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Results 551 - 600 of 1391
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Rolland Morgane - - 2004
Primary goat synovial membrane (GSM) cells are widely used to study small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV), i.e. maedi visna virus (MVV) and caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV), but their limited life-span of 15-20 passages in vitro is problematic. Here, we report that ectopic expression of the catalytic subunit of human telomerase (hTERT) ...
Borrás Consuelo - - 2004
Changes in telomerase activity have been associated either with cancer, when activity is increased, or with cell cycle arrest when it is decreased. We report that glutathione, a physiological antioxidant present at high intracellular concentrations, regulates telomerase activity in cells in culture. Telomerase activity increases in 3T3 fibroblasts before exponential ...
Purev E - - 2004
Vitamin A is an essential nutrient important for growth, vision, embryonic development, immune response and reproduction. Various retinoids have been shown to be effective chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive agents for a number of human cancers. Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures found at the end of chromosomes. During cellular division, the telomeres in ...
Satyanarayana A - - 2004
Replicative senescence is induced by critical telomere shortening and limits the proliferation of primary cells to a finite number of divisions. To characterize the activity status of the replicative senescence program in the context of cell cycle activity, we analyzed the senescence phenotypes and signaling pathways in quiescent and growth-stimulated ...
Kassem Moustapha - - 2004
The use of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)-immortalized cells in tissue engineering protocols is a potentially important application of telomere biology. Several human cell types have been created that overexpress the hTERT gene with enhanced telomerase activity, extended life span and maintained or even improved functional activities. Furthermore, some studies ...
Lee Kwang M - - 2004
A major obstacle to the immortalization of primary human cells and the establishment of human cell lines is telomere-controlled senescence. Telomere-controlled senescence is caused by the shortening of telomeres that occurs each time somatic human cells divide. The enzyme telomerase can prevent the erosion of telomeres and block the onset ...
Abrahám Hajnalka - - 2004
BACKGROUND: In previous studies, lower IQ scores and educational difficulties of preterm children were correlated with the reduced size of several brain areas, including the cerebellum and the hippocampus. The most plausible reason for reduction would be the reduced cell formation following premature birth. However, no data are available about ...
Reverter-Branchat Gemma - - 2004
Oxidative modifications of cellular components have been described as one of the main contributions to aged phenotype. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two distinct life spans can be considered, replicative and chronological. The relationship between both aging models is still not clear despite suggestions that these phenomena may be related. In this ...
Herbig Utz - - 2004
Cellular senescence can be triggered by telomere shortening as well as a variety of stresses and signaling imbalances. We used multiparameter single-cell detection methods to investigate upstream signaling pathways and ensuing cell cycle checkpoint responses in human fibroblasts. Telomeric foci containing multiple DNA damage response factors were assembled in a ...
Schaetzlein Sonja - - 2004
The enzyme telomerase is active in germ cells and early embryonic development and is crucial for the maintenance of telomere length. Whereas the different length of telomeres in germ cells and somatic cells is well documented, information on telomere length regulation during embryogenesis is lacking. In this study, we demonstrate ...
Psyrri Amanda - - 2004
Repression of the endogenous human papillomavirus (HPV) type 18 E7 gene in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells by the bovine papillomavirus E2 transcription factor activates the retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway and induces cells to undergo senescence. To determine whether activation of the Rb pathway is responsible for senescence in response to HPV18 ...
Bechter Oliver E - - 2004
Instead of telomerase, some immortal cells use the alternative lengthening of telomeres pathway (ALT) to maintain their telomeres. There is good evidence that homologous recombination contributes to the ALT mechanism. Using an inducible GFP reporter system to measure the frequency of homologous recombination, we asked whether or not ALT cells ...
Walen Kirsten H - - 2004
Previously, it was shown that SV40-induced cell transformation of human diploid (2N), epithelial cells was a dynamic process of nuclear and cellular events. In this process, nuclei of polyploid (above 2N) cells broke down into multinucleated cells (MNCs) by amitotic division. An induced mass karyoplast (i.e., small cell with reduced ...
Munro June - - 2004
We show here that histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) sodium dibutyrate (SDB) and trichostatin A (TSA) induce a phenotype that has similarities to replicative senescence in human fibroblasts. There was no evidence that SDB accelerated a constitutive cell division counting mechanism as previously suggested because cells pretreated with SDB for three ...
Shammas Masood A - - 2004
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Barrett's esophageal adenocarcinoma (BEAC) is a complication of gastroesophageal reflux disease, with no effective chemotherapy and poor prognosis. BEAC cells, like many other types of cancers, may reactivate telomerase to achieve unlimited proliferative potential, making telomerase a unique therapeutic target. The purpose of this study was to ...
Bakalova Rumiana - - 2004
PURPOSE: To clarify the role of the pathways dependent on protein-kinase C (PK-C) and Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM) in the regulation of telomerase activity in Burkitt's lymphoma cells. METHODS: Burkitt's lymphoma cells (Raji and Daudi) were treated with the PK-C inhibitor, bisindolylmaleimide (BIM), or the CaM inhibitor, trifluoperazine (TFPZ), in a dose-dependent ...
Satoh, Akiko
Replicative senescence (RS) of human diploid fibro blasts (HDFs) has become a classical model of aging and HDFs, such as WI-38 cells, display increased cellular oxidant production associated with RS. Several phenomena associated with RS are also observed in stress-induced replicative senescence (SIPS). In particular, SIPS of WI-38 cells caused ...
Pesah Yakov - - 2004
Mutations in the gene parkin in humans (PARK2) are responsible for a large number of familial cases of autosomal-recessive Parkinson disease. We have isolated a Drosophila homolog of human PARK2 and characterized its expression and null phenotype. parkin null flies have 30% lower mass than wild-type controls which is in ...
Thompson John E - - 2004
Regulation of protein synthesis is increasingly being recognized as an important determinant of cell proliferation and senescence. In particular, recent evidence indicates that eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF-A) plays a pivotal role in this determination. Separate isoforms of eIF-5A appear to facilitate the translation of mRNAs required for cell ...
Maringele Laura - - 2004
Telomerase-defective budding yeast cells escape senescence by using homologous recombination to amplify telomeric or subtelomeric structures. Similarly, human cells that enter senescence can use homologous recombination for telomere maintenance, when telomerase cannot be activated. Although recombination proteins required to generate telomerase-independent survivors have been intensively studied, little is known about ...
Wang Kuan - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) has many characteristics useful in molecular biology. This paper described an effective way to raise the cell ingestion rate of PNA so as to kill gastric cancer cells. METHODS: Heteroduplexes of PNAs and oligonucleotides, wrapped by Lipofectamine 2000, were used to infect SGC7901 cells. The ...
Luo Ping - - 2004
Human diploid fibroblasts (HDF) rarely, if ever, undergo spontaneous transformation to an immortalized cell type. Here we report the immortalization of an HDF cell line following transduction with cyclin A2 or cdk1 human genes via retroviral vectors. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies using the retroviral vector as a probe ...
Villa Ana - - 2004
Human Neural Stem Cells (hNSCs) are excellent candidates for in vitro and in vivo molecular, cellular, and developmental research, and also for ex-vivo gene transfer and cell therapy in the nervous system. However, hNSCs are mortal somatic cells, and thus invariably enter an irreversible growth arrest after a finite number ...
Samokhvalov Victor - - 2004
Glycogen and trehalose are well known to participate in many important cell functions, e.g., protection from stress factors, regulation of cell growth and division, spore formation. Since the aging is a complex process involving many aspects of cell metabolism, it was interesting to study the role of glycogen and trehalose ...
Ojima Mitsuaki - - 2004
We examined the delayed induction of telomere instability in hTERT-immortalized normal human fibroblast (BJ1-hTERT) cells exposed to X-rays. BJ1-hTERT cells were irradiated with 2 Gy of X-rays, and chromosome aberrations were analyzed 24 hours after irradiation and in the surviving cells 14 days after X-ray exposure. We found that the ...
Narita Masashi - - 2004
Senescence is a permanent form of cell cycle arrest that limits the proliferation of damaged cells and may contribute to tumor suppression and aging. We recently demonstrated that some senescent cell types undergo dramatic changes in chromatin organization that are dependent on the retinoblastoma protein and are associated with the ...
Shen Zhong-Ying - - 2004
To investigate the multistage process of carcinogenesis, the progressive alteration of the morphology, telomerase, cytogenesis, oncogenes and tumorigenicity in the process of immortalization and malignant transformation of the human fetal esophageal epithelial cell (SHEE) was studied. The SHEE cells were immortalized by gene E6E7 of human papilloma virus (HPV) type ...
Nakatake M - - 2004
Telomerase is active in immature somatic cells, but not in differentiated cells. However, the mechanism by which telomerase is regulated in relation to cell differentiation is not well understood. In this study, the human erythroid leukemia cell line K562 was induced to differentiate into megakaryocytes by TPA and into erythroid ...
Gordy Claire - - 2004
Glycolipid-enriched membrane (GEM) domains, or lipid rafts, function in signaling in immune cells, but their properties during Ag presentation are less clear. To address this question, GEM domains were studied using fluorescence cell imaging of mouse CH27 B cells presenting Ag to D10 T cells. Our experiments showed that APCs ...
Colitz C M H - - 2004
Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein complex responsible for maintaining the ends of chromosomes and for repair of DNA strand breaks. While telomerase activity is generally found in cells that have unlimited proliferative potential such as neoplastic cells, germline cells and some stem cells, lens epithelial cells (though not highly proliferative) have ...
Kocki Janusz - - 2004
Telomeres are the end fragments of chromosomes formed by a number of non-coding double-stranded TTAGGG repeats in vertebrates. During cell division the number of repeats decreases, leading to cell senescence or apoptosis. In immortal cells, including cancer cells, the telomere length is stable and maintained by, among other factors, telomerase. ...
Brandt Sebastian - - 2004
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Antiproliferative action of tamoxifen in the estrogen receptor-alpha-negative human hepatoblastoma cell line HepG2 was investigated. METHODS: HepG2 cells, seeded at different densities (4000-36 000 cells/cm(2)), were incubated with tamoxifen (1, 10, or 20 microM) or the telomerase inhibitor 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) (0.6-3.0 mM) up to 72 h. Cell viability was ...
Zhang Tong - - 2004
Traditional methods for identifying T cell-recognized tumor antigens (Ags) are laborious and time-consuming. In an attempt to simplify the procedure, a novel strategy, SING (SIgnal transduction molecule-mediated, NFAT-controlled, GFP expression) was established as a direct approach for cloning T cell-recognized tumor Ags. In the SING system, a mouse T cell ...
Jaiswal Aruna S - - 2004
Cellular senescence is a state in which mammalian cells enter into an irreversible growth arrest and altered biological functions. The senescence response in mammalian cells can be elicited by DNA-damaging agents. In the present study we report that the DNA-damaging agent N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) is able to induce senescence in the ...
Shammas Masood A - - 2004
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of telomestatin, an intramolecular G-quadruplex intercalating drug with specificity for telomeric sequences, as a potential therapeutic agent for multiple myeloma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We treated ARD, ARP, and MM1S myeloma cells with various concentrations of telomestatin for 7 days and ...
Kwak In Hae - - 2004
We evaluated the nuclear actin accumulation as a new marker of cellular senescence, using human diploid fibroblast (HDF), chondrocyte primary cultures, Mv1Lu epithelial cells, and Huh7 cancer cells. Nuclear accumulation of globular actin (G-actin) and dephosphorylated cofilin was highly significant in the senescent HDF cells, accompanied with inhibition of LIM ...
Lesur Isabelle - - 2004
To help define the pathologies associated with yeast cells as they age, we analyzed the transcriptome of young and old cells isolated by elutriation, which allows isolation of biochemical quantities of old cells much further advanced in their life span than old cells prepared by the biotin-streptavidin method. Both 18-generation-old ...
Kapoor Veena - - 2004
Telomere length is an important measure of cellular differentiation and progression to senescence. Flow cytometric assays for measuring telomere length have become an important adjunct to more laborious Southern blotting methods; telomere length can be estimated with considerable accuracy in small numbers of individual cells by flow cytometry, and can ...
Goldring Mary B - - 2004
Immortalized chondrocytes of human origin have been developed to serve as reproducible models for studying chondrocyte function. In this chapter, methods for immortalization of primary human chondrocytes with SV40-TAg, HPV-16 E6/E7, and telomerase by retrovirally mediated transduction and selection for neomycin resistance are described. However, stable integration of an immortalizing ...
Koo Ja Young - - 2004
The inhibitory effect of curcumin and its synergism with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on the growth of the AGS human gastric carcinoma cell line was examined. Cell cycle analysis was used to elucidate the mechanisms for the inhibition by curcumin. Curcumin significantly inhibited the growth of AGS cells in a dose- and ...
Ben-Porath Ittai - - 2004
Cells entering a state of senescence undergo a permanent cell cycle arrest, accompanied by a set of functional and morphological changes. Senescence of cells occurs following an extended period of proliferation in culture or in response to various physiologic stresses, yet little is known about the role this phenomenon plays ...
Diaconu Carmen C - - 2004
There are few information concerning the changes associated with the transition interval when slow growing, primary explanted human cancer cells are displaced by new selected faster growing cells and became an immortal cell line. In a previous paper (J. Cell. Mol. Med., 5: 49-59, 2001) we described the TV cell ...
Neuhof Dirk - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Telomerase activity in a human lymphoblastoid cell line with wild-type p53 status (TK6) was previously shown to be rapidly induced by ionizing radiation doses as low as 10 cGy. Since this low-dose response was absent in a closely related cell line overexpressing a mutant form of p53 (WTK1), the ...
Flanary Barry - - 2004
Normal somatic cells have a finite replicative capacity. With each cell division, telomeres (the physical ends of linear chromosomes) progressively shorten until they reach a critical length, at which point the cells enter replicative senescence. Some cells can maintain telomere length by the action of the telomerase enzyme. A recent ...
Enomoto Shinichiro - - 2004
Cells lacking telomerase undergo senescence, a progressive reduction in cell division that involves a cell cycle delay and culminates in "crisis," a period when most cells become inviable. In telomerase-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking components of the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway (Upf1,Upf2, or Upf3 proteins), senescence is delayed, with ...
Gordon Katrina E - - 2004
Telomeres are the structures at the ends of chromosomes, composed of repetitive sequences and associated proteins, which cap chromosome ends to maintain genomic stability. These structures are maintained by the enzyme complex telomerase in germ cells and some stem cells, but are absent in the majority of somatic cells. The ...
Peitsaro Panu - - 2004
Expression of the viral oncogenes E6 and E7, and telomerase, was investigated, using a cell line from a mild dysplastic vaginal lesion containing human papillomavirus (HPV) type 33. During passaging of the cells, there was a change towards a cancer phenotype, and a shift from episomal to integrated HPV. Levels ...
Cordero Julio F - - 2004
The distribution of intramembrane particles in human erythrocytes was studied by freeze-fracture on young and old cells and compared to that obtained after ATP depletion or following addition of a clustering agent. It was shown that intramembrane particles became aggregated and the mean particle density increased as the cells aged. ...
Yin Fei - - 2004
Telomerase, which is required to maintain telomeres, has attracted considerable attention as a target for anticancer therapy. In this study, we investigated the inhibition of HeLa cell telomerase activity and cell cycle progression by triethylene tetraamine (TETA), using a modified telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay, and flow cytometry. TETA ...
Wai Lin Kah - - 2004
Human telomeres function as a protective structure capping both ends of the chromosome. They are composed of long, repetitive sequences of TTAGGG, associated with a variety of telomere-binding proteins. Telomeres protect the chromosomes from end-to-end fusion, recombination, and degradation, all events that can lead to cell death. At cell replication, ...
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