Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1726
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Yang Baichong - - 2008
Soybean protein hydrolysates are widely used as functional foods as they have antioxidative properties able to enhance immune responses in humans. The alcalase enzymatic hydrolysates of beta-conglycinin were fractionated by ultrafiltration, and two main fractions, SP1 (<10 kDa) and SP2 (10-20 kDa), were obtained. The effects of these two fractions ...
Veranic Peter - - 2008
Communication between cells is crucial for proper functioning of multicellular organisms. The recently discovered membranous tubes, named tunneling nanotubes, that directly bridge neighboring cells may offer a very specific and effective way of intercellular communication. Our experiments on RT4 and T24 urothelial cell lines show that nanotubes that bridge neighboring ...
Nakao Shinsuke - - 2008
OL-protocadherin (OL-pc) is a transmembrane protein belonging to the cadherin superfamily, which has been shown to accumulate at cell-cell contacts via its homophilic interaction, but its molecular roles remain elusive. In this study, we show that OL-pc bound Nck-associated protein 1 (Nap1), a protein that regulates WAVE-mediated actin assembly. In ...
Hewavitharana Thamara - - 2008
Store-operated channels (SOCs) mediate Ca(2+) entry signals in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) depletion in most cells. STIM1 senses decreased ER luminal Ca(2+) through its EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding motif and aggregates in near-plasma membrane (PM) ER junctions to activate PM Orai1, the functional SOC. STIM1 is also present in the ...
Eley Lorraine L Institute of Human Genetics, International Centre for Life, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, - - 2008
Joubert syndrome and related disorders are autosomal recessive multisystem diseases characterized by cerebellar vermis aplasia/hypoplasia, retinal degeneration and cystic kidney disease. There are five known genes; mutations of which give rise to a spectrum of renal cystic diseases the most common of which is nephronophthisis, a disorder characterized by early ...
Lee Hyun-Shik - - 2008
A body of evidence is emerging that shows a requirement for ephrin ligands in the proper migration of cells, and the formation of cell and tissue boundaries. These processes are dependent on the cell-cell adhesion system, which plays a crucial role in normal morphogenetic processes during development, as well as ...
Cottin S - - 2008
Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (TK) gene transfer followed by ganciclovir (GCV) administration is an approach investigated for glioblastoma treatment. The bystander effect (BE) enhances the cytotoxic effect of this strategy by allowing the diffusion of phosphorylated GCV from TK-expressing cells toward neighboring TK negative cells. This transfer of toxic ...
Abbaci Muriel - - 2008
The role of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in regulation of normal growth and differentiation is becoming increasingly recognized as a major cellular function. GJIC consists of intercellular exchange of low molecular weight molecules, and is the only means for direct contact between cytoplasms of adjacent animal cells. Disturbances of ...
Honda Hisao - - 2008
During development, certain cells intercalate with each other towards tissue-elongation, exemplified in sea-urchin gut-elongation, amphibian gastrulation, and Drosophila germ-band extension. Their mechanism is not universal among intercalation events. To clarify the minimal cellular properties required for cell-intercalation, we computer-simulated the process using three-dimensional geometrical cell-models. We identified two different mechanisms: ...
Garnett Erik C - - 2008
We have demonstrated a low-temperature wafer-scale etching and thin film deposition method for fabricating silicon n-p core-shell nanowire solar cells. Our devices showed efficiencies up to nearly 0.5%, limited primarily by interfacial recombination and high series resistance. Surface passivation and contact optimization will be critical to improve device performance in ...
Colomer Claude - - 2008
An increase in circulating catecholamine levels represents one of the mechanisms whereby organisms cope with stress. In the periphery, catecholamines mainly originate from the sympathoadrenal system. As we reported, in addition to the central control through cholinergic innervation, a local gap junction-delineated route between adrenal chromaffin cells contributes to catecholamine ...
Chen Min - - 2008
Sertoli cells are important in determining the fate of spermatogenic cells by providing nutrition and structural support via cell junctions. In this study, we sought to examine the effect of 43 C warming on cell junctions in seminiferous epithelium and the expression of junction-associated molecules in Sertoli cells. Electron microscopy ...
Kanzaki Noriyuki - - 2008
The nectin-afadin complex is involved in the formation of cell-cell junctions, such as adherens junctions (AJs) and tight junctions (TJs). Nectins are Ca(2+)-independent immunoglobulin-like cell-cell adhesion molecules, whereas afadin is an intracellular nectin-binding protein that connects nectins to the cadherin-catenin system at AJs and to the claudin-zona-occludens (ZO) protein system ...
Pedrotty Dawn M DM Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Duke Univ., Durham, NC 27708, - - 2008
Well-controlled studies of the structural and functional interactions between cardiomyocytes and other cells are essential for understanding heart pathophysiology and for the further development of safe and efficient cell therapies. We established a novel in vitro assay composed of a large number of individual micropatterned cell pairs with reproducible shape, ...
Tanabe, Katsuaki
III-V compound multijunction solar cells enable ultrahigh efficiency performance in designs where subcells with high material quality and high internal quantum efficiency can be employed. However the optimal multijunction cell bandgap sequence cannot be achieved using lattice-matched compound semiconductor materials. Most current compound semiconductor solar cell design approaches are focused ...
Westhoff M A - - 2008
The failure of malignant cells to undergo apoptosis is a major obstacle in cancer therapy, and thus identifying the underlining molecules involved therein is imperative for improving patient survival. An important mechanism of drug resistance is cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR). In this study we identify a novel switch by ...
Madgwick, Daniel
The vertebrate lens relies on gap junction-mediated intercellular communication to maintain cellular homeostasis and lenticular transparency. Differentiation of cuboidal lens epithelial cells into cortical fiber cells involves the degradation of endogenous gap junction protein, connexin 43 (Cx43) and the up-regulation of connexin 46 (Cx46). Cx46 may also be involved in ...
Gerdes Hans-Hermann - - 2008
Animal cells have evolved different mechanisms to communicate with one another. In 2004, a new route of cell-to-cell communication mediated by tunneling nanotubes (TNT) was reported. These membranous cell bridges form de novo between cells and mediate the intercellular transfer of organelles, plasma membrane components and cytoplasmic molecules. The characterization ...
Penuela Silvia - - 2008
Pannexins have been proposed to play a role in gap junctional intercellular communication and as single-membrane channels, although many of their molecular characteristics differ from connexins. Localization of untagged Panx1 and Panx3 exogenously expressed in five cultured cell lines revealed a cell surface distribution profile with limited evidence of cell ...
Mennecier Grégory - - 2008
Gap junctions are cellular structures which permit direct exchanges of small molecules from cytoplasm to cytoplasm in most of the cells of metazoan organisms. For four decades, it has been observed that the inhibition of this type of intercellular communication is often associated with tumorigenesis. The assumption that loss of ...
Hansen Marc D H - - 2008
The actin regulator VASP localizes to cell-cell junctions and has been implicated in cell-cell adhesion. VASP is recruited to sites of actin dynamics by interactions with proline rich FPPPPP motifs. Zyxin and its relative LPP use FPPPPP motifs to recruit VASP to specific cellular locations, thus directing changes in actin ...
Civitelli Roberto R Washington University in St. Louis, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Bone and Mineral Diseases, 660 S. Euclid Avenue, P.O. Box 8301, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. - - 2008
Skeletal development (bone modeling) and its maintenance in post-natal life in response to local and systemic stimuli (bone remodeling) require coordinated activity among osteoblasts (bone forming cells), osteocytes (cells embedded in bone) and osteoclasts (bone resorbing cells), in order to meet the needs of structural integrity, mechanical competence and maintenance ...
Zhao Min - - 2008
Fasciclin2 (Fas2) and Discslarge (Dlg) localize to the basolateral junction (BLJ) of Drosophila follicle epithelial cells and inhibit their proliferation and invasion. To identify a BLJ signaling pathway we completed a genomewide screen for mutants that enhance dlg tumorigenesis. We identified two genes that encode known BLJ scaffolding proteins, lethal ...
Vlamakis Hera H Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, - - 2008
Bacteria form architecturally complex communities known as biofilms in which cells are held together by an extracellular matrix. Biofilms harbor multiple cell types, and it has been proposed that within biofilms individual cells follow different developmental pathways, resulting in heterogeneous populations. Here we demonstrate cellular differentiation within biofilms of the ...
Futami M - - 2008
The 190 kD (p190) and 210 kD (p210) Bcr-Abl proteins are responsible for the pathophysiology of Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)(+) leukemia. We applied RNA interference (RNAi) to specific killing of p190(+) cells, and determined the optimal sequences for gene silencing in the BCR, junctional and ABL regions of p190, respectively. Then, ...
Ebnet Klaus - - 2008
The formation of stable cell-cell contacts is required for the generation of barrier-forming sheets of epithelial and endothelial cells. During various physiological processes like tissue development, wound healing or tumorigenesis, cellular junctions are reorganized to allow the release or the incorporation of individual cells. Cell-cell contact formation is regulated by ...
Kamp Anja - - 2008
A marine Beggiatoa sp. was cultured in semi-solid agar with opposing oxygen-sulfide gradients. Growth pattern, breakage of filaments for multiplication, and movement directions of Beggiatoa filaments in the transparent agar were investigated by time-lapse video recording. The initial doubling time of cells was 15.7 +/- 1.3 h (mean +/- SD) ...
Hoptak-Solga Angela D AD Lehigh University, Department of Biological Sciences, 111 Research Drive, Iacocca B-217, Bethlehem, PA 18015, - - 2008
In zebrafish, mutations in the gap junction gene connexin43 lead to short bony fin ray segments that give rise to the short fin phenotype. The sof(b123) mutant exhibits fins that are half the length of wild-type fins and have reduced levels of cx43 mRNA. We find that sof(b123) regenerating fins ...
Busche Stephan - - 2008
Epithelial cell-cell junctions are specialised structures connecting individual cells in epithelial tissues. They are dynamically and functionally linked to the actin cytoskeleton. Disassembly of these junctions is a key event during physiological and pathological processes, but how this influences gene expression is largely uncharacterised. Here, we investigate whether junction disassembly ...
Bai Shuhua - - 2008
This study tests the hypothesis that human nasal RPMI 2650 cells grown at an air-liquid interface is a feasible model for drug transport studies via the nasal route. RPMI 2650 cells were cultured in Eagle's minimal essential medium (MEM) at both air-liquid and liquid-liquid interfaces. For each culture regimen, monolayer ...
Denise C. Hocking, thesis advisor. <br> Thesis (Ph.D.) - Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Rochester
Phillips Brett E BE Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033-0850, - - 2008
The aim of this study was to determine the function of the tight junction protein occludin in the control of permeability, under diffusive and hydrostatic pressures, and its contribution to the control of cell division in retinal pigment epithelium. Occludin expression was inhibited in the human retinal pigment epithelial cell ...
Whiteman E L EL Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, - - 2008
In epithelial cells, the tight junction divides the plasma membrane into distinct apical and basolateral domains. Polarization is essential for epithelial cell function, and apico-basal cell polarity is lost during the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), a program of events characterized not only by loss of cell polarity, but also ...
Takano Ken-ichi - - 2008
The human adenoid epithelium forms a continuous barrier against a wide variety of exogenous antigens. In this study, to elucidate the structures of the epithelial barrier in the human adenoid, including M-cells, we identified M-cells using an anti-cytokeratin 20 (Ck20) antibody and investigated expression of tight junction proteins in human ...
Hutnik Cindy M L - - 2008
PURPOSE: To determine the role of connexin43 (Cx43) and gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in the response of the human retinal pigment epithelial cell line ARPE-19 to oxidative stress. METHODS: ARPE-19 cells were treated with the chemical oxidant tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH), and cell viability was assessed by the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium ...
Shin, S.H.
Cell transistor and data retention time characteristics were studied in 90 nm design rule 512M-bit DRAM, for the first time. And, the characteristics of cell transistor are investigated for different STI gap-fill materials. HDP oxide with high compressive stress increases the threshold voltage of cell transistor, whereas the P-SOG oxide ...
Lin Jane H-C JH Department of Pathology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA. - - 2008
Preconditioning is an endogenous mechanism in which a nonlethal exposure increases cellular resistance to subsequent additional severe injury. Here we show that connexin 43 (Cx43) plays a key role in protection afforded by preconditioning. Cx43 null mice were insensitive to hypoxic preconditioning, whereas wild-type littermate mice exhibited a significant reduction ...
Clair Caroline - - 2008
Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, invades colonic epithelial cells to elicit an intense inflammatory reaction leading to destruction of the mucosa. ATP-dependent paracrine signalling induced by connexin (Cx) hemichannel opening was previously shown to favor Shigella flexneri invasion and dissemination in transfectants of HeLa cells [G. Tran Van ...
Chakravarty Rajdeep - - 2008
The Acidiphilium strains inhabit acidic mine regions where they are subjected to occasional environmental stresses such as high and low temperatures, exposure to various heavy metals, etc. Change in morphology is one of the strategies that bacteria adopt to cope with environmental stresses; however, no study on this aspect has ...
Schropp, R.E.I.
By implementing nanostructure in multiband-gap proto-Si/proto-SiGe/nc-Si:H triple junction n–i–p solar cells, a considerable improvement in performance has been achieved. The unalloyed active layers in the top and bottom cell of these triple junction cells are deposited by Hot-Wire CVD. A significant current enhancement is obtained by using textured Ag/ZnO back ...
Granek, F.
The relation between current and illumination intensity of three structures of high-efficiency back-junction back-contact silicon solar cells was analyzed. Both, n-type cells with non-diffused front surface and p-type cell with floating n-emitter show a pronounced non-linearity due to strong illumination dependence of the passivation quality of the non-diffused surface and ...
Udawatte Chandani - - 2008
PURPOSE: To determine whether taurine exerts a protective effect on retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells exposed to a cytotoxic agent, cytochrome C (cyC), shown previously to induce apoptosis and produce cell death in electrically coupled neighboring cells. METHODS: Monolayer cultures of confluent human RPE (ARPE-19) cells, which express gap-junctional proteins, ...
Banaz-Ya┼čar Ferya - - 2008
It is controversially discussed that irradiation induces bystander effects via gap junction channels and/or diffusible cellular factors such as nitric oxide or cytokines excreted from the cells into the environment. But up to now the molecular mechanism leading to a bystander response is not well understood. To discriminate between both ...
Czernik Marta - - 2008
Apigenin (4',5,7,-trihydroxyflavone) is a flavonoid abundant in the common fruits, herbs and vegetables constituting the bulk of the human diet. This study was aimed at quantifying the effects of apigenin on the basic cellular traits determining cancer development, i.e. cell proliferation, gap junctional coupling, and motility, using the Dunning rat ...
Lui Wing-Yee - - 2008
During spermatogenesis, intercellular junctions are dynamically remodeled to facilitate the translocation of developing germ cells from the basal to the adluminal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium. In particular, at stage VIII of the seminiferous epithelial cycle, timely restructuring of cell junctions localized at the blood-testis barrier and apical ectoplasmic specializations ...
Bohrmann Johannes - - 2008
BACKGROUND: In the Drosophila ovary, germ-line and soma cells are interconnected via gap junctions. The main gap-junction proteins in invertebrates are members of the innexin family. In order to reveal the role that innexins play in cell-cell communication during oogenesis, we investigated the localization of innexins 1, 2, 3 and ...
Kédinger Valérie - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Despite numerous in vivo evidences that Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Factor 4 (TRAF4) plays a key biological function, how it works at the cellular and molecular level remains elusive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we show using immunofluorescence and immuohistochemistry that TRAF4 is a novel player at the ...
Komura Hitomi - - 2008
Afadin directly links nectin, an immunoglobulin-like cell-cell adhesion molecule, to actin filaments (F-actin) at adherens junctions (AJs). The nectin-afadin complex is important for the formation of not only AJs but also tight junctions (TJs) in epithelial cells. Studies using afadin-knockout mice have revealed that afadin is indispensable for embryonic development ...
Nishimura Noriyuki - - 2008
The dynamic turnover of adherens junctions (AJs) and tight junctions (TJs) is essential for epithelial morphogenesis during normal development and differentiation. Although the endocytic recycling of E-cadherin is characterized and implicated in AJ turnover, the molecular basis for TJ turnover is poorly understood. Occludin and claudins are distinct transmembrane proteins ...
Rubin Harry - - 2008
A comprehensive listing with accompanying discussions is given for established cases of interactions between normal and neoplastic cells of the same histotype that suppress neoplastic development. General principles that apply to the process are: (a) the requirement for a large excess of normal cells in direct contact with the neoplastic ...
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