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Results 251 - 300 of 1726
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Adachi Makoto - - 2009
MUPP1 and Patj are both composed of an L27 domain and multiple PDZ domains (13 and 10 domains, respectively) and are localized to tight junctions (TJs) in epithelial cells. Although Patj is known to be responsible for the organization of TJs and epithelial polarity, characterization of MUPP1 is lacking. In ...
Inai Tetsuichiro - - 2009
Claudins constitute tight junction (TJ) strands. In order to examine the function of the second extracellular loop (ECL2), we constructed 1CLDeltaFY and 1CLDeltaPL in which highly conserved amino acids, FY or PL, in the ECL2 of mouse claudin-1 were deleted. They were then tagged with either EGFP at the NH(2)-terminus ...
Decrock E - - 2009
Evidence is accumulating that some forms of cell death, like apoptosis, are not only governed by the complex interplay between extracellular and intracellular signals but are also strongly influenced by intercellular communicative networks. The latter is provided by arrays of channels consisting of connexin proteins, with gap junctions directly connecting ...
Shijie Jin - - 2009
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. Despite a variety of anti-inflammatory or immunomodulation drugs including interferon-beta are effective to reduce relapse risk, most patients have progressive neurological deterioration due to axonal degeneration. Accumulation of activated microglia is a pathological hallmark ...
DeRosa Adam M - - 2009
Mutations in Connexin50 (Cx50) cause cataracts in both humans and mice. The mechanism(s) behind how mutated connexins lead to a variety of cataracts have yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we tested whether the cataract inducing Cx50-S50P mutant interacts with wild-type Connexin43 (Cx43) to form mixed channels with attenuated function. ...
Hagen Anja - - 2009
AIMS: Ventricular arrhythmia is one of the most important causes of death in industrialized countries and often accompanies myocardial infarction and heart failure. In recent years modification of gap-junctional coupling has been proposed as a new antiarrhythmic principle. We wanted to examine whether the gap junction modulator (antiarrhythmic peptide) AAP10 ...
Chen Chien-Lin - - 2009
Protein kinase C (PKC) delta, a member of the novel PKC subfamily, has been shown to have an important role in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and cell motility. In this study, we investigated the effect of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-PKCdelta and GFP-PKCalpha on cell-cell junctions of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) ...
Gillum Nikki - - 2009
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a widely used plasticizer found in a variety of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) medical products. The results of studies in experimental animals suggest that DEHP leached from flexible PVC tubing may cause health problems in some patient populations. While the cancerogenic and reproductive effects of DEHP are ...
Banks Eric A - - 2009
The connexin (Cx) 50, E48K, mutation is associated with a human dominant congenital cataract; however, the underlying molecular mechanism has not been characterized. The glutamate (E) residue at position 48 is highly conserved across animal species and types of connexins. When expressed in paired Xenopus oocytes, human (h) and chicken ...
Krishnan, P.
We studied the response to various realistic outdoor conditions of thin-film silicon-based triple-band-gap, triple-junction cells that were made in house. The triple-junction cells consist of a stack of proto-Si:H/proto-SiGe:H/nanocrystalline (nc)-Si:H cells in an n–i–p configuration, fabricated using hot-wire chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Current matching was determined for modeled spectra of ...
Jekir Michael G - - 2009
Bone formation occurs in vivo in response to mechanical stimuli, but the signaling pathways involved remain unclear. The ability of bone cells to communicate with each other in the presence of an applied load may influence the overall osteogenic response. The goal of this research was to determine whether inhibiting ...
Ionta Marisa - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) is considered to play a role in the regulation of homeostasis because it regulates important processes, such as cell proliferation and cell differentiation. A reduced or lost GJIC capacity has been observed in solid tumors and studies have demonstrated that GJIC restoration in tumor ...
Lehmann Andrea D - - 2009
Using an in vitro triple cell co-culture model consisting of human epithelial cells (16HBE14o-), monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells, it was recently demonstrated that macrophages and dendritic cells create a transepithelial network between the epithelial cells to capture antigens without disrupting the epithelial tightness. The expression of the different tight ...
Trivedi Varun - - 2009
Microdroplet systems can drastically reduce costs and increase throughput in high throughput screening (HTS) assays. While droplets are well suited for biomolecular screening, cell-based screens are more problematic because eukaryotes typically require attachment to solid supports to maintain viability and function. This paper describes an economical, off-the-shelf microfluidic system which ...
Yang Song - - 2009
This protocol describes a fluorescence imaging assay, local activation of molecular fluorescent probes (LAMP), for measuring rates of intercellular dye transfer across gap junction channels in intact living cells. The LAMP method consists of four steps: (i) loading cells with a cell-permeable and photo-activatable fluorophore, NPE-HCCC2/AM (acetoxymethyl ester); (ii) locally ...
Finlayson Alexander E - - 2009
Invasion through the extracellular matrix (ECM) is important for wound healing, immunological responses and metastasis. We established an invasion-based cell motility screen using Boyden chambers overlaid with Matrigel to select for pro-invasive genes. By this method we identified antisense to MARCKS related protein (MRP), whose family member MARCKS is a ...
Lee Nikki P Y - - 2009
Even though various contraceptive methods are widely available, the number of unwanted pregnancies is still on the rise in developing countries, pressurizing the already resource limited nations. One of the major underlying reasons is the lack of effective, low cost, and safe contraceptives for couples. During the past decade, some ...
Bangiyeva Valentina - - 2009
In von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease, germline mutations in the VHL tumor suppressor gene cause clear cell renal carcinomas, hemangioblastomas, and pheochromocytomas. The VHL gene product is part of an ubiquitin E3 ligase complex and hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF-alpha) is a key substrate, although additional VHL functions have been described. A ...
Sims Kenneth K - - 2009
Joints are essential for skeletal form and function, yet their development remains poorly understood. In zebrafish fins, joints form between the bony fin ray segments providing essentially unlimited opportunities to evaluate joint morphogenesis. Mutations in cx43 cause the short segment phenotype of short fin (sof(b123)) mutants, suggesting that direct cell-cell ...
Pannekoek Willem-Jan - - 2009
Rap proteins are Ras-like small GTP-binding proteins that amongst others are involved in the control of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. Several Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RapGEFs) function to activate Rap. These multi-domain proteins, which include C3G, Epacs, PDZ-GEFs, RapGRPs and DOCK4, are regulated by various different stimuli and may ...
Rühle Sven - - 2008
Enhanced light to electric power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells with a low absorbance was achieved using waveguide integration. We present a proof of concept using a very thin dye-sensitized solar cell which absorbed only a small fraction of the light at normal incidence. The glass substrate in conjunction with ...
Boswell Bruce A - - 2009
The cells of the lens are joined by an extensive network of gap junction intercellular channels consisting of connexins 43, 46, and 50. We have proposed, and experimentally supported, the hypothesis that fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is required for upregulation of gap junction-mediated intercellular coupling (GJIC) at the lens ...
Balda Maria S MS Division of Cell Biology, Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, London EC1V 9EL, UK. - - 2009
Cell adhesion is a key regulator of cell differentiation. Cell interactions with neighboring cells and the extracellular matrix regulate gene expression, cell proliferation, polarity and apoptosis. Apical cell-cell junctions participate in these processes using different types of proteins, some of them exhibit nuclear and junctional localization and are called NACos ...
Yao Jian - - 2009
The juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) is a specialized contact region between the glomerulus and the cortical thick ascending limb that plays an active role in the maintenance of ion homeostasis and control of blood pressure. The JGA accommodates several different cell types, including vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, mesangial cells, ...
Du Dan - - 2009
Cell-cell contacts are crucial for the integrity of all tissues. Contrasting reports have been published about the role of Cdc42 in epithelial cell-cell contacts in vitro. In keratinocytes, it was suggested that Rac1 and not Cdc42 is crucial for the formation of mature epithelial junctions, based on dominant negative inhibition ...
Neuhaus Winfried - - 2008
In the course of the validation of blood-brain barrier in vitro models the aim of this work was to characterize two promising continuous cell lines with regard to their tightness properties. PBMEC/C1-2 and ECV304 cells were cultured in several media with different compositions on Transwell inserts. Inducibility and functionality of ...
Overgaard Christian E - - 2009
Stress-induced shedding of motile cilia (autotomy) has been documented in diverse organisms and likely represents a conserved cellular reaction. However, little is known about whether primary cilia are shed from mammalian epithelial cells and what impact deciliation has on polarized cellular organization. We show that several chemically distinct agents trigger ...
Rauzi Matteo - - 2008
The morphogenesis of developing embryos and organs relies on the ability of cells to remodel their contacts with neighbouring cells. Using quantitative modelling and laser nano-dissection, we probed the mechanics of a morphogenetic process, the elongation of Drosophila melanogaster embryos, which results from polarized cell neighbour exchanges. We show that ...
Zhao Yaodong - - 2008
Although the ultrastructural features of several brain tumor cells have been studied in details, the ultrastructure of glioma stem cells/progenitors cells (GSPC) has rarely been reported. In this paper, the authors describe the ultrastructural features of GSPCs isolated from both a glioma tissue and the human glioma cell SHG-44 cell ...
Mols, Yves
Lattice-matched and metamorphic III-V multijunction solar cell development is described in this thesis. More specifically that of In0.495Ga0.505P / In0.01Ga0.99As and In0.65Ga0.35P / In0.17Ga0.83As dual junction cells on germanium, respectively. Combined with a germanium bottom cell, they can be used as top structure in the mechanical stack under development at ...
Michikawa Hiromi - - 2008
In salivary glands, primary saliva is produced by acini and is modified by the reabsorption and secretion of ions in the ducts. Thus, the permeability of intercellular junctions in the ducts is considered to be lower than in the acini. We have examined the relationship between the expressed claudin isotypes ...
Hatakeyama Naoko - - 2008
Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is expressed in many tissues, including bone, and acts on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts as an autocrine/paracrine regulator. Tight-junction proteins have been detected in osteoblasts, and direct cell-to-cell interactions may modulate osteoblast function with respect, for example, to gap junctions. In order to ...
Yu Qing-Hua - - 2009
The gastrointestinal epithelium, which is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells, including enterocytes, intraepithelial lymphocytes, goblet cells, microfold cells, and dendritic cells, serves as a protective barrier separating luminal contents from the underlying tissue compartments. The epithelium plays an important role in the first line of host defense ...
Eugenin E A EA Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, New York, NY 10461, USA. - - 2009
Cell to cell communication is essential for the organization/coordination of multicellular systems and cellular development. Cellular communication is mediated by soluble factors, including growth factors, neurotransmitters, cytokines/chemokines, gap junctions, and the recently described tunneling nanotubes (TNT). TNT are long cytoplasmatic bridges that enable long range directed communication between cells. The ...
Lee On-Tat - - 2008
PURPOSE: To assess the ultrastructural and fluid flow characteristics of cultured trabecular meshwork (TM) cells derived from fetal sources. METHODS: Fetal eyes were carefully dissected to isolate the developing TM tissue for culture. Immunostaining was used to assess the expression of the junction-associated proteins zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin. Fetal ...
Yang M D - - 2008
We studied the photoluminescence (PL) and photovoltaic current-voltage characteristics of the three-junction InGaP/InGaAs/Ge solar cells by depositing Au nanoclusters on the cell surface. The increases of the PL intensity and short-circuit current after incorporation of Au nanoclusters are evident. An increase of 15.3% in energy conversion efficiency (from 19.6 to ...
Kibschull M - - 2008
Here, we review the expression, localization and the possible role of the different connexin isoforms in placental function and development in mice and men. Connexin gene deletion in mice has shown that Cx26 is responsible for transplacental uptake of glucose in the labyrinth, and Cx31 as well as Cx31.1 for ...
Edwards Gareth Owain - - 2008
Gap junctions comprised of connexin proteins are involved in direct intercellular communication and the regulation of cell behaviour and homeostasis. Reduced connexin expression and loss of gap junction function is a characteristic of many cancer cells and of the effect of many non-genotoxic carcinogens that induce cell proliferation. Moreover, when ...
Guo Yan-Ming - - 2008
To study the physiological regulation and function of cell-cell gap junction communication in vivo, we developed a bioconjugate of caged dye, named dextran-CANPE-HCC, for imaging cell coupling in small model organisms. In vitro, the compound was photolyzed efficiently with robust fluorescence enhancement. Dextran-CANPE-HCC delivered into Caenorhabditis elegans oocytes was retained ...
Defranco Bado Hewa - - 2008
Cell migration is an essential process in organ development, differentiation, and wound healing, and it has been hypothesized that gap junctions play a pivotal role in these cell processes. However, the changes in gap junctions and the capacity for cell communication as cells migrate are unclear. To monitor gap junction ...
Burt Janis M - - 2008
In addition to providing a pathway for intercellular communication, the gap junction-forming proteins, connexins, can serve a growth-suppressive function that is both connexin and cell-type specific. To assess its potential growth-suppressive function, we stably introduced connexin 37 (Cx37) into connexin-deficient, tumorigenic rat insulinoma (Rin) cells under the control of an ...
Meier, Johannes
Tandem solar cells with a microcrystalline silicon bottom cell (1 eV gap) and an amorphous-silicon top cell (1.7 eV gap) have recently been introduced by the authors; they were designated as “micromorph” tandem cells. As of now, stabilised efficiencies of 11.2% have been achieved for micromorph tandem cells, whereas a ...
Feitknecht, Luc
In the present paper, we report on thin-film microcrystalline silicon solar cells grown at high deposition rates on back-reflectors with optimised light-scattering capabilities. A single-junction solar cell with a conversion efficiency of η=7.8% (2 μm thickness) was fabricated at a deposition rate of 7.4 Å/s. Another microcrystalline cell was successfully ...
Putaala Heli - - 2008
Controversy exists as to whether contact between a probiotic bacterial cell and an epithelial cell in the gut is needed to confer beneficial effects of probiotics, or whether metabolites from probiotics are sufficient to cause this effect. To address this question, Caco-2 cells were treated with cell-free supernatants of four ...
Huang Ruby Yun-Ju - - 2008
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), known as the "ovarian cancer activating factor," is a natural phospholipid involved in important biological functions, such as cell proliferation, wound healing and neurite retraction. LPA causes colony dispersal in various carcinoma cell lines by inducing morphological changes, including membrane ruffling, lamellipodia formation, cell-cell dissociation and single ...
Sherer Nathan M - - 2008
Cells use a variety of intercellular structures, including gap junctions and synapses, for cell-cell communication. Here, we present recent advances in the understanding of thin membrane bridges that function in cell-cell signaling and intercellular transport. Cytonemes or filopodial bridges connect neighboring cells via mechanisms of adhesion, which enable ligand-receptor-mediated transfer ...
Van Hoof Dennis - - 2008
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are often cocultured on mitotically inactive fibroblast feeder cells to maintain their undifferentiated state. Under these growth conditions, hESCs form multilayered colonies of morphologically heterogeneous cells surrounded by flattened mesenchymal cells. In contrast, hESCs grown in feeder cell-conditioned medium on Matrigel instead tend to grow ...
Guell Iris - - 2009
Currently there is an increasing demand for high-throughput methods to identify and to verify the potential of new drug candidates. Cell-based microelectronic biosensors might be powerful tools for rapid screening assays. However, reliable cultivation of cells is influenced by the material characteristics and the surface topography of the wafers serving ...
Daniel-Wójcik Anna - - 2008
Connexins and gap junctions play a crucial role during carcinogenesis. While diverse regulatory systems have been shown to modulate their function, the influence of cell motility on the intensity of gap junctional intercellular coupling has yet to be systematically addressed. Since cancer cell motility and intercellular coupling determine cancer development, ...
Zhou De-Rong - - 2008
Previous studies showed that gossypol could block the gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) between cultured cells. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of gossypol on the GJIC and the expression of connexin43 (Cx43) in the cultured cells. A Sertoli cell line, TM4, was treated with different concentrations ...
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