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Ngo Hien-Ping - - 2010
Maintenance of telomere capping is absolutely essential to the survival of eukaryotic cells. Telomere capping proteins, such as Cdc13 and POT1, are essential for the viability of budding yeast and mammalian cells, respectively. Here we identify, for the first time, three genetic modifications that allow budding yeast cells to survive ...
Luning Prak Eline T - - 2011
Abstract There are few studies of the developmental changes in B-cell subsets in children. Recent data from adult populations demonstrate that alterations to B-cell subsets have functional consequences and can be helpful diagnostically. Comparable studies in children have been hindered by the lack of normative data and by significant changes ...
Burton D G A - - 2010
The accumulation of senescent cells within tissues can potentially lead to biological dysfunction and manifestation of disease associated with ageing. The majority of senescent cells display a commonly altered secretome similar to a wound healing response (termed the senescence-associated secretory phenotype or SASP), which could have deleterious implications on the ...
Chen Jeff Yi-Fu - - 2010
the aims of the study are to investigate the additive effect of exogenous short-carbon chain phospholipids, C(2)-ceramide, on an anti-cancer drug paclitaxel (PTX)-induced senescence of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells deficient in functional p53 and p16, and to examine whether mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) plays a role in ...
Zhou Fu-Xiang - - 2010
To achieve a more complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying tumor radioresistance, we established a radioresistant cell line from the human larynx squamous cell carcinoma cell line Hep-2 after long-term radiation induction. The biological features of the resulting cell lines were characterized. cDNA microarray technology was used to measure ...
Vodenicharov Momchil D - - 2010
The assembly of a protective cap onto the telomeres of eukaryotic chromosomes suppresses genomic instability through inhibition of DNA repair activities that normally process accidental DNA breaks. We show here that the essential Cdc13-Stn1-Ten1 complex is entirely dispensable for telomere protection in non-dividing cells. However, Yku and Rap1 become crucially ...
McDuff Fiona K E - - 2011
Aberrant oncogenic signals are typically counteracted by anti-proliferative mechanisms governed principally by the p53 and Rb tumour-suppressor proteins. Apoptosis is firmly established as a potent anti-proliferative mechanism to prevent tumour growth but it is only in recent years that oncogene-induced senescence has achieved similar recognition. Senescence is defined as an ...
Tomlinson Rebecca L RL Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and Genetics, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, - - 2010
The intranuclear trafficking of human telomerase involves a dynamic interplay between multiple nuclear sites, most notably Cajal bodies and telomeres. Cajal bodies are proposed to serve as sites of telomerase maturation, storage, and assembly, as well as to function in the cell cycle-regulated delivery of telomerase to telomeres in human ...
Kim You-Mie - - 2010
Increased cell mass is one of the characteristics of senescent cells, but this event has not been clearly defined. When subcellular organellar mass was estimated with organelle-specific fluorescence dyes, we observed that most membranous organelles progressively increase in mass during cell senescence. This increase was accompanied by an increase in ...
Vinnars Marie-Therese N - - 2010
Hofbauer cells are placental macrophages found in chorionic villous stroma; they express classic monocyte/macrophage markers, such as CD68. Little is known about their participation in placental disease and immunologic interactions at the placental interface. The aim of this study was to quantify the amount of Hofbauer cells in placentas complicated, ...
Guo Xiao-Fei - - 2010
Telomeres are essential for chromosome stability and the regulation of the replicative life-span of somatic cells. Many studies showed that exogenous telomeric repeats could activate p53 protein. It is not known how cell dysfunction is induced by telomeric plasmids. A covalent closed circular (ccc) double-stranded plasmid containing (TTAGGG)(96) repeats (pRST5) ...
Hsu Hui-Chen HC Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, - - 2010
Although the phenotype of T-cell senescence has been extensively investigated, few studies have analyzed the factors that promote the generation and maintenance of naïve and memory T cells that exist throughout the lifespan of the individuals. Unlike senescent T cells, naïve and memory T cells are able to participate in ...
Dewar James M - - 2010
In this issue of Molecular Cell, Faure et al. (2010) establish a critical role for the Mre11 complex in the recruitment of telomerase to leading- but not lagging-strand telomeres of budding yeast.
Hájek Miroslav - - 2010
We have previously shown that PMEG diphosphate (PMEGpp) and PMEDAP diphosphate (PMEDAPpp) inhibit the enzymatic activity of human telomerase in a cell-free assay. Here, we investigated the ability of PMEG and PMEDAP to induce telomere shortening and telomerase inhibition at both transcriptional and activity level in T-lymphoblastic leukemia cells CCRF-CEM ...
Liu Jun-Ping - - 2010
Telomerase, an enzyme complex that binds the chromosome ends (telomeres) and maintains telomere length and integrity, is present in germ cells, proliferative granulosa cells, germline stem cells, and neoplastic cells in the ovary, but it is absent in differentiated or aged cells. Activation of telomerase in the ovary underpins both ...
Zhao Bo - - 2010
Telomerase-negative immortalized cells maintain their telomeres through a telomerase-independent pathway termed alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). The mechanism of ALT is based on homologous recombination (HR). A hallmark of ALT cells is presence of a nuclear structure termed ALT-associated promyelocytic leukemia body (APB). Here, we demonstrated that hRAD21, an important ...
Raghuram Gorantla Venkata - - 2010
Ovarian surface epithelium is under constant physiological pressure to maintain its integrity. Environmental toxic exposure can contribute to degenerative pathologies including ovarian cancer. Based on our current understanding, we aimed at listing mechanistic insights that contribute to ovarian carcinogenesis after exposure to methyl isocyanate, an ubiquitous environmental pollutant. Ovarian epithelial ...
Takubo Kaiyo - - 2010
Chromosomal and genomic instability due to telomere dysfunction is known to play an important role in carcinogenesis. To study telomere dysfunction in the surrounding background epithelium of squamous cell carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the oesophagus, we measured telomere lengths of basal and parabasal cells of epithelia with and without ...
Moon Dong-Oh - - 2010
Up-regulation of telomerase activity is associated with immortalization and unlimited cell division in most cancer cells. Therefore, telomerase represents a particularly attractive target for anticancer therapy. Recent reports have suggested that beta-lapachone (LAPA), the product of the South American Tabebuia avellanedae tree, inhibits growth of tumor cells. However, the underlying ...
De Vos W H - - 2010
Telomeres are the complex end structures that confer functional integrity and positional stability to human chromosomes. Telomere research has long been dominated by length measurements and biochemical analyses. Recently, interest has shifted towards the role of their three-dimensional organization and dynamics within the nuclear volume. In the mammalian interphase nucleus, ...
Korotchkina Lioubov G - - 2010
Transient induction of p53 can cause reversible quiescence and irreversible senescence. Using nutlin-3a (a small molecule that activates p53 without causing DNA damage), we have previously identified cell lines in which nutlin-3a caused quiescence. Importantly, nutlin-3a caused quiescence by actively suppressing the senescence program (while still causing cell cycle arrest). ...
Wang Qin Q Seattle Institute for Biomedical and Clinical Research, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington. - - 2011
Therapy-induced accelerated cellular senescence (ACS) is a reversible tumor response to chemotherapy that is likely detrimental to the overall therapeutic efficacy of cancer treatment. To further understand the mechanism by which cancer cells can escape the sustained cell cycle arrest in ACS, we established a tissue culture model, in which ...
Ho Chin-Chin - - 2011
Metastasis suppressors and associated other regulators of cell motility play a critical initial role in tumor invasion and metastases. Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is a hydrolysis compound of glucotropaeolin in dietary cruciferous vegetables. BITC has been found to exhibit prevention of cancers in laboratory animals and might also be chemoprotective in ...
Mariani Melissa M - - 2010
Originally identified in cultured cells, oncogenic cellular senescence is a growth-arrest mechanism which may inhibit tumor development by limiting the ability of cells to divide. However, literature shows that these cells secrete tumor-inducing and tumor-suppressing proteins leading to poor prognosis. Understanding the progression of oncogenic cellular senescence and associated mechanisms ...
Oh W - - 2010
In this study, we identified posttranslational regulation of human telomerase reverse-transcriptase (hTERT) by the E3 ligase Hdm2. The telomerase activity generated by exogenous hTERT in U2OS cells was reduced on adriamycin treatment. The overexpressed levels of hTERT were also decreased under the same conditions. These processes were reversed by treatment ...
Kikuchi Ikue - - 2010
Adriamycin, an anthracycline antibiotic, has been used for the treatment of various types of tumours. Adriamycin induces at least two distinct types of growth repression, such as senescence and apoptosis, in a concentration-dependent manner. Cellular senescence is a condition in which cells are unable to proliferate further, and senescent cells ...
Liu Yan - - 2010
Telomerase activity is found in various cell types including stem cells, neoplastic cells, and immortalized cells, suggesting a close association with their proliferation capacity. The telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) has been traditionally used to detect semi-quantitatively the telomerase activity by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), which is difficult to apply ...
Vaziri H - - 2010
AIM: To determine whether transcriptional reprogramming is capable of reversing the developmental aging of normal human somatic cells to an embryonic state. MATERIALS & METHODS: An isogenic system was utilized to facilitate an accurate assessment of the reprogramming of telomere restriction fragment (TRF) length of aged differentiated cells to that ...
Joseph Immanual S - - 2010
Preventing the formation of dysfunctional telomeres is essential for genomic stability. In most organisms, the ribo-nucleoprotein reverse transcriptase telomerase is responsible for telomere GT-strand elongation. However, in telomerase-negative cells, low-frequency recombination mechanisms can avert lethality by elongating critically short telomeres. This study focuses on the involvement of the budding yeast ...
Chen W - - 2010
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Telomere length must be maintained throughout cancer cell progression and proliferation. In most tumours, telomerase activity maintains telomere length. Therefore, telomerase is a target for cancer treatments. However, some cancer cells maintain telomere length through an alternative mechanism termed 'alternative lengthening of telomeres'. To determine how telomerase ...
Kujuro Yuki - - 2010
Mammalian aging is thought to be partially caused by the diminished capacity of stem/precursor cells to undergo self-renewing divisions. Although many cell-cycle regulators are involved in this process, it is unknown to what extent cell senescence, first identified as irreversible growth arrest in vitro, contributes to the aging process. Here, ...
Zhao Chen-Fu - - 2010
Immortal bovine mammary epithelial cell lines are useful for providing an efficient indicator for transgene expression and for the technological improvement of genetic modification. The preparation of hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase)-mediated immortalized MECs (mammary epithelial cells) requires a down-regulation of p16(INK4a). Here, we report the establishment of two immortal ...
Giuliano Sandy - - 2010
Apoptosis and senescence are cellular failsafe programs that counteract excessive mitogenic signaling observed in cancer cells. Melanoma is known for its notorious resistance to apoptotic processes; therefore, senescence, which remains poorly understood in melanomas, can be viewed as a therapeutic alternative. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), in which its M transcript ...
George Joseph - - 2010
Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is the catalytic component of telomerase that facilitates tumor cell invasion and proliferation. Telomerase and hTERT are remarkably upregulated in majority of cancers including glioblastoma. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) modulates several cellular activities including cell cycle and multiplication through transcriptional regulation. The present investigation was designed to ...
Davoli Teresa T Laboratory for Cell Biology and Genetics, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, - - 2010
Tetraploidization has been proposed as an intermediate step toward aneuploidy in human cancer but a general mechanism for the induction of tetraploidy during tumorigenesis is lacking. We report that tetraploidization occurs in p53-deficient cells experiencing a prolonged DNA damage signal due to persistent telomere dysfunction. Live-cell imaging revealed that these ...
Ding Caifeng - - 2010
On the basis of the extension reaction of a telomerase substrate (TS) primer in the presence of the telomerase, the inherent signal-transduction mechanism of the hairpin fluorescence probe, and the strand-displacement property of polymerase, an amplified fluorescence detection of telomerase activity in the cancer cells was described in this manuscript. ...
Kovalenko Olga A - - 2010
Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase specialized in telomere synthesis. The enzyme is primarily nuclear where it elongates telomeres, but many reports show that the catalytic component of telomerase (in humans called hTERT) also localizes outside of the nucleus, including in mitochondria. Shuttling of hTERT between nucleus and cytoplasm and vice ...
Wagner Wolfgang - - 2010
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are currently tested in a large number of clinical trials and raise high hope in regenerative medicine. These cells have to be expanded in vitro before transplantation and several studies demonstrated that long-term culture evokes continuous changes in MSC: proliferation rate decays, the cell size increases, ...
Zalzman Michal - - 2010
Exceptional genomic stability is one of the hallmarks of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. However, the genes contributing to this stability remain obscure. We previously identified Zscan4 as a specific marker for two-cell embryo and ES cells. Here we show that Zscan4 is involved in telomere maintenance and long-term genomic ...
Zahnreich Sebastian - - 2010
In the present study, we set out to investigate cytogenetic changes in the progeny of two normal human fibroblast cell strains after exposure to sparsely or densely ionizing irradiation (X-rays or 9.8 MeV u(-1) carbon ions). The cells were regularly subcultured up to senescence. The transition to senescence was determined ...
Waki Koji - - 2010
We previously reported that the telomere-targeting drug telomestatin induces apoptosis accompanied by G-tail reduction and dissociation of binding protein TRF2 from telomeres in cancer cell lines but not normal or human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)-immortalized cells. Because telomere-targeting drugs induce growth arrest in normal cells at higher doses, their development ...
Peeper Daniel S - - 2010
Senescence is increasingly recognized as a critical feature of mammalian cells to suppress tumorigenesis, acting together with cell death programs. Whether senescence, like programmed cell death, can be exploited therapeutically has been unclear. Pandolfi and coworkers now propose that PTEN-loss-induced cellular senescence (PICS) may be triggered in vivo for therapy.
Watanabe Shin - - 2010
Out of normal human fibroblasts OUMS-36 and three clones (T1, T2 and T3) of telomere reverse transcriptase gene (hTERT)-transfectants, telomere length is in order: T3 >T2 >T1 >>OUMS-36 (young) >>OUMS-36 (old), and telomerase activity is in order: T2 >T3 >T1 >>OUMS-36 (young, old), suggesting that telomere length may be roughly ...
Diener Thomas - - 2010
Mitotic cells in culture show a limited replicative potential and after extended subculturing undergo a terminal growth arrest termed cellular senescence. When cells reach the senescent phenotype, this is accompanied by a significant change in the cellular phenotype and massive changes in gene expression, including the upregulation of secreted factors. ...
Rodriguez-Brenes Ignacio A - - 2010
In normal somatic cells, telomere length shortens with each cell replication. This progressive shortening is associated with cellular senescence and apoptosis. Germ cells, stem cells, and the majority of cancer cells express telomerase, an enzyme that extends telomere length and, when expressed at sufficient levels, can immortalize or extend the ...
Shalaby T - - 2010
Embryonal tumours most commonly occur in the first few years of life and account for approximately 30% of childhood malignancies. Knowledge of these tumours' genetics has already impacted on their clinical management and further knowledge of their cellular immortalization will hopefully result in novel therapies. The ends of human chromosomes ...
Marión Rosa M - - 2010
Reprogramming of adult differentiated cells to a more pluripotent state has been achieved by various means, including somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and, more recently, by over expression of specific transcription factors to generate the so-called induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Since telomeres play an important role in the maintenance ...
Yoon Jihee - - 2010
Lysosomes are a cell organelle type processing antimicrobial activity. Here, we investigate the lysosomal activity in a primary cell line, bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs), during cellular aging, based on the antimicrobial activity of lysosomes isolated from BAECs at cell passages 4, 6, 8, and 10. Cytochemical analysis of lysosomes ...
Calado Rodrigo T - - 2010
In this issue of Blood, Ugel and colleagues provide evidence that, in murine models, telomerase is an efficient target for adoptive cell therapy against a variety of cancer cells, but also can elicit an autoimmune response against B cells.(1).
Maehara Kayoko - - 2010
Cellular senescence is an irreversible growth arrest and is presumed to be a natural barrier to tumor development. Like telomere shortening, certain defects in chromosome integrity can trigger senescence; however, the roles of centromere proteins in regulating commitment to the senescent state remains to be established. We examined chromatin structure ...
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