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Yang Dan D Department of Biochemistry and Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, - - 2007
We previously reported that the frequency of polyploid aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) serves as a biomarker of aging. Cellular senescence of somatic cells is another marker of aging that is characterized by the inability to undergo cell division. Here, we examined whether polyploidy is associated with the development ...
Walen Kirsten H - - 2007
The rise in mitotic polyploid cells in near-senescence (phase III) of human fibroblast cells has been found to contain diplochromosomes (four chromatids). For tetraploid cells, this translates into 46 pairs of sister chromosomes. It has been suggested, from the increase in numbers of such cells, that they might deviate from ...
Haga Kei - - 2007
Activation of telomerase is sufficient for immortalization of some types of human cells but additional factors may also be essential. It has been proposed that stress imposed by inadequate culture conditions induces senescence due to accumulation of p16(INK4a). Here, we present evidence that many human cell types undergo senescence by ...
Gruber Helen E - - 2007
STUDY DESIGN: Human intervertebral disc anulus tissue was obtained in a prospective study of cell senescence. Localization of the senescence biomarker beta-galactosidase (senescence associated beta-galactosidase, SA-beta-gal) was used for quantitative determination of the % senescent cells. Discs were obtained from surgical specimens or control donors. Discs were also studied from ...
Aigner T - - 2007
It has been known for a very long time that aging is the most prominent risk factor for the initiation and progression of osteoarthritis. This might be related to continuous mechanical wear and tear and/or result from time/age-related modifications of cartilage matrix components. Also a mere loss of viable cells ...
Narath R - - 2007
Recently, it was shown that MYCN amplified cells spontaneously expulse extrachromosomally amplified gene copies by micronuclei formation. Furthermore, it was shown that these cells lose their malignant phenotype and start to age. We tested whether it is possible to encourage neuroblastoma tumor cells to enter the senescence pathway by low ...
Serakinci Nedime - - 2007
During the past several years increasing evidence indicating that the proliferation capacity of mammalian cells is highly radiosensitive, regardless of the species and the tissue of origin of the cells, has accumulated. It has also been shown that normal bone marrow cells of mice have a similar radiosensitivity to other ...
Shervington Amal - - 2007
Although scientific advances have recognised the prognostic power of telomerase activity in different cancers, as yet there has been no investigation regarding the expression variation of telomerase subunits in glioma tissues and cell lines. In this study, a recurrent anaplastic ependymoma and seven glioblastoma biopsy samples, four cell lines and ...
Kloos, Wanda
Recently, it was discovered that the underlying mechanism of tumor regression after anti-cancer treatment cannot be explained with the induction of apoptosis, but rather with a permanent cell cycle arrest termed cellular senescence. We compared two different types of senescence, i.e. telomere-dependant replicative senescence (RS) and premature senescence (PS), whithin ...
Straatman K R - - 2007
Cells lacking telomerase cannot maintain their telomeres and undergo a telomere erosion phase leading to senescence and crisis in which most cells become nonviable. On rare occasions survivors emerge from these cultures that maintain their telomeres in alternative ways. The movement of five marked telomeres in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was followed ...
Kang Mo K - - 2007
Normal human somatic cells undergo limited cell division cycles and enter irreversible replication arrest called senescence. Cellular senescence of many human cell types is regulated by the length and status of telomeric sequences, which is shortened after each round of DNA replication. Telomeres can be rejuvenated by telomerase, an enzyme ...
Nakagawa Hiroshi - - 2007
Cellular senescence is generally defined as an irreversible state of G1 cell cycle arrest in which cells are refractory to growth factor stimulation. Cellular senescence can be induced through several different mechanisms. Primary mammalian cells display a finite life span, suggesting a mechanism that counts cell divisions. Those cells initially ...
Sahota Amrik - - 2007
INTRODUCTIONThis protocol describes large-scale DNA extraction from cell pellets using either in-house or commercial (PUREGENE) reagents. The cell pellets are prepared from human lymphoblast cell lines (LCLs) that have been established using the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).
Takahashi Akiko - - 2007
The retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor gene product, pRb, has an established role in the implementation of cellular senescence, the state of irreversible G1 cell cycle arrest provoked by diverse oncogenic stresses. In murine cells, senescence cell cycle arrest can be reversed by subsequent inactivation of pRb, indicating that pRb is ...
Laun Peter - - 2007
Yeast mother cell-specific ageing is characterized by a limited capacity to produce daughter cells. The replicative lifespan is determined by the number of cell cycles a mother cell has undergone, not by calendar time, and in a population of cells its distribution follows the Gompertz law. Daughter cells reset their ...
Lau Benson W M - - 2007
Telomerase, a specialized reverse transcriptase that maintains telomere during cell division, is commonly associated with cell proliferation. Increasing evidence suggests that telomerase may bear functions other than telomere elongation. We investigated whether telomerase is expressed in the continuously growing goldfish retina. Telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay reveals telomerase activity ...
Kuruvilla Leena - - 2007
Endocardial endothelial cells (EECs), which form the inner lining of the cavities of the heart, are a distinct cell population whose dysfunction can be critical in pathological conditions of heart. Insights into the role and organization of these cells in pathological states of the heart are limited mainly due to ...
Wang Ying - - 2007
The monolayer of endothelial cells (ECs) lining the inner wall of blood vessels deteriorates as a person ages due to a complex interplay of a variety of causes including cell death arising from shear stress of blood flow and cellular oxidative stress, cellular senescence, and decreased rate of replacement of ...
Oh Ho-Yeon - - 2007
The pig, Sus scrofa domestica includes both the miniature and commercial domestic breed. These animals have influenced the human life and economies and have been studied throughout history. Although the miniature breeds are more recent and have increasingly been used in a variety of biomedical studies, their cell lines have ...
Yaar Mina - - 2007
Cancer is a leading cause of death in Americans. We have identified an inducible cancer avoidance mechanism in cells that reduces mutation rate, reduces and delays carcinogenesis after carcinogen exposure, and induces apoptosis and/or senescence of already transformed cells by simultaneously activating multiple overlapping and redundant DNA damage response pathways. ...
Passos João F JF Henry Wellcome Laboratory for Biogerontology Research Newcastle University, Newcastle, - - 2007
Cellular senescence, the ultimate and irreversible loss of replicative capacity of cells in primary culture, has been a popular model for studying the aging process. However, the replicative life span of human fibroblasts is heterogeneous even in clonal populations, with the fraction of senescent cells increasing at each population doubling, ...
Le Maitre Christine Lyn CL Tissue Injury and Repair Group, School of Medicine, Stopford Building, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, UK, M13 - - 2007
Current evidence implicates intervertebral disc degeneration as a major cause of low back pain, although its pathogenesis is poorly understood. Numerous characteristic features of disc degeneration mimic those seen during ageing but appear to occur at an accelerated rate. We hypothesised that this is due to accelerated cellular senescence, which ...
Itahana Koji K Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, - - 2007
Most normal human cells undergo cellular senescence after accruing a fixed number of cell divisions, or are challenged by a variety of potentially oncogenic stimuli, in culture and most likely in vivo. Cellular senescence is characterized by an irreversible growth arrest and certain altered functions. Senescent cells in culture are ...
Saeed O - - 2007
The mammalian lifespan is dramatically extended by both caloric restriction (CR) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) suppression. Both interventions involve neuroendocrine alterations directed by the hypothalamus. Yet, it remains unclear whether CR exerts its affects by altering central IGF-1 sensitivity. With this question in mind, we investigated the influence of ...
Sis B - - 2007
The cell cycle inhibitor p16(INK4A) (also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A) is expressed in vivo in many tissues with age. The exposure of certain chronic stresses can trigger p16(INK4A) expression and a senescence-like phenotype. We studied whether p16(INK4A) expression is induced in glomerular disease (GD). We performed p16(INK4A) immunostaining ...
Seluanov Andrei A Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, - - 2007
In multicellular organisms, telomerase is required to maintain telomere length in the germline but is dispensable in the soma. Mice, for example, express telomerase in somatic and germline tissues, while humans express telomerase almost exclusively in the germline. As a result, when telomeres of human somatic cells reach a critical ...
Shi Xi - - 2007
LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposons comprise a large fraction of genomic DNAs of many organisms. Many L1 elements are active and may generate potentially deleterious mutations by inserting into genes, yet little is known about the control of retrotransposition by the host. Here we examined whether retrotransposition depends on the cell cycle ...
Mondello Chiara - - 2006
It has been reported that cells with ectopic expression of telomerase are more resistant to apoptotic cell death than their normal counterpart. However, controversial results were obtained when the cellular response to oxidative stress was analyzed. The present research was therefore aimed at defining the effect of the oxidative stress ...
Huang Qin Q Department of Physiology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78245, - - 2007
Cell therapy is the use of stem cells and other types of cells in various therapies for age-related diseases. Two issues that must be addressed before cell therapy could be used routinely in medicine are improved efficacy of the transplanted cells and demonstrated long-term safety. Desirable genetic modifications that could ...
Jeyapalan Jessie C JC Department of Molecular Biology, Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, - - 2007
Cellular senescence, a stress induced growth arrest of somatic cells, was first documented in cell cultures over 40 years ago, however its physiological significance has only recently been demonstrated. Using novel biomarkers of cellular senescence we examined whether senescent cells accumulate in tissues from baboons of ages encompassing the entire ...
Akiyama Koichi - - 2006
Some immortal cells use the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway to maintain their telomeres instead of telomerase. Previous studies revealed that homologous recombination (HR) contributes to the ALT pathway. To further elucidate molecular mechanisms, we inactivated Rad54 involved in HR, in mouse ALT embryonic stem (ES) cells. Although Rad54-deficient ...
Kajstura Jan - - 2006
The preservation of myocyte number and cardiac mass throughout life is dependent on the balance between cell death and cell division. Rapidly emerging evidence indicates that new myocytes can be formed through the activation and differentiation of resident cardiac progenitor cells. The critical issue is the identification of mechanisms that ...
Han Sung Nim SN Nutritional Immunology Laboratory, Jean Mayer U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, 711 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02111, USA. - - 2006
T cells are vulnerable to age-associated changes. Vitamin E has been shown to improve T cell functions in the old. We studied gene expression profiles of T cells to better understand the underlying mechanisms of age and vitamin E-induced changes in T cell function. Young and old C57BL mice were ...
Lai Serene R SR Department of Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL 35294, - - 2007
The human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is the catalytic subunit of the enzyme telomerase which is responsible for telomeric maintenance and extension. Using RNA interference to knock down hTERT mRNA expression, we provide evidence that hTERT exerts extra-telomeric effects on the cell cycle and on its own regulatory proteins, specifically: ...
Wodarz Dominik - - 2007
Tissue stem cells are responsible for replenishing and maintaining a population of cells which make up a functioning organ. They divide by asymmetric cell division where one daughter remains a stem cell while the other daughter becomes a transit cell, which divides a defined number of times and differentiates. A ...
Günthardt-Goerg Madeleine S - - 2007
Visible symptoms in tree foliage can be used for stress diagnosis once validated with microscopical analyses. This paper reviews and illustrates macroscopical and microscopical markers of stress with a biotic (bacteria, fungi, insects) or abiotic (frost, drought, mineral deficiency, heavy metal pollution in the soil, acidic deposition and ozone) origin ...
Takahashi Akiko - - 2006
The p16(INK4a) cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor has a key role in establishing stable G1 cell-cycle arrest through activating the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumour suppressor protein pRb in cellular senescence. Here, we show that the p16(INK4a) /Rb-pathway also cooperates with mitogenic signals to induce elevated intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby ...
Zucchero Theresa - - 2006
Human lifespan is limited by aging of both mitotic and post-mitotic cells. These two forms of aging may occur by distinct or overlapping mechanisms. Telomere erosion has been shown to limit the proliferative lifespan of human somatic cells. Other vertebrates, such as mice, possess robust telomerase activity in most cell ...
Cei Silvia - - 2006
AIM: To establish whether within an autograft ageing has an impact on the number of cells capable of responding to growth and differentiation factors released at defect sites. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The number of cells that grow out from calvarial and mandibular explants of rats 6 weeks and 9 months ...
Dyson Janet - - 2007
We analyse an age-structured model of telomere loss in a proliferating cell population. The cell population is divided into telomere classes, which shorten each round of division. The model consists of a nonlinear system of partial differential equations for the telomere classes. We prove that if the highest telomere class ...
<span style="font-style: italic;">B. paxillifera</span> is a pennate diatom with a rectangular cell shape that can form&nbsp; colonies with adjacent cells sliding along each other. They can therefore occur as long extended 'chains' or ribbon arrays
Ivanković Milena - - 2007
Normal human somatic cells in culture have a limited dividing potential. This is due to DNA end replication problem, whereby telomeres shorten with each subsequent cell division. When a critical telomere length is reached cells enter senescence. To overcome this problem, immortal HeLa cell line express telomerase, an enzyme that ...
Murofushi Yoshiteru - - 2006
Based on the finding that telomerase is reactivated solely in cancer cells, the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter has recently been used to target cancer cells by gene therapy. The recent, surprising observation that telomerase is physiologically activated even in normal somatic cells during S-phase has raised concerns as ...
Wang Xinwen - - 2006
DNA tumor viruses such as SV40, Ras and papillomaviruses are the most commonly used agents in immortalization of non-hematopoietic cells, but the results are quite different. Some of them even lead instead to a senescence-like state. To verify the potential of SV40 T antigen-mediated immortalization or properties and functions of ...
Fridman Aviva Levine - - 2006
Abrogation of cellular senescence, resulting in immortalization, is a necessary step in the tumorigenic transformation of a cell. Four independent, spontaneously immortalized Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) cell lines were used to analyze the gene expression changes that may have given these cell lines the growth advantage required to become immortal. A ...
Zamolo Gordana - - 2007
Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein reverse transcriptase which RNA component (TERC) and reverse transcriptase (TERT) function together to elongate telomeres. If cells are to survive and proliferate indefinitely, telomere preservation is essential for the immortalization process. Somatic cells rarely possess TA, but over 90% of tumor cells express active telomerase. Increased ...
Fujiwara Masachika - - 2006
Telomere maintenance can occur in the absence of telomerase by a mechanism referred to as alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). ALT is considered to be rare in tumors of epithelial origin. The biological significance and molecular mechanism of ALT have not been well studied in human cancers. It has been ...
de Souza Nascimento Patrícia - - 2006
Human telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein complex composed of at least the reverse catalytic transcriptase hTERT and RNA component hTR. The enzyme stabilizes telomere length and thereby contributes to unlimited cell proliferation, i.e. immortality. Reactivation of telomerase activity during carcinogenesis is a common hallmark in most human tumor types. Consequently, telomerase ...
Schmitt Annett - - 2006
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that arise from the reaction of sugars with protein side chains and the terminal amino group are supposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases and therefore the effects of AGEs on cells are the objective of numerous investigations. The effects of AGEs ...
Yang Gong - - 2007
Ovarian cancer is developed from a single layer of thin epithelial cells covering the surface of ovary, named human ovarian surface epithelial cells. Like all primary human cells, human ovarian surface epithelial cells have a finite life span and will go into senescence and eventually die when cultured in vitro. ...
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