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Results 451 - 500 of 1719
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Hultgård-Ekwall Anna-Karin - - 2006
The human endolymphatic duct (ED) with encompassing interstitial connective tissue (CT) is believed to be important for endolymph resorption and fluid pressure regulation of the inner ear. The periductal CT cells are interconnected via numerous cellular extensions, but do not form vessel structures. Here we report that the periductal CT ...
Zhang Yi - - 2006
The bulge region of hair follicle has been reported as a putative reservoir of hair follicle stem cell (HFSC) for years; however, few studies were done about the characteristics of bulge-originated cells in vitro up to now. In this experiment, the bulge cells isolated from human hair follicles by enzymatic ...
Gal Tali Z - - 2006
A group of plant proteins, expansins, have been identified as wall-loosening factors and as facilitators of cell expansion in vivo. The root knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica establishes a permanent feeding site composed of giant cells surrounded by gall tissue. We used quantitative PCR and in situ localization to demonstrate the ...
Dubrovsky J G - - 2006
The basic regulatory mechanisms that control lateral root (LR) initiation are still poorly understood. An attempt is made to characterize the pattern and timing of LR initiation, to define a developmental window in which LR initiation takes place and to address the question of whether LR initiation is predictable. The ...
Moravec, William James
Tuning in sensory systems is characterized by selective reporting of stimuli by individual sensory elements based on the frequency of the stimulus. The frequency response properties of neurons (afferents) that innervate the vestibular sensory epithelium of the inner ear vary as a function of the position of the innervated hair ...
Fredette Thomas J - - 2006
Confined aquatic disposal (CAD) cells are increasingly becoming the selected option for the management of unacceptably contaminated sediments. CAD cells are selected as the preferred alternative because this approach provides an acceptable compromise when cost, logistics, regulatory acceptance, environmental risk, and perception of various alternatives are considered. This preference for ...
Rose Ray J - - 2006
Leaf explants of Medicago truncatula were used to investigate the origins of auxin-induced root formation. On the application of auxin there is some callus formation (not the massive amount that occurs in response to auxin plus cytokinin) and roots appear shortly after the first visible callus. Histological examination reveals morphologically ...
Rivolta Marcelo N - - 2006
The senses of hearing and balance are mediated by hair cells located in the cochlea and in the vestibular organs of the vertebrate inner ear. Loss of hair cells and other cell types of the inner ear results in hearing and balance disorders that substantially diminish the quality of life. ...
Sugiyama-Nakagiri Yoriko - - 2006
Epithelial stem cells reside in the hair follicle (HF) bulge region and possess the ability to differentiate into a variety of cutaneous epithelial cells. The evolutionarily conserved Musashi family of RNA-binding proteins is associated with maintenance and/or asymmetric cell division of neural progenitor cells, and a mammalian Musashi protein is ...
Cribier Bernard - - 2006
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that benign pilomatricomas not only maintain the sequential expression of the hair matrix and precortex keratins hHa5 and hHa1 of normal hair follicles in their transitional cell compartment, but also preserve the association of hHa5 expression with that of its regulatory homeoprotein HOXC13 in the ...
Kiernan Amy E - - 2006
In mammals, six separate sensory regions in the inner ear are essential for hearing and balance function. Each sensory region is made up of hair cells, which are the sensory cells, and their associated supporting cells, both arising from a common progenitor. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms that ...
Ospeck Mark - - 2006
Motility of outer hair cells underlies the cochlear amplifier, which is critical for the ear's sensitivity and fine tuning. Of the two motile mechanisms present in these cells, electromotility at the lateral wall depends on the receptor potential and thus depends on currents through the cell body. We found that, ...
Jiang H - - 2006
Cochlear and vestibular sensory cells undergo apoptosis when exposed to aminoglycoside antibiotics in organ culture, but mechanisms of chronic drug-induced hair cell loss in vivo are unclear. We investigated cell death pathways in a mouse model of progressive kanamycin-induced hair cell loss. Hair cell nuclei showed both apoptotic- and necrotic-like ...
Ramírez-Camacho R - - 2006
Supporting cells have a crucial role in degenerative and regenerative events of primary sensorial hair cells of the organ of Corti. This new role should determine future studies about pathophysiology of hearing loss and its regenerative treatment. Recent findings suggest an active role of supporting cells in the maintenance of ...
Hernández Pedro P - - 2006
In teleosts, the lateral line system is composed of neuromasts containing hair cells that are analogous to those present in the inner ear of all vertebrates. In the zebrafish embryo and early larva, this system is composed of the anterior lateral line (ALL), which covers the head, and the posterior ...
Severinsen Stig A - - 2006
The aminoglycoside kanamycin is a commonly used antibiotic, but unfortunately it is oto- and nephrotoxic in large doses. The negative effects are thought to be due to the formation of free radicals which is why strong antioxidants and iron chelators like 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) are of great interest. This study ...
Costa Silvia - - 2006
Many types of plant cell retain their developmental plasticity and have the capacity to switch fate when exposed to a new source of positional information. In the root epidermis of Arabidopsis, cells differentiate in alternating files of hair cells and non-hair cells, in response to positional information and the activity ...
Carol Rachel J - - 2005
Root hairs are cellular protuberances extending from the root surface into the soil; there they provide access to immobile inorganic ions such as phosphate, which are essential for growth. Their cylindrical shape results from a polarized mechanism of cell expansion called tip growth in which elongation is restricted to a ...
Liao Zhijie - - 2005
A computational model is proposed to analyze the active force production in an individual outer hair cell (OHC) under high-frequency conditions. The model takes into account important biophysical properties of the cell as well as constraints imposed by the surrounding environment. The biophysical properties include the elastic, piezoelectric, and viscous ...
Cheng Alan G - - 2005
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sensory hair cells are mechanotransducers of the inner ear that are essential for hearing and balance. Hair cell death commonly occurs following acoustic trauma or exposure to ototoxins, such as the aminoglycoside antibiotics and the antineoplastic agent cisplatin. Loss of these inner ear sensory cells can lead ...
Heise Claire E - - 2005
In an effort to understand better the neurochemical changes that occur in Parkinson disease, we have examined the expression patterns of the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin in the zona incerta in parkinsonian rats. Sprague-Dawley rats had small volumes of either saline (control) or 6 hydroxydopamine (6OHDA) injected into the medial forebrain ...
Zhai Suoqiang - - 2005
Cochlear hair cells are a terminally differentiated cell population that is crucial for hearing. Although recent work suggests that there are hair cell progenitors in postnatal mammalian cochleae, isolation and culture of pure hair cell progenitors from a well-defined cochlear area have not been reported. Here we present an experimental ...
Liu Emerson - - 2005
Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a serine/threonine kinase that is important in cell-matrix interactions and cell signaling. To examine the role of ILK in leukocyte trafficking and survival, we generated T cell-specific ILK knockouts by breeding ILK(flox/flox) mice to transgenic mice expressing Cre recombinase under control of the Lck proximal promoter. ...
Dolan Liam - - 2006
The root epidermis is a model system for deciphering the mechanism underpinning the formation of cellular pattern in planar groups of cells. The epidermis comprises rows of hair cells (H) and non-hair-bearing epidermal cells (N). Laser ablation and clonal analysis have shown that the fates of epidermal cells are flexible ...
Ito Mayumi - - 2005
The discovery of long-lived epithelial stem cells in the bulge region of the hair follicle led to the hypothesis that epidermal renewal and epidermal repair after wounding both depend on these cells. To determine whether bulge cells are necessary for epidermal renewal, here we have ablated these cells by targeting ...
Kurata Tetsuya - - 2005
CAPRICE (CPC), a small, R3-type Myb-like protein, is a positive regulator of root hair development in Arabidopsis. Cell-to-cell movement of CPC is important for the differentiation of epidermal cells into trichoblasts (root hair cells). CPC is transported from atrichoblasts (hairless cells), where it is expressed, to trichoblasts, and generally accumulates ...
Hong Sung Hwa - - 2006
Gentamicin is a well-known ototoxic aminoglycoside. However, the mechanism underlying this ototoxicity remains unclear. One of the mechanisms which may be responsible for this ototoxicity is excitotoxic damage to hair cells. The overstimulation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors increases the production of nitric oxide (NO), which induces oxidative stress on ...
Kirkegaard Mette - - 2005
This study describes the morphometric changes taking place in the utricular macula of mice with ages in geometric progression from 1 to 512 days after birth. By using design-based stereological methods, the total volume and surface area of the sensory epithelium as well the total number of the hair cells ...
Yamamoto Norio - - 2006
Mammalian inner ear hair cells in cochleas are believed to be incapable of regeneration after birth, which hampers treatment of sensorineural hearing impairment mainly caused by hair cell loss. Sensory epithelia of cochleas are composed of hair cells and supporting cells, both of which originate from common progenitors. Notch/RBP-J signaling ...
Rutter A Richard - - 2005
Coassociation of the vanilloid transient receptor potential (Trp) ion channels, TrpV1 and TrpV2, was investigated by immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence in transfected mammalian cell lines, rat dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord. TrpV1/TrpV2 heteromeric complexes were coimmunoprecipitated from human embryonic kidney cells and F-11 dorsal root ganglion hybridoma cells following their ...
Swarup Ranjan - - 2005
Re-orientation of Arabidopsis seedlings induces a rapid, asymmetric release of the growth regulator auxin from gravity-sensing columella cells at the root apex. The resulting lateral auxin gradient is hypothesized to drive differential cell expansion in elongation-zone tissues. We mapped those root tissues that function to transport or respond to auxin ...
Derbenev Andrei V - - 2005
In the frog, vestibular efferent fibers innervate only type-II vestibular hair cells. Through this direct contact with hair cells, efferent neurons are capable of modifying transmitter release from hair cells onto primary vestibular afferents. The major efferent transmitter, acetylcholine (ACh), is known to produce distinct pharmacological actions involving several ACh ...
Lindner John F - - 2005
In transducing mechanical stimuli into electrical signals, at least some hair cells in vertebrate auditory and vestibular systems respond optimally to weak periodic signals at natural, nonzero noise intensities. We understand this stochastic resonance by constructing a faithful mechanical model reflecting the hair cell geometry and described by a nonlinear ...
Matei V - - 2005
We investigated whether co-expression of Neurog 1 and Atoh 1 in common neurosensory precursors could explain the loss of hair cells in Neurog 1 null mice. Analysis of terminal mitosis, using BrdU, supports previous findings regarding timing of exit from cell cycle. Specifically, we show that cell cycle exit occurs ...
Feugier Francois G - - 2005
The vegetative hormone Auxin is involved in vascular tissues formation throughout the plant. Trans-membrane carrier proteins transporting auxin from cell to cell and distributed asymmetrically around each cell give to auxin a polarized movement in tissues, creating streams of auxin that presume future vascular bundles. According to the canalization hypothesis, ...
Kaneda T - - 2006
Periodontal ligament (PDL) consists of different cell populations in various differentiation stages. In the present study, we isolated cell populations from rat molar PDL by sequential enzymatic digestion and characterized growth potential and mineralization activity of the PDL subpopulations (PDL-SP) to throw light on the mechanism of PDL remodeling and, ...
Claudinot Stéphanie - - 2005
Adult stem cells are essential for tissue renewal, regeneration, and repair, and their expansion in culture is of paramount importance for regenerative medicine. Using the whisker follicle of the rat as a model system, we demonstrate that (i) clonogenicity is an intrinsic property of the adult stem cells of the ...
Iino Y - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Patients with intractable otitis media associated with bronchial asthma have an extensive accumulation of eosinophils in the effusion and mucosa of the middle ear; this condition is called eosinophilic otitis media (EOM). It remained to be determined how eosinophils accumulate in the middle ear. OBJECTIVES: To clarify the pathogenesis ...
Matsui Jonathan I JI Laboratory for Cellular and Molecular Hearing Research, Department of Otolaryngology, Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2005
Deafness affects more than 40 million people in the UK and the USA, and many more world-wide. The primary cause of hearing loss is damage to or death of the sensory receptor cells in the inner ear, the hair cells. Birds can readily regenerate their cochlear hair cells but the ...
Rendl Michael - - 2005
De novo hair follicle formation in embryonic skin and new hair growth in adult skin are initiated when specialized mesenchymal dermal papilla (DP) cells send cues to multipotent epithelial stem cells. Subsequently, DP cells are enveloped by epithelial stem cell progeny and other cell types to form a niche orchestrating ...
Kiernan Amy E - - 2005
The mammalian auditory sensory epithelium, the organ of Corti, contains sensory hair cells and nonsensory supporting cells arranged in a highly patterned mosaic. Notch-mediated lateral inhibition is the proposed mechanism for creating this sensory mosaic. Previous work has shown that mice lacking the Notch ligand JAG2 differentiate supernumerary hair cells ...
Furness D N - - 2005
Sensory and supporting cells of the mammalian organ of Corti have cytoskeletons containing beta- and gamma-actin isoforms which have been described as having differing intracellular distributions in chick cochlear hair cells. Here, we have used post-embedding immunogold labelling for beta- and gamma-actin to investigate semiquantitatively how they are distributed in ...
Takumida Masaya - - 2005
CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that transient receptor potential subfamily 1 (TRPV1) may play a functional role in sensory cell physiology and that TRPV4 may be important for fluid homeostasis in the inner ear. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the expression of TRPV1 and -4 in the normal guinea pig ...
Nagy Ivana - - 2005
Damage to auditory hair cells in the inner ear as a consequence of aging, disease, acoustic trauma, or exposure to ototoxins underlies most cases of hearing impairment. Because the mammalian ear cannot replace damaged hair cells, loss of hearing is irreversible and progressive throughout life. One of the current goals ...
Shin Jung-Bum - - 2005
In vertebrates, the senses of hearing and balance depend on hair cells, which transduce sounds with their hair bundles, containing actin-based stereocilia and microtubule-based kinocilia. A longstanding question in auditory science is the identity of the mechanically sensitive transduction channel of hair cells, thought to be localized at the tips ...
Nam, Jong-Hoon
The hair cell, a specialized cell in the inner ear, is responsible for hearing and balance. The hair cell is an exquisite sensor that captures mechanical stimuli and generates neurosensory signals. A theory called gating theory has been developed and widely used to analyze the experimental data of hair cell ...
Legué Emilie - - 2005
Hair follicles (HFs) are renewed via multipotent stem cells located in a reservoir (the bulge); however, little is known about how they generate multi-tissue HFs from a proliferative zone (the matrix). To address this issue, we temporally induced clonal labeling during HF growth. Challenging the prevailing hypothesis, we found that ...
Shiao Jen-Chieh - - 2005
The perception of equilibrium and sound in fish depends on the deflection of hair bundles of hair cell by the otolith. However, the accreting nature of teleostean otoliths poses a problem for maintenance of proper contact between the hair bundle and the otolith surface. Immunocytochemical staining localizes abundant proton-secreting H(+)-ATPase ...
Tucker Morgan - - 2005
The homeobox-containing aristaless-related protein ARX has been directly linked to the development of a number of human disorders involving mental retardation and epilepsy and clearly plays a critical role in development of the vertebrate central nervous system. In this work, we investigate the role of ALR-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans aristaless ...
Beurg Maryline - - 2005
Streptoccocus pneumoniae infection can result in local and systemic diseases such as otitis media, pneumonia and meningitis. Sensorineural hearing loss associated with this infection is mediated by the release of an exotoxin, pneumolysin. The goal of the present study was to characterize the mechanisms of pneumolysin toxicity in cochlear hair ...
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