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Malanga M - - 2005
Protein modification by ADP-ribose polymers is a common regulatory mechanism in eukaryotic cells and is involved in several aspects of brain physiology and physiopathology, including neurotransmission, memory formation, neurotoxicity, ageing and age-associated diseases. Here we show age-related misregulation of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis in rat cerebellum as revealed by: (i) reduced poly(ADP-ribose) ...
Franco Sonia - - 2005
Critical telomere shortening in the absence of telomerase in late generation Terc-/- mice (G3 Terc-/-) or loss of telomere capping due to abrogation of the DNA repair/telomere binding protein Ku86 (Ku86-/- mice) results in telomere dysfunction and organismal premature aging. Here, we report on genome-wide transcription in mouse G3 Terc-/-, ...
Nicole Denise Guzmán Blastervold, ...
Eukaryotic organisms package their genetic material into linear chromosomes. Telomeres are the ends of linear chromosomes and consist of terminal G-rich repetitive sequences. These structures play a key role in genetic stability protecting chromosome ends from degradation and end-to-end fusions. Telomeres are maintained by the specialized enzyme reverse transcriptase telomerase. ...
Kichey Thomas - - 2005
In order to improve our understanding of the regulation of nitrogen assimilation and recycling in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), we studied the localization of plastidic (GS2) and cytosolic (GS1) glutamine synthetase isoenzymes and of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) during natural senescence of the flag leaf and in the stem. In mature ...
Marciniak Robert A - - 2005
Cancer cells require mechanisms to maintain telomeres. Most use telomerase, but 5% to 20% of tumors use alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT), a telomerase-independent mechanism that seems to depend on recombination. ALT is characterized by amplification of telomere TTAGGG repeats to lengths beyond 50 kb, by elevated rates of telomere ...
Nagao Kumi - - 2005
Normal human liver cells have a limited capacity for proliferation due to telomere shortening, whereas immortalized cells prevent shortening of the 3' single strand telomeric repeat by expressing telomerases, including human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). The hTERT transcript contains three deletion sites that give rise to alternatively spliced variants (ASVs). ...
Gorgoulis Vassilis G - - 2005
Most normal somatic cells enter a state called replicative senescence after a certain number of divisions, characterized by irreversible growth arrest. Moreover, they express a pronounced inflammatory phenotype that could contribute to the aging process and the development of age-related pathologies. Among the molecules involved in the inflammatory response that ...
Fasching Clare L - - 2005
Immortal tumor cells and cell lines employ a telomere maintenance mechanism that allows them to escape the normal limits on proliferative potential. In the absence of telomerase, telomere length may be maintained by an alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) mechanism. All human ALT cell lines described thus far have nuclear ...
Fabre Stéphanie - - 2005
We have previously reported at the single cell level that PI3K is activated after conjugate formation between T lymphocytes and APCs. However, in contrast to cells exposed to an asymmetrical signal that usually increase 3'-phosphoinositides (3'-PI) transiently in the region of the activated receptors, T cells contacting APC accumulate 3'-PI ...
Karpinets Tatiana V - - 2005
Recent studies indicate that during tumorigenic transformations, cells may generate mutations by themselves as a result of error-prone cell division with participation of error-prone polymerases and aberrant mitosis. These mechanisms may be activated in cells by continuing proliferative and survival signaling in a sustained stress environment (SSE). The paper hypothesizes ...
Chung Hee Kyoung - - 2005
Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), a catalytic subunit of telomerase, has been demonstrated to exert a reverse transcriptase function when combined with telomerase RNA component (TERC), the complex of which ensures the maintenance of telomere length in all eukaryotes. Telomerase also prevents cell death, and promotes survival in many types of ...
Hovhannisyan G - - 2005
The Comet-assay was applied to three transformed cell lines (HT1080, CCRF-CEM line and CHO) which were treated with the cytostatics bleomycin (BLM) or mitomycin C (MMC). In addition, PNA probes for the telomere repeat (TTAGGG)(n) were used for detection of telomeric DNA sequences in the damaged DNA. Data were compared ...
Kaminker Patrick P Buck Institute for Age Research, 8001 Redwood Boulevard, Novato, California 94945, - - 2005
Nuclear organization, such as the formation of specific nuclear subdomains, is generally thought to be involved in the control of cellular phenotype; however, there are relatively few specific examples of how mammalian nuclei organize during radical changes in phenotype, such as those occurring during differentiation and growth arrest. Using human ...
Fu Xiao-Hua - - 2005
AIM: To investigate synergism of inhibition of telomerase activity and proliferation of human colon cancer cells by combination of telomerase antisense oligonucleotides (ASODNs) simultaneously targeting human telomerase RNA (hTR) and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) in vitro. METHODS: ASODN of hTR and ASODN of hTERT were transfected into human colon ...
Jin Y L - - 2005
Telomere length shortening was observed in the nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell CNE-2L2 when 6A8 alpha-mannosidase expression was inhibited by antisense 6A8 DNA. Transduction with mock or an irrelevant DNA did not affect the telomere length in the carcinoma cells. Telomerase activity and mRNA transcription of TRF 1 and 2 were not ...
Ball Andrew J - - 2005
Fetal cardiomyocytes have been proposed as a potential source of cell-based therapy for heart failure. This study examined cellular senescence in cultured human fetal ventricular cardiomyocytes (HFCs). HFCs were isolated and identified by immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR. Cells were found to senesce after 20-25 population doublings, as determined by growth arrest, ...
Nashar Toufic O - - 2005
The influence of the pathway of Ag uptake and processing on MHC class II (CII)-mediated B cell function is unknown. In this study, we investigate in resting and activated (via the BCR or CD40) B cells the biological properties of CII-peptide complexes (CII-peptide) generated by either the BCR-mediated Ag processing ...
Piao Chang Q - - 2005
Two immortalized human airway epithelial cell lines were established by the ectopic expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). These cell lines have been continuously cultured for >200 population doublings (PDs). They are characterized by an overexpression of hTERT mRNA, elongated telomere length and higher telomerase activity. Early passage of ...
Al-Baker Eman A - - 2005
A major cause of ageing is thought to be the accumulation of damage to macromolecules. Accumulation to DNA damage in cells therefore presupposes that aged cells are unable to repair this damage. We have used the in vitro model of cellular ageing to test the idea that senescent cells are ...
Folini Marco - - 2005
Recent evidence points to a novel function of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) in promoting tumour cell survival, which might be independent of the telomere-elongating activity of the enzyme. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated comparatively the effects of telomerase inhibition, accomplished through antisense oligonucleotide-mediated interference with hTERT or human ...
Li Wei-guo - - 2005
Telomeres are the tandem repetitive sequence at the end of chromosomes and its integrity is crucial for cell vitality. We studied the effect of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), one of the major tea polyphenols, on telomeres in HeLa, 293 cells and MRC-5 fibroblasts. At concentrations of above 50 microM, EGCG was found ...
Chondrogianni Niki - - 2005
The proteasome is the major cellular proteolytic machinery responsible for the degradation of both normal and damaged proteins. Proteasomes play a fundamental role in retaining cellular homeostasis. Alterations of proteasome function have been recorded in various biological phenomena including aging. We have recently shown that the decrease in proteasome activity ...
Park Jeong-Soo - - 2005
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) has drawn much attention in the aspect of tissue renewal and wound healing because of its multipotency. We initially observed that bone marrow-derived human MSCs (hMSCs) divided poorly and took flat and enlarged morphology after expanded in culture over a certain number of cell passage, which ...
Berdyyeva Tamara K - - 2005
The decrease in elasticity of epithelial tissues with ageing contributes to many human diseases. This change was previously attributed to increased crosslinking of extracellular matrix proteins. Here we show that individual human epithelial cells also become significantly more rigid during ageing in vitro. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we found ...
Brunori Michele - - 2005
Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes that cap the end of eukaryotic chromosomes and are essential for their function and stability. Telomerase, a reverse transcriptase that extends the single-stranded G-rich 3' protruding ends of chromosomes, stabilizes telomere length in germ line cells and regenerative tissues as well as in tumor cells. In ...
Voß, Martin Henner
Background: Cellular senescence is a state which normal cells enter following an extensive period of proliferation or upon exposure to various kinds of stress. The senescence program involves G1 arrest accompanied by dramatic changes in cell function and morphology. The molecular mechanisms that govern these changes are at this point ...
Berman H - - 2005
Morphologically normal foci of epithelial cells exhibiting p16 inactivation have been found in several tissues and may be precursors to cancer. Our previous work demonstrates that cells lacking p16(INK4A) activity exhibit phenotypes associated with malignancy (Romanov et al. 2001). The acquisition of genomic instability occurs through the activation of telomeric ...
Davis Terence - - 2005
Studies on telomere and telomerase biology are fundamental to the understanding of human ageing, and age-related diseases such as cancer. However, human studies are hampered by the lack of fully reflective animal model systems. Here we describe basic studies of telomere length and telomerase activity in sheep tissues and cells. ...
Rossi Michael J - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is notoriously resistant to chemotherapy. The sphingolipid ceramide and its analogs have been demonstrated to exert antitumor activity in many cell types; however, the effectiveness of these analogs has been limited by potency and solubility. This study focuses on the effects of ...
Zou Jian - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To study the killing effects of oxymatrine (OM) on a human colon cancer cell line, SW1116, and evaluate its antineoplastic mechanism. METHODS: Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) analysis, flow cytometry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and RT-PCR methods were used respectively to determine the killing effects of ...
Bates Steven E - - 2005
The progression of a normal cell to senescence in vivo and in vitro is accompanied by a reduction in the length of the telomeres, the chromosome capping segments at the end of each linkage group. However, overexpression of the reverse transcriptase subunit (HTERT) of the ribonucleoprotein telomerase restores telomere length ...
Colangelo Donato - - 2005
Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein polymerase that maintains the length of telomeric DNA by adding hexameric units (TTAGGG) to the ends of the chromosomes. This mechanism prevents replicative senescence, thus conferring unlimited proliferative potential to cells. Telomerase reactivation has been detected in most human tumour tissue, indicating that the enzyme may ...
Stroikin Yuri - - 2005
Imperfect autophagic degradation of oxidatively damaged macromolecules and organelles (so-called biological "garbage") is considered an important contributor to ageing and consequent death of postmitotic (non-dividing) cells, such as neurons and cardiac myocytes. In contrast, proliferating cells apparently escape senescence by a continuous dilution and repair of damaged structures during division. ...
Carracedo Julia - - 2005
Hemodialysis treatment induces mononuclear cell activation particularly if cellulosic hemodialysis membrane is used. In normal cells, repeated activation induce a process of accelerate cellular senescence. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the mononuclear cell activation associated to hemodialysis with cellulosic membranes favors a process of accelerate ...
Park Sun Young - - 2004
We have reported that mitochondrial DNA-depleted rho(0) cells are resistant to cell death. Because aged cells have frequent mitochondrial DNA mutations, the resistance of rho(0) cells against cell death might be related to the apoptosis resistance of aged cells and frequent development of cancers in aged individuals. We studied if ...
Ramirez Ruben D - - 2004
By expressing two genes (hTERT and Cdk4), we have developed a method to reproducibly generate continuously replicating human bronchial epithelial cell (HBEC) lines that provide a novel resource to study the molecular pathogenesis of lung cancer and the differentiation of bronchial epithelial cells. Twelve human bronchial epithelial biopsy specimens obtained ...
Mason Douglas X - - 2004
Senescence irreversibly arrests the proliferation of cells that have sustained significant cellular stress. Replicative senescence, due to the shortening and dysfunction of telomeres, appears to provide a barrier to the immortalization of cells and development of cancer. In normal human fibroblasts, senescence induced by oncogenic H-ras displays a nearly identical ...
Michelle A. Wood
The mechanism of senescence, permanent G1 arrest, is gradually becoming elucidated; however, the exact function of senescence remains unclear. A marker assay detecting the acidic senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (saβgal) has been used as an indicator for cellular senescence. However, more recently, others have shown that expression of this low pH saβgal ...
Wang Xi-Shan - - 2004
AIM: To investigate the inhibitory effect of phosphorothioate anti-sense oligodeoxynucleotides (PASODN) on colorectal cancer LS-174T cells in vitro and the mechanism of inhibition of telomerase activity in these cells. METHODS: PASODN were used to infect LS-174T cells and block human telomerase RNA (hTR) through anti-sense technology. The inhibitory effect of ...
Cabuy Erik - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Telomeres are specialized nucleoprotein structures at chromosome ends that undergo dynamic changes after each cell cycle. Understanding the mechanisms of telomere dynamics is critically dependent on the ability to accurately measure telomere length in a cell population of interest. Techniques such as Southern blot, which measures average telomere length, ...
Itaya Hiroshi - - 2004
PURPOSE: To determine whether iris pigment epithelium (IPE) cells can attach to aged submacular human Bruch's membrane and to assess whether IPE cells express the integrin subunits that may be necessary to bind to the known extracellular matrix ligands present in Bruch's membrane. METHODS: IPE cells were seeded onto the ...
Lee Eunju - - 2004
Although estrogen has been considered as a sex hormone for decades, recent reports suggest that estrogen might modulate the development and physiological function of the brain. In addition, the subcellular localization of estrogen receptors (ERs) has shown their presence within both the perinuclear cytoplasm and nuclei, suggesting that these ERs ...
Jenkins M S - - 2004
Fluid shear and other mechanical forces play an important role in the normal biophysical, biochemical, and gene regulatory responses of vertebrate tissue that are reflected in the expression of normal cell differentiation, growth, and function. Despite some promising work reported on the application of the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to ...
Yang Seong Wook - - 2004
Telomeres are specialized nucleoprotein complexes that are essential for preserving chromosome integrity in eukaryotic cells. Several potential telomere binding proteins have recently been identified in higher plants, but nothing is known about their in vivo functions. We previously identified NgTRF1 as a double-stranded telomeric repeat binding factor in tobacco (Nicotiana ...
Satyanarayana Ande - - 2004
Cellular senescence induced by different stresses and telomere shortening appears to play an important role in the aging process. The products of the INK4a/ARF locus--p16INK4a and ARF--arrest cell proliferation at the senescence stage by exerting their effects on retinoblastoma protein- and p53-mediated responsive pathways. A study in this issue of ...
You Seungkwon - - 2004
Although primary bovine embryonic fibroblast (BEF) cells have previously been used as nucleus-donors for nuclear transfer (NT), it has now been proposed to use BEF cells to generate cloned cows that were genetically modified by transgenic or a knock-out system. A major limitation to gene targeting somatic cells, however, is ...
Sun Yubo - - 2004
To examine whether the life span of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) can be extended and to establish FLS cell lines that preserve the characteristics of primary FLSs, we introduced human catalytic subunit of telomerase (hTERT) gene into human osteoarthritic (OA) FLSs. Two hTERT-transduced clonal cell lines were established and one line, ...
Yokoo Seiichi - - 2004
The cellular life-span of cultivated human skin epidermis keratinocytes NHEK-F was shown to be extended up to 150% of population doubling levels (PDLs) by repetitive addition with two autooxidation-resistant derivatives of ascorbic acid (Asc), Asc-2-O-phosphate (Asc2P), and Asc-2-O-alpha-glucoside (Asc2G), respectively, but to be not extended with Asc itself. In contrast, ...
Shay Jerry W - - 2005
Telomere dynamics are a critical component of both aging and cancer. Telomeres progressively shorten in almost all dividing cells and most human cells do not express or maintain sufficient telomerase activity to fully maintain telomeres. There is accumulating evidence that when only a few telomeres are short, they form end-associations, ...
Incles Christopher M - - 2004
The trisubstituted acridine derivative BRACO-19 has been designed to interact with and stabilize the quadruplex DNA structures that can be formed by folding of the single-stranded repeats at the 3' end of human telomeres. We suggest that the BRACO-19 complex inhibits the catalytic function of telomerase in human cancer cells ...
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