA1b (Pea Albumin 1b) is a peptide toxin lethal for certain insects. This paper shows that the cultured insect cells Sf9 are sensitive to the toxin and display a high-affinity binding site for PA1b. Mammalian cells are not sensitive and no binding activity was detected. Signs of apoptosis of the ...
Stumpff Friederike - - 2007
A previous study has shown that Cry1Ab, a lepidopteran-specific toxin derived from Bacillus thuringiensis, does not affect the vitality of cultured cells of the ruminal epithelium of the sheep. While this may be due to lack of specific receptors for toxin action, other mechanisms of resistance should also be considered. ...
Liu Hui-Kang - - 2007
Since streptozotocin (STZ) exhibits beta-cell toxicity, mediated through diverse mechanisms, multiple toxin resistance can be expected in insulin-secretory cells rendered STZ-resistant. RINm5F, but not all cell lines surviving STZ treatment, possess higher insulin content than native parental cells and additional tolerance against alloxan. To understand the impact of STZ tolerant ...
Ambrose Vikki - - 2007
The effect of total particulate matter (TPM) from cigarette smoke on the expression and binding properties of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) was investigated using a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y). TPM but not nicotine on its own inhibited cell growth at nicotine concentrations above 5 microM. To examine effects on ...
Maresca Marc - - 2007
Staphylococcal enterotoxins are responsible for food poisoning and toxic shock syndrome due to their superantigen activity on T cells. Although their activity necessarily involves passage through the intestinal epithelium, little is known about this critical step. In the present study, we compared the in vitro transport of staphylococcal enterotoxin A ...
Cohen Shmuel - - 2007
Multiple myeloma is currently an incurable cancer of plasma B cells often characterized by overproduction of abnormally high quantities of a patient-specific, clonotypic immunoglobulin "M-protein." The M-protein is expressed on the cell membrane and secreted into the blood. We previously showed that ligand-toxin conjugates (LTC) incorporating the ribosome-inactivating Ricin-A toxin ...
Saka Héctor A - - 2007
Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of cholera in humans. In addition to the criticalvirulence factors cholera toxin and toxin coregulated pilus, V. cholerae secretes V.cholerae cytolysin (VCC), a pore-forming exotoxin able to induce cell lysis and extensivevacuolation. We have shown that this vacuolation is related to the activation of ...
Asphahani Fareid - - 2007
Cell-based impedance biosensing is an emerging technology that can be used to non-invasively and instantaneously detect and analyze cell responses to chemical and biological agents. This article highlights the fabrication and measurement technologies of cell impedance sensors, and their application in toxin detection and anti-cancer drug screening. We start with ...
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