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Results 201 - 250 of 1726
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Abouhamed Marouan M Institute of General Zoology and Genetics, Westfalian Wilhelms University, 48149 Münster, - - 2009
The ependymal multiciliated epithelium in the brain restricts the cerebrospinal fluid to the cerebral ventricles and regulates its flow. We report here that mice deficient for myosin IXa (Myo9a), an actin-dependent motor molecule with a Rho GTPase-activating (GAP) domain, develop severe hydrocephalus with stenosis and closure of the ventral caudal ...
Fu Lin Shien LS Division of Immunology and Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan. - - 2009
In addition to being an allergen, the trypsin activity of dust mite extract also destroys the tight junctions of bronchial epithelium. Such damage can lead to airway leakage, which increases airway exposure to allergens, irritants, and other pathogens. Dioscorin, the storage protein of yam, demonstrates anti-trypsin activity, as well as ...
Zou Li L Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, 306 Center for Bioengineering, 300 Technology Drive, Pittsburgh, PA 15219, - - 2009
Profilin-1 (Pfn1), a ubiquitously expressed actin-binding protein, is downregulated in several different types of adenocarcinoma and elicits tumor-suppressive effect on breast cancer cell lines. MDA-MB-231 (MDA-231), a breast cancer cell line that displays all the characteristics of post-epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and does not form cell-cell adhesion, can be reverted to an ...
Kimura Kazuhiro - - 2010
The barrier function of the corneal epithelium maintains corneal homeostasis and is mediated by tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs). It is also susceptible to disruption by hypoxia. We have now examined the effects of hypoxia on TJs and AJs as well as on barrier function in human corneal ...
Simovitch Michal - - 2010
Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli and enteropathogenic E. coli are enteropathogens characterized by their ability to induce the host cell to form actin-rich structures, termed pedestals. A type III secretion system, through which the pathogens deliver effector proteins into infected host cells, is essential for their virulence and pedestal formation. Enterohaemorrhagic E. ...
Gilleron Jerome - - 2009
Cx43 gap junctions are essential for proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of germ cells during spermatogenesis. However, only few and indirect observations have been reported on the distribution of Cx43, the predominant Cx within the seminiferous tubules. In the present study, we developed an innovative method that allows visualization of the ...
Cavey Matthieu - - 2009
Epithelial cell-cell junctions are formed by apical adherens junctions (AJs), which are composed of cadherin adhesion molecules interacting in a dynamic way with the cortical actin cytoskeleton. Regulation of cell-cell junction stability and dynamics is crucial to maintain tissue integrity and allow tissue remodeling throughout development. Actin filament turnover and ...
Foss Brynjar - - 2010
Normal and malignant hematopoiesis are regulated by intercellular communication in the hematopoietic microenvironments, and both soluble mediators as well as direct cell-cell contact play important functional roles. Gap junctions are complex membrane structures that transfer molecules between neighboring cells and thereby alter intracellular signaling and metabolism. The gap junction building ...
Huang Tao - - 2010
Proteasome inhibition is a promising approach for cancer therapy. However, the mechanisms involved have not been fully elucidated. Gap junctions play important roles in the regulation of tumor cell phenotypes and mediation of the bystander effect in cancer therapy. Because the degradation of gap junction proteins involves the proteasome, we ...
Ai Xun - - 2010
We have shown that failing human and rabbit left ventricle (LV) exhibits downregulation and dephosphorylation of connexin43 (Cx43) and that Cx43 dephosphorylation in heart failure (HF) contributes to reduced cell coupling. However, the role of Cx43 downregulation per se in impaired coupling in HF is unclear. First, we used adenovirus ...
Tekpli X - - 2010
Gap junctions are channels in plasma membrane composed of proteins called connexins. These channels are organized in special domains between cells, and provide for direct gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), allowing diffusion of signalling molecules <1 kD. GJIC regulates cell homeostasis and notably the balance between proliferation, cell cycle arrest, ...
Chiari Claudia - - 2010
1. Urbanization is a landscape process affecting biodiversity world-wide. Despite many urban-rural studies of bird assemblages, it is still unclear whether more species-rich communities have more individuals, regardless of the level of urbanization. The more-individuals hypothesis assumes that species-rich communities have larger populations, thus reducing the chance of local extinctions. ...
Oberritter Zsolt - - 2009
PURPOSE: Peristaltic contractions propel urine unidirectionally from the renal pelvis trough the ureter and into the bladder. A morphologically and functionally competent ureterovesical junction prevents vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). According to current knowledge, pyeloureteral peristalsis is driven by atypical muscle cells within the upper urinary tract. Another likely relevant cell population, ...
Walter Britta - - 2010
Protein p0071 is a member of the p120-subfamily of armadillo proteins and is well known as a junctional plaque component involved in cell-cell adhesion, especially in adherens junctions. By systematic immunohistochemical analysis of mouse and human kidney tissues, p0071 was prominently detected in distinct kidney tubules. Upon double-labeling immunolocalization experiments ...
Kihara Alexandre H - - 2010
Connexin (Cx) channels and hemichannels are involved in essential processes during nervous system development such as apoptosis, propagation of spontaneous activity and interkinetic nuclear movement. In the first part of this study, we extensively characterized Cx gene and protein expression during retinal histogenesis. We observed distinct spatio-temporal patterns among studied ...
McCrea Pierre D - - 2009
Cell-cell junctions continue to capture the interest of cell and developmental biologists, with an emerging area being the molecular means by which junctional signals relate to gene activity in the nucleus. Although complexities often arise in determining the direct versus indirect nature of such signal transduction, it is clear that ...
Kimura Kazuhiro - - 2010
Corneal epithelial cells communicate with each other through gap junctions. Whereas this property is retained in corneal epithelial cells in primary culture, it is often lost in immortalized epithelial cells. However, the life span of primary cultured corneal epithelial cells is short and the availability of human tissue for their ...
Tramoni Mathieu - - 2009
The potential health impact of pharmaceutical waste is now a growing concern. Contraceptive steroids are prominent environmental contaminants and thus may act as endocrine disruptors. Numerous xenobiotics hamper Sertoli cells junctional communication which is known to participate in spermatogenesis control. This has been associated with male subfertility and testicular cancer. ...
Ale-Agha Niloofar - - 2009
Chronic inhalation of quartz particles has been implicated in lung diseases including silicosis and cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate whether quartz particles affect gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in rat lung epithelial cells (RLE-6TN). Here, we demonstrate that exposure of RLE-6TN cells to subtoxic doses of ...
Delous Marion - - 2009
Nephronophthisis (NPH) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by renal fibrosis, tubular basement membrane disruption and corticomedullary cyst formation leading to end-stage renal failure. The disease is caused by mutations in NPHP1-9 genes, which encode the nephrocystins, proteins localized to cell-cell junctions and centrosome/primary cilia. Here, we show that nephrocystin ...
Valiunas V - - 2009
We examined whether coupling of a ventricular myocyte to a non-myocyte cell expressing HCN2 could create a two-cell syncytium capable of generating sustained pacing. Three non-myocyte cell types were transfected with the mHCN2 gene and used as sources of mHCN2-induced currents. They were human mesenchymal stem cells and HEK293 cells, ...
Liu Cheng-Ling - - 2009
Fucoxanthin is one of the most abundant carotenoids found in Undaria pinnatifida and has been shown to inhibit tumor proliferation in vitro. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-cancer effects of fucoxanthin are unclear. In this study, we hypothesized that fucoxanthin may cause cell cycle arrest and enhance gap junctional intercellular ...
Rhee David Y - - 2009
Connexin 43 knockout (Cx43 KO) mice exhibit conotruncal malformations and coronary artery defects. We observed epicardial blisters in the Cx43 KO hearts that suggest defects in epicardial epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT), a process that generates coronary vascular progenitors. Analysis using a three-dimensional collagen gel invasion assay showed that Cx43 KO epicardial ...
Minogue Peter J PJ Department of Pediatrics, Section of Hematology/Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, - - 2009
To determine the consequences of expression of a novel connexin50 (CX50) mutant identified in a child with congenital total cataracts. The GJA8 gene was directly sequenced. Formation of functional channels was assessed by the two-microelectrode voltage-clamp Connexin protein levels and distribution were assessed by immunoblot analysis and immunofluorescence. The proportion ...
Chen Kun-Huang - - 2009
This work proposes a simple method, based on the crystal rotation technique and heterodyne interferometry, to simultaneously determine the pretilt angle and cell gap of nematic liquid crystal cells. When heterodyne light passes through a nematic liquid crystal cell, the phase retardation given by the characteristic parameters of the cell ...
Huang Tao - - 2009
Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) plays a critical role in the control of multiple cell behavior as well as in the maintenance of tissue and organ homeostasis. However, mechanisms involved in the regulation of gap junctions (GJs) have not been fully understood. Given endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and dysfunction of ...
Altun Zeynep F ZF Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA. - - 2009
The innexin family of gap junction proteins has 25 members in Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we describe the first high-resolution expression map of all members through analysis of live worms transformed with green fluorescent protein under the control of entire promoter regions. Our analyses show that innexins have dynamic expression patterns ...
Sheikh Farah F Department of Medicine, University of California-San Diego, CA 92093, - - 2009
Intercalated disks (ICDs) are highly organized cell-cell adhesion structures, which connect cardiomyocytes to one another. They are composed of three major complexes: desmosomes, fascia adherens, and gap junctions. Desmosomes and fascia adherens junction are necessary for mechanically coupling and reinforcing cardiomyocytes, whereas gap junctions are essential for rapid electrical transmission ...
Orlichenko Lidiya - - 2009
Remodeling of cell-cell contacts through the internalization of adherens junction proteins is an important event during both normal development and the process of tumor cell metastasis. Here we show that the integrity of tumor cell-cell contacts is disrupted after epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation through caveolae-mediated endocytosis of the adherens ...
Russ Patricia K PK Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, - - 2010
Blood vessel epicardial substance (Bves) is a novel adhesion molecule that regulates tight junction (TJ) formation. TJs also modulate RhoA signaling, which has been implicated in outflow regulation. Given that Bves has been reported in multiple ocular tissues, the authors hypothesize that Bves plays a role in the regulation of ...
Rosselló Ricardo A RA Departments of Biomedical Engineering, Biologic and Materials Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1078, - - 2009
Gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) is ubiquitous in the majority of vertebrate cells and is required for the proper development of most tissues. The loss of gap junction-mediated cell-to-cell communication leads to compromised development in many tissues and organs. Because cells constantly interact through gap junctions to coordinate tissue functions ...
Liovic Mirjana - - 2009
The intermediate filament cytoskeleton is essential for the development and maintenance of normal tissue function. A number of diverse recent observations implicate these filament systems in sensing stress and protecting cells against its worst consequences. Cells expressing severely disruptive keratin mutations, characteristic of Dowling-Meara EBS, were previously reported to show ...
Klein Hannah L HL Department of Biochemistry, New York University Langone Medical Center, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA. - - 2009
The SLX4 protein functions as a platform for catalytic subunits of structure-specific endonucleases. Findings reported in Cell (Fekairi et al., 2009; Svendsen et al., 2009) and in Molecular Cell (Andersen et al., 2009; Muñoz et al., 2009) now identify the human SLX4 and show that in association with the SLX1 ...
He Donghong - - 2009
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive phospholipid, induces a wide range of cellular effects, including gene expression, cytoskeletal rearrangement, and cell survival. We have previously shown that LPA stimulates secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in bronchial epithelial cells. This study provides evidence that LPA enhances pulmonary epithelial barrier integrity through ...
Geletu Mulu - - 2009
Neoplastic transformation by oncogenes such as activated Src is known to suppress gap junctional, intercellular communication (GJIC). One of the Src effector pathways leading to GJIC suppression and transformation is the Ras/Raf/Mek/Erk, so that inhibition of this pathway in vSrc-transformed cells restores GJIC. A distinct Src downstream effector required for ...
Lee Hyun-Shik - - 2009
Cell-cell adhesion is a critical process for the formation and maintenance of tissue patterns during development, as well as invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. Although great strides have been made regarding our understanding of the processes that play a role in cell-cell adhesion, the precise mechanisms by which diverse ...
Hofgaard Johannes P - - 2009
Intercellular communication via gap junction channels can be quantified by several methods based on diffusion of fluorescent dyes or metabolites. Given the variation in intercellular coupling of cells, even under untreated control conditions, it is of essence to quantify the coupling between numerous cells to obtain reliable estimates of metabolic ...
Johnson Jessica L - - 2009
Tetraspanins regulate integrin-dependent tumor cell interactions with the extracellular matrix. Here we show that tetraspanin CD151, which plays critical roles in regulating the adhesion and motility of individual tumor cells, is also an important regulator of collective tumor cell migration. Near total silencing of CD151 destabilizes E-cadherin-dependent carcinoma cell-cell junctions ...
Warner Stephen J - - 2009
Maintenance and remodeling of adherens junctions (AJs) and cell shape in epithelia are necessary for the development of functional epithelia and are commonly altered during cancer progression/metastasis. Although formation of nascent AJs has received much attention, whether shared mechanisms are responsible for the maintenance and remodeling of AJs in dynamic ...
McSpadden Luke C LC Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, - - 2009
Understanding how electrotonic loading of cardiomyocytes by unexcitable cells alters cardiac impulse conduction may be highly relevant to fibrotic heart disease. In this study, we optically mapped electrical propagation in confluent, aligned neonatal rat cardiac monolayers electrotonically loaded with cardiac fibroblasts, control human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells, or HEK-293 cells ...
Aho Sirpa - - 2009
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: We characterized previously a cellular protein through its interaction with cellular and viral transcription factors from the bZip family. The corresponding mRNA was detected in a wide range of cell types and the protein was highly expressed in the nucleus of human keratinocytes. On the basis of these ...
Formigli Lucia - - 2009
The possibility that resident myocardial progenitor cells may be re-activated by transplantation of exogenous stem cells into the post-infarcted heart has been suggested as a possible mechanism to explain the heart's functional improvement after stem cell therapy. Here we studied whether differentiation of mouse neonatal immature cardiomyocytes in vitro was ...
Takehara Masaya - - 2009
Alteration in the expression of claudins, consisting of tight junctions (TJs), has been reported in various clinically isolated tumors. Claudins play an important role not only in the intercellular barrier function of TJs but also in migration and invasiveness of cancer cells. However, the use of different types of cells ...
Retamal Mauricio A - - 2009
Gap-junction hemichannels are composed of six protein subunits (connexins). Undocked hemichannels contribute to physiological autocrine/paracrine cell signaling, including release of signaling molecules, cell-volume regulation, and glucose uptake. In addition, hemichannels may be pathologically activated by dephosphorylation and cell-membrane depolarization. Such hemichannel opening may induce and/or accelerate cell death. It has ...
Streets Andrew J - - 2009
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited human renal disease and is caused by mutations in two genes, PKD1 (85%) and PKD2 (15%). Cyst epithelial cells are characterised by a complex cellular phenotype including changes in proliferation, apoptosis, basement membrane composition and apicobasal polarity. Since polycystin ...
Peterson-Roth Elizabeth E Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, - - 2009
Cisplatin-induced cell death can be triggered by cell-to-cell communication through gap junctions. Here, we show that activated src produces tyrosine phosphorylation of the gap junction protein connexin 43, decreases gap junction communication, and increases cell survival in response to cisplatin. Experiments with mixed cell populations show that src activity in ...
Harada Kosaku - - 2009
The aim of the present study was to clarify the mechanisms of cell death induced by heavy-ion irradiation focusing on the bystander effect in human lung cancer A549 cells. In microbeam irradiation, each of 1, 5, and 25 cells under confluent cell conditions was irradiated with 1, 5, or 10 ...
Lawler Karen - - 2009
Metastatic disease is dependent on tumor cell migration through the venous and lymphatic systems and requires dynamic rearrangement of adherens junctions. Endocytosis of cadherins is a key mechanism to dynamically arrange adherens junctions, signaling, and motility in tumor cells; however, the role of shear in regulating this process in metastatic ...
Rechavi Oded - - 2009
The recent recognition of new types of cell-cell communication pathways challenges classic theories of cell autonomy. Evidence of functional "proteome mixing" among interacting cells, particularly immune cells, supports the notion that no cell is an island, and that even these "unsplittable" units are actually non-autonomous. We summarize various mechanisms of ...
Saffitz Jeffrey E - - 2009
Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy is characterized by a high incidence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias, which often occur early in the disease before significant ventricular remodeling or contractile dysfunction develops. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is the most common clinicopathological form of this group of diseases, but left ventricular and biventricular forms have been ...
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