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Results 451 - 500 of 1726
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Rubin Harry - - 2007
Ordered heterogeneity was introduced as a basic feature of the living state in the mid-1950s. It was later expanded to "order in the large over heterogeneity in the small" as the first principle of a theory of organisms. Several examples of ordered heterogeneity were given at the time to illustrate ...
Szmydynger-Chodobska Joanna - - 2007
There is an increasing interest in using choroid plexus (CP) epithelial cell lines to study the properties of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). Currently, there are three major CP-derived cell lines available. Z310 and TR-CSFB3, two immortalized cell lines carrying the simian virus 40 large T-antigen gene, were derived from ...
Hui Elliot E - - 2007
The role of the cellular microenvironment is recognized as crucial in determining cell fate and function in virtually all mammalian tissues from development to malignant transformation. In particular, interaction with neighboring stroma has been implicated in a plethora of biological phenomena; however, conventional techniques limit the ability to interrogate the ...
Jiang Jean Xin - - 2007
Gap junctions formed by connexins (Cx) play an important role in transmitting signals between bone cells such as osteoblasts and osteoclasts, cells responsible for bone formation and bone remodeling, respectively. Gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) has been demonstrated to mediate the process of osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Furthermore, GJIC ...
Sul Ah Ram - - 2006
This study investigated that whether a 2 mT, 60 Hz, sinusoidal electromagnetic field (EMF) alters the structure and function of cells. This research compared the effects of EMF on four kinds of cell lines: hFOB 1.19 (fetal osteoblast), T/G HA-VSMC (aortic vascular smooth muscle cell), RPMI 7666 (B lymphoblast), and ...
Philip J. Auter
This study looked at young adult cell phone usage patterns. Results of a survey of 182 students at a large southern university revealed that respondents typically used their phones an average of 10.5 hours per week &ndash; the overwhelming majority of that with traditional calling. Features and services that were ...
Tomišić, Vladislav
Calibration of glass-electrode cells with and without transference in terms of hydrogen ion concentration was performed by potentiometric titrations of aqueous solutions of two weak acids, 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propanediol hydrochloride, TrisHCl, and potassium hydrogenphthalate, with a strong base (KOH). Cell calibration parameters were computed from the titration data, along with the values ...
DeMond Andrew L - - 2006
The immunological synapse is a specialized intercellular junction between a T cell and a target cell that orchestrates the engagement of receptors and ligands in space and time as a means of regulating function. Here we introduce a reagent for controlling the spatial and temporal presentation of natural antigen to ...
Stong Benjamin C - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: Mutations in connexin (Cx) 26 are the most common cause of nonsyndromic hereditary hearing impairments. Our goal is to investigate molecular mechanisms responsible for hearing impairment caused by various types of Cx26 mutations. STUDY DESIGN: Mutant Cxs linked to deafness were expressed in HEK293 cells. The permeability of reconstituted ...
Ponsioen Bas - - 2007
Gap junctions (GJ) are clusters of transmembrane channels that allow direct cell-to-cell transfer of ions and small molecules. The GJ-permeant signaling molecule cAMP is of particular interest because of its numerous cellular effects. However, to assess the biological relevance of GJ-mediated cAMP transfer, quantitative aspects must be determined. Here we ...
Elleder M - - 2006
Gaucher disease (GD), deficiency of acid glucosylceramidase (GlcCer-ase) is characterized by deficient degradation of beta-glucosylceramide (GlcCer). It is well known that, in GD, the lysosomal accumulation of uncleaved GlcCer is limited to macrophages, which are gradually converted to storage cells with well known cytology--Gaucher cells (GCs). On the basis of ...
Frank Douglas K - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Our laboratory is investigating the role that gap junction intercellular channels (composed of proteins called connexins) play in communicating apoptotic signals from therapeutically targeted squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) cells to adjacent, untreated, "bystander" cells (bystander effect). The nature of this research underscores the importance ...
Lewis B Mary - - 2006
Adenosine is known to stimulate interleukin (IL)-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion from pituitary TtT/GF folliculostellate [corrected] (FS) cells indicating that it is an important paracrine regulator of anterior pituitary function. This study demonstrates that rodent anterior pituitary cell lines produce extracellular adenosine that is able to increase ...
Hashido Masaya - - 2006
Cells communicate with each other to form organized structures by cell-cell adhesion and cell-cell repulsion, but it remains to be clarified how cell-cell contact information is converted into intracellular signals. Here, we show that cells in contact with neighbouring cells generate local transient intracellular Ca(2+) signals (Ca(2+) lightning). Ca(2+) lightning ...
Meyer zum Büschenfelde Dirk - - 2006
TFF3 plays an important role in the protection and repair of the gastrointestinal mucosa. The molecular mechanisms of TFF function, however, are still largely unknown. Increasing evidence indicates that apart from stabilizing mucosal mucins TFF3 induces cellular signals that modulate cell-cell junctions of epithelia. In transfected HT29/B6 and MDCK cells ...
Otani Tetsuhisa - - 2006
Epithelial cells are typically arranged in a honeycomb-like pattern, minimizing their cell-cell contact areas, which suggests that some tension operates for shaping of the cell boundaries. However, the molecular mechanisms that generate such tension remain unknown. We found that Tuba, which is a Cdc42-specific GEF, was concentrated at the apical-most ...
Kahiri Caroline N - - 2006
Connexin43 (Cx43) is the most abundantly expressed member of the connexin (gap junction protein) family and the only one so far identified in mouse Leydig cell gap junctions. Mice lacking Cx43 were used to investigate its role in testicular androgen production and regulation. Testes from term fetuses were grafted under ...
Gilleron Jerome - - 2006
There is strong evidence that thyroid hormones through triiodothyronine (T3) regulate Sertoli cell proliferation and differentiation in the neonatal testis. However, the mechanism(s) by which they are able to control Sertoli cell proliferation is unclear. In the present study in vivo approaches (PTU-induced neonatal hypothyroidism known to affect Sertoli cell ...
Davy Alice - - 2006
Mutations in X-linked ephrin-B1 in humans cause craniofrontonasal syndrome (CFNS), a disease that affects female patients more severely than males. Sorting of ephrin-B1-positive and -negative cells following X-inactivation has been observed in ephrin-B1(+/-) mice; however, the mechanisms by which mosaic ephrin-B1 expression leads to cell sorting and phenotypic defects remain ...
Adachi Makoto - - 2006
ZO-1, ZO-2, and ZO-3 are closely related MAGUK family proteins that localize at the cytoplasmic surface of tight junctions (TJs). ZO-1 and ZO-2 are expressed in both epithelia and endothelia, whereas ZO-3 is exclusively expressed in epithelia. In spite of intensive studies of these TJ MAGUKs, our knowledge of their ...
Wakamoto Yuichi - - 2006
Cell-to-cell communication is considered to underlie the coordinated behavior and the multicellularity of cell group class, which cannot be explained only by the knowledge of lower class of life system from molecule to individual cell, because they are determined by at least two different ways: diffusible chemical signals and their ...
Guo X Edward - - 2006
In this study, bone cells were successfully cultured into a micropatterned network with dimensions close to that of in vivo osteocyte networks using microcontact printing and self-assembled monolyers (SAMs). The optimal geometric parameters for the formation of these networks were determined in terms of circle diameters and line widths. Bone ...
Ichimiya Shingo - - 2006
The final elimination step of self-reactive T cells occurs in the medulla of the thymus where a complex framework provided by stromal cells supports an optimal milieu for their selection. Here we present evidence that tight junctions (TJs) widely join medullary stromal cells of the human thymus. Occludin (OCLN) and ...
Tabernero Arantxa - - 2006
Astrocytes play a well-established role in brain metabolism, being a key element in the capture of energetic compounds from the circulation and in their delivery to active neurons. Their metabolic status is affected in many pathological situations, such as gliomas, which are the most common brain tumors. This proliferative dysfunction ...
Shima Kaori - - 2006
To investigate the relationship between the expression of connexin in basaloid squamous cell carcinomas (BSCC) and their rapid proliferation and invasive potential, we examined the effect of overexpression of connexin 43 (Cx43) in a BSCC-derived cell line (BSC-OF). BSC-OF was transfected with Cx43 to obtain 15 clones with a stable ...
Luo Yan - - 2006
PURPOSE: ARPE-19 is a spontaneously transformed cell line of human RPE that is widely studied. This report examines its suitability for studying the tight junctions of the RPE. METHODS: ARPE-19 was maintained in standard medium or one of three reduced-serum medium formulations. The expression and distribution of cytoskeletal and junctional ...
Brunner Claudia A - - 2006
Cell motility is a fundamental process associated with many phenomena in nature, such as immune response, wound healing, and cancer metastasis. In these processes, cells must squeeze through cell layers, and we characterize this ability to actively produce forces and simultaneously adapt their shapes. We have measured forward forces up ...
Hoshi Hideo H Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, University of Texas at Houston-Health Science Center, 6431 Fannin, Rm. 7.024, Houston, TX 77030, - - 2006
Gap junctions have diverse roles in a wide variety of tissues and have recently become a subject of intense investigation in neural circuits where synchrony and oscillations may play an important part. In circuits where gap junctions are present, the possibility arises of identifying intercommunicating cells via introduction of tracer ...
Rehder Daniela - - 2006
Junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-A is an integral membrane protein at tight junctions of epithelial cells which associates with the cell polarity protein PAR-3. Here, we demonstrate that downregulation of JAM-A impairs the ability of MDCK II cells to form cysts in a three-dimensional matrix indicating the requirement of JAM-A for ...
Takahashi, Kohshin
In the blended solid of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and porphyrin (TPP)/TiO2 p-n hetero-junction solar cells, a photo-induced charge transfer between P3HT and TPP accelerated the charge separation in the depletion layer formed at the P3HT + TPP/TiO2 interface, enhancing the photovoltaic properties. For the blended cell containing zinc porphyrin as TPP, ...
Kalra Jessica - - 2006
It has been well established that the restoration of connexin expression in tumor cells often leads to a partial reversion of tumor cell phenotypes and increased growth control. In this study, a less-aggressive variant of MDA-MB-435 cells obtained from the MDA-MB-435 cell line was engineered to express gap junctional intercellular ...
Wild-Bode Christine - - 2006
ADAM10 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) initiates regulated intramembrane proteolysis by shedding the ectodomain of a number of different substrates. Shedding is followed by subsequent intramembrane proteolysis leading to the liberation of intracellular domains capable of nuclear signaling. ADAM10 substrates have been found at cell-cell contacts and are apparently involved in ...
Bukauskas Feliksas F FF Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. - - 2006
Four connexins (Cxs), mouse (m)Cx30.2, Cx40, Cx43, and Cx45, determine cell-cell electrical signaling in mouse heart, and Cx43 and Cx45 are known to form unapposed hemichannels. Here we show that mCx30.2, which is most abundantly expressed in sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodal regions of the heart, and its putative human ortholog, ...
Hadzifejzovic E - - 2006
Premixed hydrogen/oxygen flame doped with ionisable alkali metals was considered as a dilute electrolyte. Two identical premixed flames which were in physical contact, served as a two compartment flame electrolyte cell. Five different electrochemical cells were studied, each containing a different combination of three alkali metals, Li, K and Cs. ...
Matesic D F - - 2006
Propagation of electrical activity between myocytes in the heart requires gap junction channels, which contribute to coordinated conduction of the heartbeat. Some antipsychotic drugs, such as thioridazine and its active metabolite, mesoridazine, have known cardiac conduction side-effects, which have resulted in fatal or nearly fatal clinical consequences in patients. The ...
Hills Claire E - - 2006
Aberrant sodium absorption has been linked to the development of hypertension in both renal disease and diabetes. Efficient absorption depends on coordination of cellular activity across the entire epithelium via cell-to-cell coupling. In the current study we have utilized a model human collecting duct cell line (HCD) to assess the ...
Liu Wendy F - - 2006
E-cadherin has been linked to the suppression of tumor growth and the inhibition of cell proliferation in culture. We observed that progressively decreasing the seeding density of normal rat kidney-52E (NRK-52E) or MCF-10A epithelial cells from confluence, indeed, released cells from growth arrest. Unexpectedly, a further decrease in seeding density ...
Rubin Harry - - 2006
The use of a reporter gene in transgenic mice indicates that there are many local mutations and large genomic rearrangements per somatic cell that accumulate with age at different rates per organ and without visible effects. Dissociation of the cells for monolayer culture brings out great heterogeneity of size and ...
Spitzer Kenneth W - - 2006
Cardiac electrical activity is significantly affected by variations in the conductance of gap junctions that connect myocytes to one another. To better understand how intrinsic (single cell) electrical activity is modulated by junctional conductance, we used a two-myocyte coupling system in which physically separate cells were electrically coupled via a ...
de Boer Teun P - - 2006
A biological pacemaker might be created by generation of a cellular construct consisting of cardiac cells that display spontaneous membrane depolarization, and that are electrotonically coupled to surrounding myocardial cells by means of gap junctions. Depending on the frequency of the spontaneously beating cells, frequency regulation might be required. We ...
Cai Jun - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Sinus node dysfunction and severe heart block are major indications for electronic pacemaker implantation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of an alternative approach by using spontaneously excitable cell grafts to serve as a biological pacemaker. METHODS: Enzymatically isolated neonatal atrial cardiomyocytes (including sinus ...
Xia Chun-Hong - - 2006
Different mutations of alpha3 connexin (Cx46 or Gja8) and alpha8 connexin (Cx50 or Gja8), subunits of lens gap junction channels, cause a variety of cataracts via unknown mechanisms. We identified a dominant cataractous mouse line (L1), caused by a missense alpha8 connexin mutation that resulted in the expression of alpha8-S50P ...
Posthuma, Niels
In this thesis the development of germanium solar cells is described. The main anticipated application is as a bottom cell in a multi-terminal (> 2) mechanically stacked high-efficiency multi-junction solar cell suitable for generation of electricity in satellites or in terrestrial concentration systems. Simulation shows that for this specific application ...
Barbe Michael T - - 2006
Direct cell-to-cell communication through specialized intercellular channels is a characteristic feature of virtually all multi-cellular organisms. The remarkable functional conservation of cell-to-cell coupling throughout the animal kingdom, however, is not matched at the molecular level of the structural protein components. Thus protostomes (including nematodes and flies) and deuterostomes (including all ...
Postnov Dmitry E - - 2006
Using a relatively simple model we examine how variations of the extracellular potassium concentration can give rise to synchronization of two nearby pacemaker cells. With the volume of the extracellular space and the rate of potassium diffusion as control parameters, the dual nature of this resource-mediated coupling is found to ...
Farnsworth Aaron - - 2006
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoprotein heterodimer gE/gI is necessary for virus spread in epithelial and neuronal tissues. Deletion of the relatively large gE cytoplasmic (CT) domain abrogates the ability of gE/gI to mediate HSV spread. The gE CT domain is required for the sorting of gE/gI to the trans-Golgi network ...
Vinken Mathieu - - 2006
In liver, like in other multicellular systems, the establishment of cellular contacts is a prerequisite for normal functioning. In particular, well-defined cell junctions between hepatocytes, including adherens junctions, desmosomes, tight junctions, and gap junctions, are known to play key roles in the performance of liver-specific functionality. In a first part ...
Huettner James E - - 2006
Intercellular communication via gap junctions is thought to play an important role in embryonic cell survival and differentiation. Classical studies demonstrated both dye and electrical coupling of cells in the inner cell mass of mouse embryos, as well as the development of restrictions against coupling between cells of the inner ...
Imai Fumiyasu - - 2006
In developing mammalian telencephalon, the loss of adherens junctions and cell cycle exit represent crucial steps in the differentiation of neuroepithelial cells into neurons, but the relationship between these cellular events remains obscure. Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) is known to contribute to junction formation in epithelial cells and to ...
Lien Wen-Hui WH Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, - - 2006
During development, cells monitor and adjust their rates of accumulation to produce organs of predetermined size. We show here that central nervous system-specific deletion of the essential adherens junction gene, alphaE-catenin, causes abnormal activation of the hedgehog pathway, resulting in shortening of the cell cycle, decreased apoptosis, and cortical hyperplasia. ...
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