Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1719
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Ishida Tetsuya - - 2008
Trichomes and root hairs differentiate from epidermal cells in the aerial tissues and roots, respectively. Because trichomes and root hairs are easily accessible, particularly in the model plant Arabidopsis, their development has become a well-studied model of cell differentiation and growth. Molecular genetic analyses using Arabidopsis mutants have demonstrated that ...
Xu Mao-Jun - - 2008
Secondary metabolites not only play important ecological roles in plants but also are important pharmaceutical and source compounds for derivative synthesis. Production of plant secondary metabolites is believed to be controlled by the endogenous signal network of plants. However, the molecular basis is still largely unknown. Here we show that ...
Qu Liang-Huan - - 2008
A convenient experimental system was established to test how cells derived from higher-plant internal tissues respond to mechanical stimulation. Short-term culture of tobacco ovules in vitro led to the generation of bar-shaped cells from the parenchyma tissue of the ovule funicle. These cells are still connected to the mother tissue ...
Savage Natasha Saint - - 2008
The fate of root epidermal cells is controlled by a complex interplay of transcriptional regulators, generating a genetically determined, position-biased arrangement of root hair cells. This pattern is altered during postembryonic development and in response to environmental signals to confer developmental plasticity that acclimates the plant to the prevailing conditions. ...
Sharda J N - - 2008
* The basis for significant interspecific variability in colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is poorly understood. Limited evidence suggests that, for species with a dimorphic hypodermis, colonization of the root cortex occurs only through hypodermal passage cells. Therefore, the hypothesis that interspecific variability in mycorrhizal colonization is accounted for by ...
Ishibashi Takuya - - 2008
CONCLUSION: It is suggested that transient receptor potential vanilloids (TRPVs) may play a functional role in cell physiology and TRPV-4 and -2 may play an important part in fluid homeostasis in the inner ear. OBJECTIVE: Expression of TRPV-1, -2, -3, and -4 in the normal mouse inner ear was studied. ...
Singh Sunil K - - 2008
Formation of plant root hairs originating from epidermal cells involves selection of a polar initiation site and production of an initial hair bulge which requires local cell wall loosening. In Arabidopsis the polar initiation site is located towards the basal end of epidermal cells. However little is currently understood about ...
Yang Thomas Ju Wei - - 2008
Manganese (Mn) is the second most prevalent transition metal in the Earth's crust but its availability is often limited due to rapid oxidation and low mobility of the oxidized forms. Acclimation to low Mn availability was studied in Arabidopsis seedlings subjected to Mn deficiency. As reported here, Mn deficiency caused ...
Nagata Keiichi - - 2008
Varitint-waddler (Va and Va(J)) mice are deaf and have vestibular impairment, with inner ear defects that include the degeneration and loss of sensory hair cells. The semidominant Va mutation results in an alanine-to-proline substitution at residue 419 (A419P) of the presumed ion channel TRPML3. Another allele, Va(J), has the A419P ...
Oesterle Elizabeth C - - 2008
Inner ear hair cells detect environmental signals associated with hearing, balance, and body orientation. In humans and other mammals, significant hair cell loss leads to irreversible hearing and balance deficits, whereas hair cell loss in nonmammalian vertebrates is repaired by the spontaneous generation of replacement hair cells. Research in mammalian ...
Guo Di - - 2008
Egy1 was isolated as an ethylene-dependent gravitropism-deficient Arabidopsis mutant. Molecular studies reveal that EGY1 gene encodes a 59-kDa plastid-targeted metalloprotease. It is actively expressed in hypocotyl tissue and targets to endodermal and cortex plastid. Its protein level is up-regulated by both ethylene and light. CAB protein accumulation and chlorophyll level ...
Qi Weidong W Center for Hearing and Deafness, State University of New York at Buffalo, 137Cary Hall, Buffalo, NY 14214, - - 2008
The amphipathic molecule dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) is a solvent often used to dissolve compounds applied to the inner ear; however, little is known about its potential cytotoxic side effects. To address this question, we applied 0.1-6% DMSO for 24h to cochlear organotypic cultures from postnatal day 3 rats and examined ...
Melhorn Vanessa - - 2008
Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates stomatal closure in response to water loss. Here, we examined the competence of guard cells to synthesize ABA, using two Arabidopsis ABA biosynthetic enzymes. 35S pro::AtNCED3-GFP and AAO3-GFP were introduced into guard cells of broad bean leaves. AtNCED3-GFP expression was detected at the chloroplasts, whereas green ...
Taylor Ruth Rebecca - - 2008
In comparison to other mammals, mice have proved extremely resistant to aminoglycoside-induced hair cell ablation in vivo. In this paper we examine the pattern and extent of cochlear lesions rapidly induced with a combination of a single dose of aminoglycoside (kanamycin) followed by a loop diuretic (bumetanide). With this protocol, ...
Laplaze Laurent - - 2007
In Arabidopsis thaliana, lateral roots are formed from root pericycle cells adjacent to the xylem poles. Lateral root development is regulated antagonistically by the plant hormones auxin and cytokinin. While a great deal is known about how auxin promotes lateral root development, the mechanism of cytokinin repression is still unclear. ...
Ozeki Hidenori - - 2007
The vertebrate inner ear is derived from the otic placode and undergoes a complicated series of morphogenetic processes to differentiate into an elaborate structure harboring mechanosensory epithelia featuring hair cells, the mechanoreceptors of hearing and balance. Recently, the principal mechanisms producing hair cells and the key molecules involved in their ...
Cong Yue - - 2007
A new steroidal alkaloid ( 1), together with three known steroidal alkaloids ( 2 - 4), has been isolated from the roots and rhizomes of Veratrum japonicum (Baker) Loes. f.., their structures were established as neogermine ( 1), germine ( 2), germerine ( 3), and neogermbudine ( 4) by means ...
Raft Steven - - 2007
Temporal and spatial coordination of multiple cell fate decisions is essential for proper organogenesis. Here, we define gene interactions that transform the neurogenic epithelium of the developing inner ear into specialized mechanosensory receptors. By Cre-loxP fate mapping, we show that vestibular sensory hair cells derive from a previously neurogenic region ...
Barkdull Gregory C - - 2007
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: This study investigated the otoprotective properties of AM-111, an inhibitor of c-Jun N-terminal kinase-mediated apoptosis and inflammation. STUDY DESIGN: A controlled, prospective animal study using a guinea pig model of acute labyrinthitis. METHODS: Acute labyrinthitis was generated by injection of antigen into the scala tympani of sensitized guinea pigs. ...
Scadden David T - - 2007
Recent studies involving molecular modification of adult somatic cells have pointed to a remarkable plasticity in cell identity. In this issue of the JCI, Koh and colleagues assessed whether bone marrow-derived cells could alter their fate under circumstances conducive to adipocyte generation in vivo (see the related article beginning on ...
Hildebrand Michael S - - 2008
Development of effective therapeutics for hearing loss has proven to be a slow and difficult process, evidenced by the lack of restorative medicines and technologies currently available to the otolaryngologist. In large part this is attributable to the limited regenerative potential in cochlear cells and the secondary degeneration of the ...
Ito Sayuri - - 2008
To understand the autoregulation of nodulation (AON) system, in which leguminous plants control the nodule number, we examined the details of the characteristics of hypernodulation soybean mutants NOD1-3 and NOD3-7. A microscopic study showed that NOD1-3 and NOD3-7 produced small-size leaves due to the smaller number of leaf cells, compared ...
Parizot Boris - - 2008
The outer tissues of dicotyledonous plant roots (i.e. epidermis, cortex, and endodermis) are clearly organized in distinct concentric layers in contrast to the diarch to polyarch vascular tissues of the central stele. Up to now, the outermost layer of the stele, the pericycle, has always been regarded, in accordance with ...
Fantauzzo Katherine A - - 2008
Mutations in the gene encoding the zinc finger transcription factor TRPS1 result in tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome, characterized by craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities, and sparse scalp hair. In this study, Trps1 was identified by microarray hybridization analysis as having a complex pattern of spatiotemporal regulation in murine skin during morphogenesis. During early ...
Qu Yan Y Department of Otolaryngology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322-3030, - - 2007
Mutations in connexin (Cx) genes are responsible for a large proportion of human inherited prelingual deafness cases. The most commonly found human Cx mutations are either Cx26 or Cx30 deletions. Histological observations made in the organ of Corti of homozygous Cx26 and Cx30 gene knockout mice show that cochlear hair ...
Al-Khalidi Mustafa - - 2007
Young mice exposed dermally to the Toximul (Tox) class of agricultural pesticide adjuvants have reduced levels of hepatic glycogen, a marker of subclinical toxicity. The present study determined whether these effects on glycogen also occurred in cultured HepG2 cells. Exposure (3 hr) to Tox resulted in significant, concentration-dependent glycogen reductions ...
Avallone Bice - - 2008
There is little information available on the susceptibility of reptilian saccule hair cells to ototoxin-induced sensory damage. In this study, we report morphological evidence of hair cell recovery and regeneration after damage induced by gentamicin in the saccule of a lizard. We perform morphological analysis using scanning electron microscopy and ...
Rizzi Mark Douglas - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize mechanisms of ototoxicity associated with aminoglycoside antibiotics and discuss possible protective strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies in the past 15 years have demonstrated that aminoglycoside ototoxicity is mediated by an apoptotic form of cell death which employs caspase-dependent pathways. Reactive oxygen species have been demonstrated in ...
Park Ji Yeong - - 2007
CONCLUSION: This study suggests for the first time that 1) IGF-I, IGFBP-4, and -5 alone and IGF-I+IGFBP-5 mixture stimulated hair cell survival and prevented neomycin-induced hair cell loss in the sensory epithelial culture of mouse utricles, 2) When administered together, IGFBP-4 diminished the effect of IGF-I, 3) In P3-5 mice ...
Koike Manabu - - 2007
Histone H2AX undergoes phosphorylation on Ser 139 (gamma-H2AX) rapidly in response to DNA double-strand breaks induced by exogenous stimuli, such as ionizing radiation. However, the endogenous phosphorylation pattern and modifier of H2AX remain unclear. Here we show that H2AX is regulated physically at the level of phosphorylation at Ser139 during ...
Torkos Attila - - 2008
Isolating cells from the cochlea to perform molecular biology assessment presents a challenge, because it is not possible to dissect pure cell pools by conventional methods. Thus, we set out to demonstrate that laser microdissection and pressure catapulting (LMPC) is superior to conventional manual cochlea dissection for this purpose. Spiral ...
Lee Jun Ho JH Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Chongro-gu, Seoul 110-744, Republic of Korea. - - 2008
Epithelial cells of the inner ear coordinate their ion transport activity through a number of mechanisms. One important mechanism is the autocrine and paracrine signaling among neighboring cells in the ear via nucleotides, such as adenosine, ATP and UTP. This review summarizes observations on the release, detection and degradation of ...
aalster and tzohary
Young 4-celled colony of Pediastrum simplex next to an empty theca of Peridiniopsis. Note the fine hair covering the Pediastrum cells.
Wang Xiang - - 2007
The cochlear outer hair cell (OHC), which plays a crucial role in mammalian hearing through its unique voltage-dependent motility, has been established as a primary target of the ototoxicity of aminoglycoside antibiotics. These polycationic drugs are also known to block a wide variety of ion channels, purinergic ionotropic channels, and ...
Hu Zhengqing - - 2007
Sensory hair cell loss is a major contributor to disabling hearing and balance deficits that affect >250 million people worldwide. Sound exposures, infections, drug toxicity, genetic disorders, and aging all can cause hair cell loss and lead to permanent sensory deficits. Progress toward treatments for these deficits has been limited, ...
Bogaerts Sofie - - 2008
The potential use of stem cells to repair hearing loss requires surgical access to the cochlea. Here we describe a microsurgical technique for cell injection into the mouse cochlea. Green fluorescent cells (ZsGreen-MCF10A cells) were successfully injected via a lateral wall cochleostomy into the scala media, scala tympani and scala ...
Yoshimoto Nobuko - - 2008
To investigate the molecular mechanism of vitamin D receptor (VDR) antagonists having no structurally bulky group interfering with helix 12 of the ligand-binding domain of the VDR, we have synthesized four diastereomers at C(20) and C(23) of 19-nor-1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D(3) 25-methylene-26,23-lactone bearing a 2MD-type A-ring. All four analogs showed significant VDR ...
Price Marianne O - - 2008
PURPOSE: To identify factors correlated with early endothelial cell loss after Descemet stripping with endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK) and to document cell loss over a 2-year period. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and longitudinal retrospective analyses. PARTICIPANTS: A series of 263 eyes in 216 patients who were treated with DSEK and were examined at ...
Schlabe Juergen - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Previous studies demonstrated, that cultured epithelial autografts (CEA) can be isolated and skin cell sprays can be produced for application on different types of wounds. The purpose of the present study was to determine which cell types can be isolated from the human scalp and whether these cells can ...
Breuskin Ingrid - - 2008
Deafness commonly results from a lesion of the sensory cells and/or of the neurons of the auditory part of the inner ear. There are currently no treatments designed to halt or reverse the progression of hearing loss. A key goal in developing therapy for sensorineural deafness is the identification of ...
Chen Jichao - - 2007
In the mammalian inner ear, endolymph is produced and resorbed by a complex series of epithelia. We show here that estrogen-related receptor beta (ERR-beta; NR3B2), an orphan nuclear receptor, is specifically expressed in and controls the development of the endolymph-producing cells of the inner ear: the strial marginal cells in ...
Zhao Dong-Yan - - 2007
Root growth and development are closely dependent upon nitrate supply in the growth medium. To unravel the mechanism underlying dependence of root growth on nitrate, an examination was made of whether endogenous nitric oxide (NO) is involved in nitrate-dependent growth of primary roots in maize. Maize seedlings grown in varying ...
Chuong Cheng-Ming CM Department of Pathology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, - - 2007
One challenge faced by stem cell biologists is the bioengineering of an organ. Ehama et al. (2007, this issue) used cells derived from human and rodent epidermis and dermal papilla to reconstitute hair-follicle mini-organs. Some result in hair follicles; others are hair follicle-like. The challenge calls for the development of ...
Dembinsky Diana - - 2007
Each plant cell type expresses a unique transcriptome and proteome at different stages of differentiation dependent on its developmental fate. This study compared gene expression and protein accumulation in cell-cycle-competent primary root pericycle cells of maize (Zea mays) prior to their first division and lateral root initiation. These are the ...
Holt Jeffrey R JR Department of Neuroscience, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA. - - 2007
Sensory hair cells of the inner ear express multiple physiologically defined conductances, including mechanotransduction, Ca(2+), Na(+), and several distinct K(+) conductances, all of which are critical for normal hearing and balance function. Yet, the molecular underpinnings and their specific contributions to sensory signaling in the inner ear remain obscure. We ...
Xu Huansheng - - 2007
Tbx1 is required for ear development in humans and mice. Gene manipulation in the mouse has discovered multiple consequences of loss of function on early development of the inner ear, some of which are attributable to a cell autonomous role in maintaining cell proliferation of epithelial progenitors of the cochlear ...
Uzcátegui Néstor L - - 2007
We evaluated the effects of dihydroxyacetone (DHA) on Trypanosoma brucei bloodstream forms. DHA is considered an energy source for many different cell types. T. brucei takes up DHA readily due to the presence of aquaglyceroporins. However, the parasite is unable to use it as a carbon source because of the ...
Chiriac Rodica - - 2007
This study gives relevant information on the variation of concentrations of certain volatile organic compounds (BTEX, alkanes, organochlorides and terpenes) emitted by open cells receiving municipal solid waste. These compounds represent a large fraction of the total trace components present in landfill gas. The VOC measurements were carried out in ...
Luo Jiankai - - 2007
In this study, we demonstrate that eight classic cadherins are differentially expressed in distinct anatomical regions of the cochlea during late stages of chicken embryonic development. Cadherin-6B is expressed in hair cells and spindle-shaped cells, while cadherin-8 mRNA is found only in supporting cells. Cadherin-11 is widely expressed not only ...
Li H - - 2007
This study aimed to fabricate bulk nanostructured hydroxyapatite (HA) pellets with improved properties using spark plasma sintering (SPS) for orthopedic applications. Spray-dried nanostructured HA (nSD-HA) powders were consolidated using the rapid SPS processing. The SPS processed nSD-HA was characterized using Raman spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Mechanical ...
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