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Mori Tetsuji - - 2012
Adult neurogenesis in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus (SGZ) is enhanced by excess as well as mild neuronal excitation, such as chemoconvulsant-induced brief seizures. Because most studies of neurogenesis after seizures have focused on the SGZ, the threshold of neuronal excitation required to enhance neurogenesis in the subventricular zone ...
Kovac Stjepana - - 2012
Seizure activity can lead to energy failure and neuronal injury, resulting in neurological and cognitive sequelae. Moreover, mutations affecting genes encoding for proteins that maintain energy homeostasis within the cell often result in an epileptic phenotype, implying that energy failure can contribute to epileptogenesis. Indeed, there is evidence to indicate ...
Ledri Marco - - 2012
Cholecystokinin (CCK-) positive basket cells form a distinct class of inhibitory GABAergic interneurons, proposed to act as fine-tuning devices of hippocampal gamma-frequency (30-90 Hz) oscillations, which can convert into higher frequency seizure activity. Therefore, CCK-basket cells may play an important role in regulation of hyper-excitability and seizures in the hippocampus. In ...
Hefti Martin - - 2012
Epileptic seizures are among the presenting clinical signs of malignant glioma patients, frequently necessitating treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The efficacy of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-based intraoperative fluorescence-guided surgery and photodynamic therapy (PDT) in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients depends on the specific accumulation and total amount of intracellularly synthesized protoporphyrin IX ...
Shoji Masatoshi - - 2012
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been shown to enhance radiation response in various cancer cell lines. Valproic acid (VPA) has been used in clinical practice for the treatment of epilepsy and other seizure disorders and is also one of the most represented HDAC inhibitors. The aim of this study was ...
Lin Hai - - 2012
Repetitive one-per-day seizures induced in otherwise normal rats by the volatile convulsant flurothyl decrease the accuracy of locating a hidden goal without changing the mean location of goal selection. We now show that an 8-d series of such seizures degrades the spatial signal carried by the firing of hippocampal pyramidal ...
Swijsen Ann - - 2012
Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common type of seizures in childhood and are suggested to play a role in the development of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Animal studies demonstrated that experimental FS induce a long-lasting change in hippocampal excitability, resulting in enhanced seizure susceptibility. Hippocampal neurogenesis and altered ion ...
Cajuste Jacques F - - 2011
Fruits from many citrus cultivars develop depressed areas in the flavedo (outer part of the peel) and albedo (inner part) following detachment. Although ultrastructural analysis may provide important information about multiple plant responses to stresses and external stimuli at the cell and tissue levels, and despite the proved efficacy of ...
Salunkhe Rahul B - - 2011
Development of reliable and eco-friendly processes for synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is an important step in the field of application of nanotechnology. Biological systems provide a useful option to achieve this objective. In this study, potent fungal strain was selectively isolated from soil samples on silver supplemented medium, followed by ...
Oldenhof Harriëtte - - 2011
The aim of this study was to determine the osmotic tolerance limits of stallion sperm as well as the osmotic behavior of different sperm subpopulations, including viable and non-viable cells as well as viable cells of different average sizes. A flow cytometric approach was used for simultaneous assessment of cell ...
Lazar Veronica - - 2011
Biofilms or microbial communities formed by adherent and cohesive cells on cellular or inert substrata (like medical devices), are involved in ∼60% of all infections and characterized by moderate intensity symptoms, chronic evolution and resistance to antibiotics. Biofilms' pathogenicity, even of those formed by opportunistic microorganisms, is amplified by two ...
Urbanczyk Henryk - - 2011
Sake yeast strains produce a high concentration of ethanol during sake brewing compared to laboratory yeast strains. As ethanol fermentation by yeast cells continues even after cell growth stops, analysis of the physiological state of the stationary phase cells is very important for understanding the mechanism of producing higher concentrations ...
Ciudad Gustavo - - 2011
The high cost of commercial lipases limits their industrial application in the production of biodiesel or fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). This disadvantage has encouraged the search of lipase-producing microorganisms (LPM) as potential whole cell catalysts for FAME production. The aim of this study, therefore, was to evaluate innovative procedures ...
Langklotz Sina - - 2011
Post-translational proteolysis-dependent regulation of critical cellular processes is a common feature in bacteria. The Escherichia coli Lon protease is involved in the control of the SOS response, acid tolerance, and nutritional deprivation. Moreover, Lon plays a role in the regulation of toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems and thereby is linked to persister ...
Liang Hong - - 2011
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to use a validated acute rabbit model to test the toxicity of a novel formulation of fixed-combination travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5% ophthalmic solution, which contains the antimicrobial preservative polyquaternium-1 (PQ), compared with the commercial formulation of fixed combinations travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5% ophthalmic solution and ...
Saeki Koichi - - 2011
Some self-reactive immature T cells escape negative selection in the thymus and may cause autoimmune diseases later. In the periphery, if T cells are stimulated insufficiently by peptide-major histocompatibility complex, they become inactive and their production of cytokines changes, a phenomenon called "T cell anergy". In this paper we explore ...
Herd Heather L - - 2011
The influence of geometry of silica nanomaterials on cellular uptake and toxicity on epithelial and phagocytic cells was studied. Three types of amine-terminated silica nanomaterials were prepared and characterized via the modified Stober method, namely spheres (178±27 nm), worms (232±22 nm×1348±314 nm) and cylinders (214±29 nm×428±66 nm). The findings of ...
Dey Kaushik - - 2011
A Bacillus sp., capable of degrading chloroform, was immobilized in calcium alginate. The beads in 20 g alginate l(-1) (about 2 × 10(8) cells/bead) could be re-used nine times for degradation of chloroform at 40 μM. The immobilized cells had a higher range of tolerance (pH 6.5-9 and 20-41°C) than free cells (pH 7-8.5 and ...
Kim Peter S - - 2011
We model the stages of a T cell response from initial activation to T cell expansion and contraction using a system of ordinary differential equations. Results of this modeling suggest that state transitions enable the T cell population to detect change and respond effectively to changes in antigen stimulation levels, ...
Peropadre Ana - - 2011
A wide range of cationic amphiphilic drugs (CADs) from different therapeutic areas are known to cause phospholipidosis both in vivo and in vitro. Although the relevance of this storage disorder for human health remains uncertain, CADs have been repeatedly associated with clinical side effects, and as a result, phospholipidosis is ...
Paolino Magdalena - - 2011
E3 ubiquitin ligases have been placed among the essential molecules involved in the regulation of T cell functions and T cell tolerance. However, it has never been experimentally proven in vivo whether these functions indeed depend on the catalytic E3 ligase activity. The Casitas B-cell lymphoma (Cbl) family protein Cbl-b ...
Lee Lily F - - 2011
One of the major objectives of tissue engineering is to reconstitute skin from stem cells. This requires multipotent skin stem cells and the ability to guide these cells to form a piece of skin with proper architecture and skin appendages. Based on previous progress, we develop a simplified procedure that ...
Liu Jia - - 2011
The effect of high temperature and oxidative stress on the cell viability of the yeast antagonist, Metschnikowia fructicola was determined. A mild heat shock (HS) pretreatment (30 min at 40 °C) improved the tolerance of M. fructicola to subsequent high temperature (45 °C, 20-30 min) and oxidative stress (0.4 mol L(-1) hydrogen peroxide, 20-60 min). HS-treated yeast ...
Manabe Yuzuki - - 2011
Nearly all polysaccharides in plant cell walls are O-acetylated, including the various pectic polysaccharides and the hemicelluloses xylan, mannan, and xyloglucan. However, the enzymes involved in the polysaccharide acetylation have not been identified. While the role of polysaccharide acetylation in vivo is unclear, it is known to reduce biofuel yield ...
Spoerl Silvia - - 2011
Many regulatory cell types exist in the immune system; they contribute to immune tolerance and immune homeostasis via different mechanisms. Therapeutic manipulation of such cell types for the induction of transplant tolerance has attracted tremendous attention. However, studies in this area have uncovered unexpected challenges, and translation of regulatory T ...
Ratcliff William C - - 2011
We recently described a novel bethedging mechanism in which the bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti responds to starvation by forming two discrete cell types via cell division. The old-pole daughter cell retains most of the resource, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and is capable of surviving long-term starvation, while the low-PHB, new-pole daughter cell is ...
Brockbank Kelvin G M - - 2010
The study of mechanisms by which animals tolerate environmental extremes may provide strategies for preservation of living mammalian materials. Animals employ a variety of compounds to enhance their survival, including production of disaccharides, glycerol, and antifreeze compounds. The cryoprotectant glycerol was discovered before its role in amphibian survival. In the ...
Halan Babu - - 2011
Biofilms are ubiquitous surface-associated microbial communities embedded in an extracellular polymeric (EPS) matrix, which gives the biofilm structural integrity and strength. It is often reported that biofilm-grown cells exhibit enhanced tolerance toward adverse environmental stress conditions, and thus there has been a growing interest in recent years to use biofilms ...
Dagley Michael J MJ Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Melbourne, - - 2011
The cell wall is essential for viability of fungi and is an effective drug target in pathogens such as Candida albicans. The contribution of post-transcriptional gene regulators to cell wall integrity in C. albicans is unknown. We show that the C. albicans Ccr4-Pop2 mRNA deadenylase, a regulator of mRNA stability ...
Yu Li - - 2010
Inner ear cells, including hair cells, spiral ganglion cells, stria vascularis cells and supporting cells on the basilar membrane, play a major role in transducing hearing signals and regulating inner ear homoeostasis. However, their functions are often damaged by antibiotic-induced ototoxicity. Apoptosis is probably involved in inner ear cell injury ...
Zemann Nina - - 2010
PURPOSE: Enterocytes are feasibly confronted with enormous zinc concentrations especially as a result of oral zinc supplementation. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the exceptional ability to withstand this usually toxic load using the enterocytic cell line Caco-2. METHODS: By MTT test analysis, we compared zinc tolerance ...
Velázquez-Hernández M Lourdes - - 2011
Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium and endophyte of sugarcane, which expresses levansucrase, a fructosyltransferase exoenzyme with sucrose hydrolytic and levan biosynthetic activities. As a result of their physical properties, the levan can provide protection against stress caused by abiotic or biotic factors and participate in the formation of biofilms. ...
Kimitsuki Takashi - - 2010
Hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) is a ubiquitous reactive oxygen species that can induce several inner ear disorders. In this study, we recorded the potassium (K) currents in acutely isolated inner hair cells of guinea pig cochlea, and investigated the effects of H₂O₂. We also observed the morphological changes in inner hair ...
Jagger Daniel - - 2011
Alström Syndrome is a life-threatening disease characterized primarily by numerous metabolic abnormalities, retinal degeneration, cardiomyopathy, kidney and liver disease, and sensorineural hearing loss. The cellular localization of the affected protein, ALMS1, has suggested roles in ciliary function and/or ciliogenesis. We have investigated the role of ALMS1 in the cochlea and ...
Strader Lucia C LC Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, - - 2010
Root morphogenesis is controlled by the regulation of cell division and expansion. We isolated an allele of the eto1 ethylene overproducer as a suppressor of the auxin-resistant mutant ibr5, prompting an examination of crosstalk between the phytohormones auxin and ethylene in control of root epidermal cell elongation and root hair ...
Ohta Naoyuki - - 2010
The adult of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis has cupular organs, i.e., putative hydrodynamic sensors, at the atrial epithelium. The cupular organ consists of support cells and sensory neurons, and it extends a gelatinous matrix, known as a cupula, toward the atrial cavity. These characteristics are shared with sensory hair cells ...
Misago N - - 2010
Both trichoblastoma and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are considered to be a benign and malignant neoplasm of follicular germinative cells respectively. A recent investigation revealed that the mesenchymal cells in the perifollicular sheath and evolving follicular papilla of embryonic hair germs and those cells in hair follicles in early anagen ...
Ansell David M - - 2011
When the skin is damaged, a variety of cell types must migrate, proliferate, and differentiate to reform a functional barrier to the external environment. Recent studies have shown that progenitor cells residing in hair follicles (HFs) are able to contribute to this re-epithelialization of wounds in vivo. However, the influence ...
Warchol Mark E - - 2010
To summarize advances in the study of the interaction between sensory hair cells and aminoglycoside antibiotics. Aminoglycosides enter hair cells through mechanotransduction channels and initiate an active signaling pathway that leads to cell death. Early expression of heat shock proteins can protect hair cells from aminoglycosides, although signaling from surrounding ...
Zheng Ying - - 2010
The hair follicle is considered to be a model system for studying organogenesis. In our initial study using mouse cells (Zheng et al., 2005) we found that new hair follicle formation always starts from an epithelial platform: the epidermal cells aggregate, the aggregates encyst, and from the periphery of the ...
Li Haiqiong - - 2010
The identification of transcriptional activators and repressors of hair cell fates has recently been augmented by the discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) that can function as post-transcriptional repressors in sensory hair cells. miRNAs are approximately 21-nucleotide single-stranded ribonucleic acids that can each repress protein synthesis of many target genes by interacting ...
Shahriari Mojgan - - 2010
We have recently shown that overexpression of dominant-negative AtSKD1 versions under control of the trichome and non-root-hair-cell specific GL2 promoter (GL2pro) blocks trafficking of soluble cargo to the vacuole, resulting in its fragmentation and ultimately cell death. GL2pro is also active in the Arabidopsis seeds. When we inspected seeds of ...
De Rybel Bert - - 2010
Lateral roots are formed at regular intervals along the main root by recurrent specification of founder cells. To date, the mechanism by which branching of the root system is controlled and founder cells become specified remains unknown. Our study reports the identification of the auxin regulatory components and their target ...
Drescher M J - - 2010
Adenylyl cyclase (AC) signaling pathways have been identified in a model hair cell preparation from the trout saccule, for which the hair cell is the only intact cell type. The use of degenerate primers targeting cDNA sequence conserved across AC isoforms, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), coupled with cloning ...
Yu Dongzhen - - 2011
Mefloquine is an effective and widely used anti-malarial drug; however, some clinical reports suggest that it can cause dizziness, balance, and vestibular disturbances. To determine if mefloquine might be toxic to the vestibular system, we applied mefloquine to organotypic cultures of the macula of the utricle from postnatal day 3 ...
Harris Pamela Jo - - 2010
The understanding of the anatomy and development of fetal and adult hair follicles and the molecular study of the major embryonic pathways that regulate the hair follicle have led to exciting discoveries concerning the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). These studies have shed light on the major roles of ...
Bird Jonathan E - - 2010
Epithelial homeostasis is essential for sensory transduction in the auditory and vestibular organs of the inner ear, but how it is maintained during trauma is poorly understood. To examine potential repair mechanisms, we expressed β-actin-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in the chick inner ear and used live-cell imaging to study ...
Gómez-Casati Maria E - - 2010
Recent studies indicate that molecules released by glia can induce synapse formation. However, what induces glia to produce such signals, their identity, and their in vivo relevance remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that supporting cells of the vestibular organ--cells that have many characteristics of glia--promote synapse formation only when ...
Goodyear Richard J - - 2010
Hair cells, the mechanosensitive receptor cells of the inner ear, are critical for our senses of hearing and balance. The small number of these receptor cells in the inner ear has impeded the identification and characterization of proteins important for hair cell function. The binding specificity of monoclonal antibodies provides ...
Dong Y - - 2010
Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a tumor suppressor gene that regulates cell proliferation, differentiation and growth. It regulates neural and glioma stem/progenitor cell renewal and PTEN deletion can drive expansion of epithelial progenitors in the lung, enhancing their capacity for regeneration. Because it is expressed ...
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