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Results 201 - 250 of 1428
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Boding Lasse - - 2009
TCR and cytokine receptor signaling play key roles in the complex homeostatic mechanisms that maintain a relative stable number of T cells throughout life. Despite the homeostatic mechanisms, a slow decline in naive T cells is typically observed with age. The CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif controls TCR down-regulation and plays a ...
Tao Qian Q Department of Oral and maxillofacial Surgery, Guanghua School and Hospital of Stomatology and Institute of Stomatological Research, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055, China. - - 2009
Ameloblastoma (AM) is recognized as a benign tumour but locally invasive with a high risk of recurrence. In vitro model systems for studying AM are limited due to the fact that AM cells grow poorly and begin to senesce early. Japanese researchers have reported the construction of an AM cell ...
Gosselin Karo - - 2009
Studies on human fibroblasts have led to viewing senescence as a barrier against tumorigenesis. Using keratinocytes, we show here that partially transformed and tumorigenic cells systematically and spontaneously emerge from senescent cultures. We show that these emerging cells are generated from senescent cells, which are still competent for replication, by ...
Canudas Silvia - - 2009
Replicated sister chromatids are held together until mitosis by cohesin, a conserved multisubunit complex comprised of Smc1, Smc3, Scc1, and Scc3, which in vertebrate cells exists as two closely related homologues (SA1 and SA2). Here, we show that cohesin(SA1) and cohesin(SA2) are differentially required for telomere and centromere cohesion, respectively. ...
Giri Shibashish - - 2010
Presently, there is growing interest on telomerase activity in all cells (somatic cells, stem cells, cancerous cells and others) since this activity is associated with cellular changes such as proliferation, differentiation, immortalization, cell injury and ageing. Telomerase activity is absent in most of the somatic cells but present in over ...
Kong Qing-Li - - 2009
Experimental models that allow investigation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC) progression could provide valuable insights of the molecular mechanism of nasopharyngeal carcinogenesis as well as potential clinical intervention. Because Epstein-Barr virus only infects humans and a few species of monkeys, representative NPC animal models have not been available so far. Attempts to ...
Moon Dong-Oh - - 2009
Gefitinib is an anti-cancer drug that selectively inhibits epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase activity and induces apoptosis in many cancer cells. Cancer cells are often protected from apoptotic cell death by telomerase, however the gefitinib-induced telomerase inhibition remains unknown. Here we investigated the effects of gefitinib on telomerase ...
Moser Bettina A BA Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Illinois at Chicago, 900 S. Ashland Ave. MC669, Chicago, IL 60607, - - 2009
Telomeres, the natural ends of linear chromosomes, must be protected and completely replicated to guarantee genomic stability in eukaryotic cells. However, the protected state of telomeres is not compatible with recruitment of telomerase, an enzyme responsible for extending telomeric G-rich repeats during S-phase; thus, telomeres must undergo switches from a ...
Orjalo Arturo V - - 2009
Inflammation underlies most age-related diseases, including cancer, but the etiology is poorly understood. One proposed factor is the presence of senescent cells, which increase with age. The senescence response arrests the proliferation of potentially oncogenic cells, and most senescent cells secrete high levels of proinflammatory cytokines and other proteins. The ...
Straszewski-Chavez S L SL Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, - - 2009
Studies using first trimester trophoblast cells may be limited by the inability to obtain patient samples and/or adequate cell numbers. First trimester trophoblast cell lines have been generated by SV40 transformation or similar methods, however, this approach is known to induce phenotypic and karyotypic abnormalities. The introduction of telomerase has ...
Hornsby Peter J - - 2010
Senescence is a general cellular process that occurs as a response to stress and damage. It forms an alternative response of cells to damage that might otherwise cause programmed cell death. Whereas telomere shortening leading to telomere dysfunction was the first described cause of senescence, it is now known that ...
Ikeda Hiroko - - 2009
Large cell change involves the clustering of hepatocytes with hyperchromatism and cellular enlargement without an increase in the nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio. This study investigated whether large cell change in chronic viral hepatitis reflects cellular senescence because of morphological similarities between the 2 conditions. The expression of markers of senescence such as ...
Pizzimenti Stefania - - 2010
The effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) obtained from the diet on colorectal cancer have been widely explored. However, controversial results have been obtained about the role played by the lipid peroxidation products of PUFAs, such as 4-hydroxy-nonenal (HNE), in the control of colon cancer growth. This aldehyde, indeed, showed ...
Deezagi Abdolkhaleg - - 2009
The purpose of this research was to understand the effect of hyperthermia on the telomerase activity in human leukemic cell lines (HL-60, K562, and TF-1). The cells were treated by hyperthermia at the range of 41-44 degrees C for 120 min and incubated for 96 h. Then telomerase activity, cell ...
Dumont S - - 2010
The mode of action of two cosmetic active ingredients (AIs), palmitoyl glycine (PG) and cocoyl alanine (CA) was studied with cDNA array experiments and quantitative PCR confirmations, which were performed on experimentally aged human fibroblasts. These preliminary studies revealed complementary profiles. Thus, specific supplementary investigations were then carried out for ...
Lee Young-Hee - - 2010
This study examined whether c-myb acts as a survival molecule in aged cells. A previous in vitro ageing model suggested that aged cells have a higher cell capacity for survival after exposure to oxidative stress, which involves blockage of the translocation of Hsp60 from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm followed ...
Vantourout Pierre - - 2009
Human Vgamma9Vdelta2 T lymphocytes recognize phosphorylated alkyl Ags. Isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) was previously proposed as the main Ag responsible for Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cell activation by cancer cells. However, triphosphoric acid 1-adenosin-5'-yl ester 3-(3-methylbut-3-enyl) ester (ApppI), a metabolite in which the isopentenyl moiety is linked to ATP, was reported in cells ...
Sasaki Motoko - - 2009
Polycomb-group proteins Bmi1 is regarded as a "stemness" gene involved in the maintenance of stem cells, malignant transformation, and biologic aggressiveness of several human carcinomas. We examined the significance of the Bmi1 expression in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. The expression of Bmi1 was examined in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (n = 30; 9 bile ...
Zhuo Li - - 2009
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is relevant to cell senescence and organismal aging. This study firstly showed that the level of mTOR expression increased with aging in rat kidneys, rat mesangial cells and WI-38 cells (P < 0.05). The levels of phosphorylated-mTOR (p-mTOR), cyclin D1 and p21(WAF1/CIP1/SDI1) expression were ...
Bertram Catharina - - 2009
The extracellular matrix (ECM) and a complex interplay of cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix (ECM) interactions provide important platforms to determine cellular senescence and a potentially tumorigenic transformation of normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC). An enhanced formation of extracellular filaments, consisting of elastin-like structures, in senescent post-selection HMEC populations was paralleled ...
Utikal Jochen J Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center and Center for Regenerative Medicine, Harvard Stem Cell Institute, 185 Cambridge Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, - - 2009
The overexpression of defined transcription factors in somatic cells results in their reprogramming into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. The extremely low efficiency and slow kinetics of in vitro reprogramming suggest that further rare events are required to generate iPS cells. The nature and identity of these events, however, remain ...
Wu Peng - - 2009
Based on prior work, it was expected that telomerase would preferentially elongate the shortest telomeres in a cell, extending the telomeric G-rich strand through a process that is coupled to the synthesis of the complementary strand. Contrary to this view, Zhao et al. (2009) now show that telomerase in human ...
Noureini Sakineh Kazemi SK Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Tarbiat Moallem University of Sabzevar, Sabzevar, Iran. - - 2009
To investigate the potential effects of chelidonine, the main alkaloid of Chelidonium majus, on telomerase activity and its regulation in HepG2 cells. Cytotoxicity of chelidonine for HepG2 cells was determined by neutral red assay. A modified polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based telomerase repeat amplification protocol was used to estimate relative telomerase ...
Lindstrom Derek L DL Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, - - 2009
The replicative life span (RLS) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been established as a model for the genetic regulation of longevity despite the inherent difficulty of the RLS assay, which requires separation of mother and daughter cells by micromanipulation after every division. Here we present the mother enrichment program (MEP), an ...
Yu Song-Tao - - 2009
Telomerase activation is a common feature of most types of human cancers. Although several studies have shown that activation of telomerase might participate in the progression of tumors, the mechanism by which telomerase activation causes the invasion and metastasis of tumors remains unclear. In this study, we transfected a vector ...
Macieira-Coelho Alvaro - - 2010
The post-mitotic cell reached by normal cell populations after serial divisions has been regarded as the hallmark of cell senescence. It was proposed that this non-dividing cell is a mechanism of protection against malignant transformation and different approaches have been used to induce the post-mitotic state. There are contradictions and ...
Sang Liyun - - 2009
The cellular state of quiescence is characterized by an exit from the cell cycle that is reversible, that is, upon appropriate stimulation, quiescent cells can re-enter the cell cycle, proliferate and produce progeny. In this way, quiescent cells can be distinguished from cells in an irreversibly arrested state such as ...
Zeng Sicong - - 2009
A substantial number of human tumors (approximately 10%) are telomerase negative, and cells in such tumors have been proposed to maintain telomere length by the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway. Although details of the molecular mechanism of ALT are largely unknown, previous studies have shown that telomere homologous recombination ...
Mitchell Taylor R H - - 2009
TRF2, a component of the shelterin complex, functions to protect telomeres. TRF2 contains an N-terminal basic domain rich in glycines and arginines, similar to the GAR motif that is methylated by protein arginine methyltransferases. However, whether arginine methylation regulates TRF2 function has not been determined. Here we report that amino ...
Huang Sheng-Teng - - 2010
Crude extract of Scutellaria baicalensis (S. baicalensis) has cytotoxic effect on human myelogenous leukemia cells (HL-60). We invesigated which compound from the crude extract is responsible for the cytotoxic effect on HL-60 cells. We identified 29 compounds from the crude extract using high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS). Two ...
Aranda-Anzaldo Armando - - 2009
Replicative senescence (RS) that limits the proliferating potential of normal eukaryotic cells occurs either by a cell-division counting mechanism linked to telomere erosion or prematurely through induction by cell stressors such as oncogene hyper-activation. However, there is evidence that RS also occurs by a stochastic process that is independent of ...
Rossi Alessandra - - 2009
Abacavir is one of the most efficacious nucleoside analogues, with a well-characterized inhibitory activity on reverse transcriptase enzymes of retroviral origin, and has been clinically approved for the treatment of AIDS. Recently, Abacavir has been shown to inhibit also the human telomerase activity. Telomerase activity seems to be required in ...
Reid Yvonne - - 2009
Hepatocytes are routinely used to generate and identify drug metabolites and hepatic toxicity. Primary cultures of human hepatocytes are the model cell of choice for most of these pharmacological and toxicological studies. However, major problems are encountered with primary liver cell cultures: the dwindling availability of viable livers, hepatocytes having ...
Squires Jeffery E - - 2009
The family of selenoproteins have a broad range of functions, including protection against oxidative damage. Previous studies have shown that elevated levels of oxidative damage can induce accelerated loss of telomeric DNA during proliferation of mammalian cells. The incorporation of selenocysteine (Sec) into proteins in mammalian cells requires the Sec ...
Rusin Marek - - 2009
Resveratrol decreases cancer risk and improves health of laboratory animals. However, it can also promote genomic instability. Part of the beneficial activity of resveratrol may result from the activation of SIRT1 deacetylase. We examined how resveratrol influenced the growth of human cancer cell lines of different origin: osteosarcoma (U-2 OS) ...
Bertrand-Vallery Véronique - - 2010
Skin cancers and extrinsic aging are delayed consequences of cumulative UV radiation insults. Exposure of human keratinocytes to UVB has been previously shown to trigger premature senescence. In order to explore the involvement of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16(INK-4a) in UVB-induced premature senescence, we developed an original model of repeated ...
Tang Tian - - 2009
Telomere-associated proteins function as survival factors in telomere maintenance, which are major contributors to radiosensitivity in human cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of telomere-associated gene expression and radiation resistance in human larynx squamous carcinoma. The changes of telomere-associated gene expressions and bionomical characteristics that ...
Byun Hae-Ok - - 2009
Induction of premature senescence may be a promising strategy for cancer treatment. However, biomarkers for senescent cancer cells are lacking. To identify such biomarkers, we performed comparative proteomic analysis of MCF7 human breast cancer cells undergoing cellular senescence in response to ionizing radiation (IR). IR-induced senescence was associated with up-regulation ...
Demidenko Zoya N - - 2009
When the cell cycle is arrested but cellular growth is not, then cells senesce, permanently losing proliferative potential. Here we demonstrated that the duration of cell cycle arrest determines a progressive loss of proliferative capacity. In human and rodent cell lines, rapamycin (an inhibitor of mTOR) dramatically decelerated loss of ...
Moon Sung Chae - - 2009
It is known that a close relationship exists among oxidative damage, senescence, and aging. Water dropwort (Ostericum sieboldii Miq. Nakai) and Sedum (Sedum sarmentosum Bunge) are popular green vegetables in Korea and are reported to have strong antioxidative activity. We investigated whether dropwort and Sedum have the potential to prevent ...
Noreen Faiza - - 2009
Human telomerase RNA (hTR) is an intrinsic component of telomerase enzyme. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and single-stranded antisense oligonucleotides have been used previously for silencing of the hTR. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of partially double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), in vitro and in vivo in comparison ...
Yuan J - - 2009
These investigations demonstrate that expression of the inhibitor of apoptosis family member, survivin, is dramatically increased during immortalization of nontransformed human fibroblasts that were transduced with telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). Expression of survivin in immortalized fibroblasts peaked during G(2)/M phase of the cell cycle. However, the upregulation of survivin was ...
Modrak David E - - 2009
Bioactive sphingolipids are potent intracellular signaling molecules having profound effects on cell death, growth, and differentiation. Pharmacologic manipulation of sphingolipid levels could have a significant effect on the induction of apoptosis by anticancer agents, and thus, improve treatment efficacy. We observed that gemcitabine cannot completely kill AsPc1 and Panc1 human ...
Jiang Wei-Qin - - 2009
Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is a recombination-mediated process that maintains telomeres in telomerase-negative cancer cells. In asynchronously dividing ALT-positive cell populations, a small fraction of the cells have ALT-associated promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (APBs), which contain (TTAGGG)n DNA and telomere-binding proteins. We found that restoring p53 function in ALT ...
Charruyer Alexandra - - 2009
Aged epidermis is less proliferative than young, as exemplified by slower wound healing. However, it is not known whether quantitative and/or qualitative alterations in the stem and/or transit-amplifying (TA) compartments are responsible for the decreased proliferation. Earlier studies found a normal or decreased frequency of putative epidermal stem cells (EpiSCs) ...
Liao Wei-Li - - 2009
PURPOSE: Senescence of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is a crucial event in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This study was designed to improve the understanding of proteomic changes that underlie RPE senescence. Specifically, the levels of several protein fragments in prematurely senescent ARPE-19 cells were quantitatively compared ...
Dabrowska Magdalena - - 2009
Human colorectal adenocarcinoma C85 cells, treated with high dose methotrexate (1 microM; IC(50)=51 nM), undergo accelerated senescence, as the cells (i) are growth arrested at the G(1) and S phases of the cell cycle, (ii) are SA-beta-galactosidase-positive, (iii) show induced expression of p21(waf1/cip1) and decreased expression of p16(INK4a), and (iv) ...
Saretzki Gabriele - - 2009
Telomerase plays an important role in cellular proliferation capacity and survival under conditions of stress. A large part of this protective function is due to telomere capping and maintenance. Thus it contributes to cellular immortality in stem cells and cancer. Recently, evidence has accumulated that telomerase can contribute to cell ...
Humbert Nicolas N UMR8161, Institut de Biologie de Lille, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/Universités de Lille 1-2/Institut Pasteur de Lille, IFR142, Lille, - - 2009
Normal cell growth can be permanently blocked when cells enter a state known as senescence. This phenomenon can be triggered by various stresses, such as replicative exhaustion, oncogenic stimulation, or oxidative stress. Senescence prevents transmission of aberrant signals to daughter cells and thus prevents irreversible damage that could favor cancer ...
Shervington Amal - - 2009
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a minute sub-population of self-renewing, immortal cells, which can be responsible for chemoresistance observed in the treatment of cancer. CSCs are similar to cancer cells requiring telomerase activity or alternative mechanisms for their proliferation and regeneration. This study explored the correlation between CD133 (stem cell ...
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