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Sagara Takefumi - - 2010
From October to November 2004, the paralytic shellfish poison (PSP)-producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamiyavanichii was observed at Harima-Nada, Seto Inland Sea at a maximum cell density of 4,960 cells/L. The wild cells of the dinoflagellate collected from the same seawaters, and cultured cells derived from them showed toxicity scores of 6.25-15.4 ...
Nagamatsu Yasunori - - 2010
Bacillus thuringiensis strain M019, non-pathogenic to lepidopteran and dipteran insects, produces a parasporal inclusion that consists of three 84-kDa Cry proteins (CPs). CP78A and CP78B, which exhibit 83.5% amino acid identity, were new variants of the previously reported HeLa cell-killing protein (parasporin-1). CP84 was a novel CP showing low-level homology, ...
Ho Lionel - - 2010
The cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa can produce potent toxins known as microcystins. While many studies have focussed on the chlorination of microcystin toxins, little work has been conducted with respect to the chloramination of the microcystins. In addition, no studies have been reported on the effect of chloramination on intact Microcystis ...
Gupta Pradeep K - - 2010
Retroviral insertional mutagenesis provides an effective forward genetic method for identifying genes involved in essential cellular pathways. A Chinese hamster ovary cell line mutant resistant to several bacterial ADP-ribosylating was obtained by this approach. The toxins used catalyze ADP-ribosylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF-2), block protein synthesis, and cause ...
Birdi Tannaz - - 2010
Psidium guajava L., Myrtaceae, is used widely in traditional medicine for the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery, gastroenteritis, stomachaches, and indigestion. However, the effect of the leaf extract of P. guajava on the pathogenesis of infectious diarrhoea has not been studied. The present study evaluates the effect of a hot aqueous ...
Fukui-Miyazaki Aya - - 2010
Bordetella dermonecrotic toxin (DNT) causes the turbinate atrophy in swine atrophic rhinitis, caused by a Bordetella bronchiseptica infection of pigs, by inhibiting osteoblastic differentiation. The toxin is not actively secreted from the bacteria, and is presumed to be present in only small amounts in infected areas. How such small amounts ...
Zhang Yi Y Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Pathology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, - - 2010
Diphtheria toxin (DT) has been utilized as a prospective anti-cancer agent for the targeted delivery of cytotoxic therapy to otherwise untreatable neoplasia. DT is an extremely potent toxin for which the entry of a single molecule into a cell can be lethal. DT has been targeted to cancer cells by ...
Uehara Masataka M Department of Regenerative Oral Surgery, Unit of Translational Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki - - 2010
The purpose of this study is to analyze the morphological change of cell nuclei and the change of proliferating activity of oral malignancy and epithelial dysplasia between before and after photodynamic therapy in order to predict recurrence. We experienced 14 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma, one case of verrucous ...
Moore Eric E Life Science Interface, Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, University College Cork, Ireland. - - 2010
The development of a cell based biochip-sensing platform that examines the effects of toxic chemicals both electrically and optically is presented. The name of this sensing platform is called Toxichip. Toxichip aims to develop and promote alternative novel in-vitro testing methods for the monitoring of a vast array of toxins, ...
Malleo Daniele - - 2010
A device for continuous differential impedance analysis of single cells held by a hydrodynamic cell trapping is presented. Measurements are accomplished by recording the current from two closely-situated electrode pairs, one empty (reference) and one containing a cell. We demonstrate time-dependent measurement of single cell impedance produced in response to ...
Peng Ying - - 2010
The marine-derived Williopsis saturnus WC91-2 was found to produce very high killer toxin activity against the pathogenic yeast Metschnikowia bicuspidata WCY isolated from the diseased crab. It is interesting to observe that the purified beta-1,3-glucanase from W. saturnus WC91-2 had no killer toxin activity but could inhibit activity of the ...
Kim Younghoon Y Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3122, United - - 2010
Persisters are cells which evade stresses like antibiotics and which are characterized by reduced metabolism and a lack of genetic alterations required to achieve this state. We showed previously that MqsR and MqsA of Escherichia coli are a toxin-antitoxin pair that influence cell physiology (e.g., biofilm formation and motility) via ...
Huelsenbeck Stefanie C - - 2009
Low molecular weight GTP-binding proteins of the Rho family control the organization of the actin cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells. RhoA governs the formation of actin stress fibers and is responsible for the formation of the contractile ring in cytokinesis. Cytokinesis completion requires RhoA inactivation resulting in disassembly of the contractile ...
Park Mi Hee - - 2009
Snake venom toxin from Vipera lebetina turanica can induce apoptosis in many cancer cell lines, but there is no study about the apoptotic effect of snake venom toxin on human neuroblastoma cells. In this study, we investigated the apoptotic effect of snake venom toxin in human neuroblastoma SK-N-MC and SK-N-SH ...
Watanabe-Takahashi Miho - - 2010
Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) is a major virulence factor in infections with Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), which causes gastrointestinal diseases and sometimes fatal systemic complications. Recently, we developed an oral Stx2 inhibitor known as Ac-PPP-tet that exhibits remarkable therapeutic potency in an STEC infection model. However, the precise mechanism underlying ...
Kuo Chueh-Ling CL Tufts Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences, 200 Westboro Road, North Grafton, MA 01536, - - 2010
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) heavy chain (Hc) facilitates receptor-mediated endocytosis into neuronal cells and transport of the light chain (Lc) protease to the cytosol where neurotransmission is inhibited as a result of SNARE protein cleavage. Here we show that the role of BoNT Hc in cell intoxication can be replaced by ...
Hilger Hanna - - 2009
Mono-ADP ribosylation of actin by bacterial toxins, such as Clostridium perfringens iota or Clostridium botulinum C2 toxins, results in rapid depolymerization of actin filaments and cell rounding. Here we report that treatment of African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells with iota toxin resulted in delayed caspase-dependent death. Unmodified actin did ...
Yang Wei-Dong - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To explore the potential reporter gene assay for the detection of sodium channel-specific toxins in shellfish as an alternative for screening harmful algal bloom (HAB) toxins, considering the fact that the existing methods including HPLC and bioassay are inappropriate for identifying HAB toxins which poses a serious problem on ...
Schwan Carsten - - 2009
Clostridium difficile causes antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis by production of the Rho GTPase-glucosylating toxins A and B. Recently emerging hypervirulent Clostridium difficile strains additionally produce the binary ADP-ribosyltransferase toxin CDT (Clostridium difficile transferase), which ADP-ribosylates actin and inhibits actin polymerization. Thus far, the role of CDT as a virulence ...
López Daniel D Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2009
Cannibalism is a mechanism to delay sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. Cannibal cells express the skf and sdp toxin systems to lyse a fraction of their sensitive siblings. The lysed cells release nutrients that serve to feed the community, effectively delaying spore formation. Here we provide evidence that the subpopulation of ...
Sturla Laura - - 2009
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone regulating fundamental physiological functions in plants, such as response to abiotic stress. Recently, ABA was shown to be produced and released by human granulocytes, by insulin-producing rat insulinoma cells, and by human and murine pancreatic beta cells. ABA autocrinally stimulates the functional activities ...
Liao Kuo-Chieh - - 2009
Anthrax lethal toxin causes macrophages and dendritic cells from some mouse strains to undergo caspase-1-dependent cell death. Central to this process is the NOD-like receptor Nlrp1b (Nalp1b), which detects intoxication and then self-associates to form a complex, termed an inflammasome, that is capable of activating the procaspase-1 zymogen. The nature ...
Knapp Oliver - - 2010
Alpha-toxin is the unique lethal virulent factor produced by Clostridium septicum, which causes traumatic or non-traumatic gas gangrene and necrotizing enterocolitis in humans. Here, we analyzed channel formation of the recombinant septicum alpha-toxin and characterized its activity on living cells. Recombinant septicum alpha-toxin induces the formation of ion-permeable channels with ...
Froscio S M - - 2009
Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cyanobacterial toxin increasingly found in drinking water sources worldwide. Toxicity studies have shown CYN can induce effects in a range of different cell types with primary hepatocytes consistently shown to be the most sensitive cellular model. How CYN enters the intracellular environment is not clear, although ...
Jonsson Per R - - 2009
Many planktonic microalgae produce a range of toxins and may form harmful algal blooms. One hypothesis is that some toxins are allelopathic, suppressing the growth of competitors, and it has been suggested that allelopathy may be one important mechanism causing algal blooms. In a metaanalysis of recent experimental work, we ...
Kumar Sunil - - 2009
Diphtheria toxin has the capacity to block protein synthesis in cultured mammalian cells, and thus causing cell death. This capacity of diphtheria toxin was utilized for in-vitro neutralization test to determine antibody titer, using Vero cells, which have been found to be susceptible to diphtheria toxin. In the present study, ...
Zhu Ping Jun - - 2009
Here, we report the results of a quantitative high-throughput screen (qHTS) measuring the endocytosis and translocation of a beta-lactamase-fused-lethal factor and the identification of small molecules capable of obstructing the process of anthrax toxin internalization. Several small molecules protect RAW264.7 macrophages and CHO cells from anthrax lethal toxin and protected ...
Balashova Nataliya V - - 2009
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a human pathogen that produces the RTX toxin (repeats in toxin), leukotoxin (LtxA). Based on other RTX toxin systems, the product of ltxC, the first gene of the ltx operon, is predicted to be involved in fatty acid modification of LtxA. To determine the function of ltxC ...
Alverca E - - 2009
The aim of this study was to examine the toxic effects of a microcystin-LR (MCLR)-containing cyanobacteria extract on the subcellular organization of a kidney cell line (Vero-E6). Cells were exposed to different MCLR concentrations (1.3-150 microM) for 24, 48 and 72h and two cytotoxicity assays were performed. This information was ...
Shaik Gouse M - - 2009
The small chemical vacuolin-1 induces rapid formation of large vacuoles in various cell types. In epithelial cells, vacuolin-1 has been shown to inhibit Ca2+ ionophore-induced exocytosis depending on experimental conditions used but had no effect on repair of damaged membranes. However, it is not known whether vacuolin-1 could inhibit exocytosis ...
Fricks Ingrid P - - 2009
Eight G protein-coupled receptors comprise the P2Y receptor family of cell signaling proteins. The goal of the current study was to define native cell signaling pathways regulated by the uridine nucleotide sugar-activated P2Y(14) receptor (P2Y(14)-R). The P2Y(14)-R was stably expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 and C6 rat glioma ...
Xu Zhen Yu - - 2009
After cellular injury many endogenous toxins are released from injured cells and result in secondary injury. To elucidate mechanisms of such injury many of these toxins have been studied individually. However, the data obtained is only useful for reference and does not accurately represent the multifactorial situation under pathophysiological conditions. ...
Tejuca Mayra - - 2009
The use of membrane active toxins as toxic moieties in the construction of immunotoxins (ITs) is an attractive alternative to overcome some of the problems of classical ITs since these new conjugates are based in the use of a different mechanism of killing undesired cells. Pore-forming cytolysins from sea anemones ...
Quintana Francisco J FJ Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2009
Th17 cells participate in the control of extracellular bacteria and fungi, but dysregulated Th17 cell activity can result in immunopathology. Thus, the generation and the activity of Th17 cells should be tightly regulated, and simultaneously it should be able to respond to the challenges presented by a changing environment. In ...
Hakak Yaron - - 2009
Regulation of cellular metabolism by the citric acid cycle occurs in the mitochondria. However, the citric acid cycle intermediate succinate was shown recently to be a ligand for the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR91. Here, we describe a role for succinate and its receptor in the stimulation of hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) ...
Zhang Fan - - 2009
Toxins penetrate mammalian cells through various means. In this study, we report a unique strategy used by trichosanthin (TCS), a plant toxin with ribosome-inactivating activity, to penetrate host cells. We found that in both JAR and K562 cells, endocytosed TCS is incorporated into intraluminal vesicles of the multivesicular body (MVB) ...
Kaiser Eva - - 2009
The binary Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin consists of the binding/translocation component C2IIa and the separate enzyme component C2I, which mono-ADP-ribosylates actin in eukaryotic cells. Pore formation of C2IIa in early endosomal membranes facilitates translocation of unfolded C2I into the cytosol. We discovered earlier that translocation of C2I depends on the ...
Königs Maika - - 2009
T-2 toxin belongs to the large group of trichothecene mycotoxins synthesized by various Fusarium molds which can infect raw agriculture materials. Among the trichothecenes, T-2 toxin is one of the most potent mycotoxins and poses a potential health risk in human nutrition. Several acute and chronic toxic effects were observed ...
Sven E. Eklund
Harnessing the potential of cells as complex biosensors promises the potential to create sensitive and selective detectors for discrimination of biodefense agents. Here we present toxin detection and suggest discrimination using cells in a multianalyte microphysiometer (MMP) that is capable of simultaneously measuring flux changes in four extracellular analytes (acidification ...
Liu Shihui - - 2009
Anthrax toxin is a three-part toxin secreted by Bacillus anthracis, consisting of protective antigen (PrAg), edema factor (EF), and lethal factor (LF). To intoxicate host mammalian cells, PrAg, the cell-binding moiety of the toxin, binds to cells and is then proteolytically activated by furin on the cell surface, resulting in ...
Kolodkin-Gal Ilana - - 2009
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules are gene pairs specifying for a toxin and its antitoxin and are found on the chromosomes of many bacteria including pathogens. Here we report how each of five such TA systems in E. coli affect bacterial cell death differently in liquid media and during biofilm formation. Of ...
Hobson John P - - 2009
The scarcity of methods to visualize the activity of individual cell surface proteases in situ has hampered basic research and drug development efforts. In this chapter, we describe a simple, sensitive, and noninvasive assay that uses nontoxic reengineered bacterial cytotoxins with altered protease cleavage specificity to visualize specific cell surface ...
Liu Tie Fu - - 2009
Hypoxia is a cause for resistance to cancer therapies. Molecularly targeted recombinant cytotoxins have shown clinical efficacy in the treatment of patients with primary brain tumors, glioblastoma multiforme, but it is not known whether hypoxia influences their antitumor effect. We have exposed glioblastoma multiforme cells, such as U-251 MG, U-373 ...
Husmann Matthias - - 2009
Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin is the archetype of bacterial pore forming toxins and a key virulence factor secreted by the majority of clinical isolates of S. aureus. Toxin monomers bind to target cells and oligomerize to form small beta-barrel pores in the plasma membrane. Many nucleated cells are able to repair ...
Lau Alan W - - 2008
The ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) GTPase functions as a key regulator of endocytic trafficking, participating in clathrin-independent endocytosis in most cell types. Unexpectedly, we found that siRNA-mediated depletion of clathrin or of adaptor protein 2 (AP-2)-complex subunits alters trafficking of Arf6 pathway cargo proteins, such as major histocompatibility complex class ...
Malyukova Irina - - 2009
Shiga toxin 1 and 2 production is a cardinal virulence trait of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection that causes a spectrum of intestinal and systemic pathology. However, intestinal sites of enterohemorrhagic E. coli colonization during the human infection and how the Shiga toxins are taken up and cross the globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) ...
Chou Arthur P - - 2008
The etiology of Parkinson disease (PD) is unclear but may involve environmental toxins such as pesticides leading to dysfunction of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). Here, we measured the relative toxicity of ziram (a UPS inhibitor) and analogs to dopaminergic neurons and examined the mechanism of cell death. UPS (26 ...
Alvarez-Fischer Daniel - - 2008
Mouse models of MPTP intoxication have been used extensively to explore the molecular mechanisms of Parkinson's disease. However, these models present some limitations since; (i) Dopaminergic (DA) cell death occurs rapidly in contrast to the presumably slow evolution of the disease process. (ii) Some of the key histological features of ...
Suriyaphol Gunnaporn - - 2009
Human skin keratinocytes HaCat attacked by Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin showed a transient drop of cellular ATP levels whereas in toxin-perforated bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC), the ATP levels dropped more slowly. Morphologically, during the ATP level depletion, HaCat cell developed a spacious intracellular vacuole together with the transient influx of ...
Heine Karin - - 2008
The binary C2 toxin from Clostridium botulinum mono-ADP-ribosylates G-actin in the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. This modification leads to depolymerization of actin filaments accompanied by cell rounding within 3 h of incubation but does not immediately induce cell death. Here we investigated the long-term responses of mammalian cell lines (HeLa ...
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