Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1179
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Stricof R L - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: To assess the implementation of tuberculosis (TB) control measures in New York City hospitals in 1992 and determine trends during the subsequent 2 years. METHODS: The 22 acute care facilities with the largest number of hospitalized TB patients in 1991 were selected for inclusion in the study. Medical and ...
Eller J - - 1998
STUDY OBJECTIVE: In patients with severe COPD, acute infective exacerbations are frequent. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae are the most commonly isolated bacteria in sputum cultures from these patients. We hypothesized that in patients with advanced disease, Gram-negative bacteria other than H influenzae play at least an equally important role. ...
Englund J A - - 1998
The importance and significance of amantadine- or rimantadine-resistant influenza viruses in immunocompromised patients was studied in a population of adult bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients and patients with leukemia prospectively cultured for respiratory viruses. Influenza A viruses were isolated from 29 patients with acute respiratory illness (14 BMT recipients and ...
Sesso R - - 1998
Central venous catheterization is a common technique to establish rapid and temporary access for hemodialysis. However, it is a known risk factor for Staphylococcus aureus infection and bacteremia. Mupirocin is a topical antibiotic with high in vitro anti-staphylococcal activity. A randomized prospective trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of ...
Soler N - - 1998
We carried out a comprehensive microbiological study of the upper and lower airways in patients with severe exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requiring mechanical ventilation in order to describe microbial patterns and analyze their clinical significance. Quantitative cultures of tracheobronchial aspirates (TBAs), bronchoscopically retrieved protected specimen brush (PSB) ...
Esteban J - - 1998
From 1991 to 1996, 541 blood samples were tested for the presence of mycobacteria; 56 were positive (30 patients, 26 human immunodeficiency virus positive). The species found were Mycobacterium avium (41 samples from 18 patients), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (12 samples from 9 patients), and three other species (1 sample each). The ...
Coccia M R - - 1998
Thirty-four episodes of pneumococcal bacteremia were identified in 15 patients over 5 years in 10 hospitals in Franklin County, Ohio. Twelve patients each had 2 episodes of pneumococcal bacteremia, 2 had 3, and 1 had 4. All patients had predisposing conditions, with lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ...
Pfyffer G E - - 1998
Between 1991 and 1993, 444 inhabitants of the metropolitan area of Zurich were reported as confirmed or suspected cases of tuberculosis (TB). Overall, isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis of 361 patients (90% of the bacteriologically confirmed cases) were available to study the frequency of transmission of the strains on a molecular ...
Salvarezza C R - - 1998
This study compared the efficacy and tolerability of once-daily dosing with either roxithromycin or cefixime in previously healthy adult patients aged between 18 and 60 with markers of uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in three outpatient clinics in an open, randomized study. Sixty patients were enrolled: 17 males and 13 females ...
Schattner A - - 1998
The clinical features, essential laboratory findings, management, and outcome of all 23 cases of septic arthritis caused by different serogroups of beta-hemolytic streptococcus (BHS) seen at the Stanford Medical Center, Stanford, CA, from July 1, 1985, through October 31, 1996, were reviewed and compared to those found in the literature. ...
Uip D E - - 1998
In view of the action of newer macrolide antibiotics on intracellular protozoa, we have investigated the efficacy of roxithromycin in the treatment of cryptosporidiosis in 26 patients with AIDS. Cryptosporidiosis was confirmed either by faecal examination for parasites (modified Kinyoun method) or by detection of the parasite in biopsy material ...
Winston D J - - 1998
In a prospective, randomized, controlled trial, we compared sulbactam/cefoperazone with imipenem as empirical monotherapy for febrile, granulocytopenic patients; 101 patients received sulbactam/cefoperazone (2 g/4 g every 12 hours) and 102 patients received imipenem (500 mg every 6 hours). Documented infections were present in 40% of patients treated with sulbactam/cefoperazone (40 ...
Yuen K Y - - 1998
A prospective study on the microbes isolated from the alimentary tract in 120 bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients (1991-1993) was undertaken to define the spectrum of organisms isolated under antimicrobial prophylaxis, their temporal sequence of emergence, and the associated morbidity and mortality. Clostridium difficile (n = 20), isolated in the ...
Ishikawa S - - 1998
BACKGROUND: The causes and management of postoperative fever were studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During a four-year-period beginning in January of 1991, high fever over 38.5 degrees C max occurred in twenty-five (6%) out of 395 patients who underwent cardiovascular surgery. RESULTS: Nine of the patients (28%) evidenced bacteriological infections as ...
Greub Gilbert - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To test a case-definition score for its usefulness in the diagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis and to determine microbiological criteria useful in assessing the significance of isolating Aspergillus species from lower respiratory tract specimens (LRTS). METHODS: With the exception of cystic fibrosis patients, all patients with Aspergillus isolated from LRTS ...
Chryssanthou E - - 1998
Candida colonization and haematogenous infection were studied retrospectively in 277 patients with haematological diseases by reviewing the microbiological reports of fungal surveillance and blood cultures over a 4-year period. Most patients (83%) were colonized by Candida and in the majority (68%) the same Candida species was isolated from at least ...
Suppola J P - - 1998
The purpose of our study was to determine retrospectively the risk factors for the acquisition of Enterococcus faecalis vs E. faecium bacteraemia, as well as the clinical outcomes of these patients. 62 patients with Enterococcus faecalis bacteraemia were compared to 31 patients with E. faecium bacteraemia. Haematologic malignancies, neutropenia, high-risk ...
Nathoo N - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Infratentorial empyema is an uncommon form of intracranial suppuration that is usually secondary to neglected otogenic infection. The diagnosis is frequently delayed and often confused with that of meningitis. The associated mortality is distressingly high, yet it has, as a clinical entity, received scant attention in the literature. We ...
Mousa H A - - 1997
One hundred and twenty-seven patients were studied prospectively for aerobic, anaerobic and fungal burn wound infections. All cases yielded organisms on culture. A total of 377 isolates were recovered (239 aerobes, 116 anaerobes and 22 fungi). Aerobic bacteria alone were present in 49 patients (38.6%). Anaerobic bacteria alone were present ...
Rubins J B - - 1997
A cost-conscious evaluation of CAP in the adult patient requires an initial assessment of the clinical severity and the risks of complicated pneumonia. Initially, most patients should have chest radiography; some authorities also recommend sputum Gram staining and culture, but additional blood testing, culture, and diagnostic procedures are indicated only ...
Takeshita M - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to define clearly the role of management in patients with cyanotic heart disease and brain abscesses by evaluating retrospectively the factors influencing poor outcome in these patients. METHODS: This study included 62 patients with cyanotic heart disease and brain abscesses diagnosed in the ...
Jerng J S - - 1997
We retrospectively studied the bacteriology and clinical features of empyema thoracis and lung abscess caused by viridans streptococci in 72 patients seen from January 1984 to September 1996. A total of 76 strains of viridans streptococci were isolated, of which the most common isolates were Streptococcus constellatus (21 strains), S. ...
Forward K R - - 1997
The cumulative yield from cultures of separate sites was determined during the investigation of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreak. Surveillance cultures were submitted from clinical sites, nose, groin, and axilla of 421 patients on two different occasions. MRSA was recovered most often from various clinical sites, including lower respiratory ...
Klontz K C - - 1997
Patients with infected aneurysms discharged from Department of Veterans Affairs hospitals during fiscal years 1986 to 1990 were identified using International Classification of Diseases codes to determine the proportion of patients infected with Salmonella. Twenty-three patients with infected aneurysms were identified. All patients were males; the median age was 63 ...
Oh H M - - 1997
BACKGROUND: There is a direct correlation between increasing age and incidence of herpes zoster. There is an increased risk of complications in the elderly and the immunocompromised. OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical epidemiology of hospitalised patients with herpes zoster. METHODS: Medical records of all patients hospitalised with zoster were respectively ...
Prasad P - - 1997
50 male patients, diagnosed to have chronic folliculitis of legs (CFL), were included in a clinico epidemiological study. CFL affected predominantly young adults of the age group of 16 - 25 years. Severe pruritus was associated in 86% of patients with CFL, and this symptom preceded the onset of new ...
Boyce J M - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To study the possible role of contaminated environmental surfaces as a reservoir of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitals. DESIGN: A prospective culture survey of inanimate objects in the rooms of patients with MRSA. SETTING: A 200-bed university-affiliated teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Thirty-eight consecutive patients colonized or infected with MRSA. ...
Patel S R - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To describe the manifestations of nontropical pyomyositis and associated comorbid conditions that may predispose to pyomyositis. METHODS: A retrospective review of 13 patients with pyomyositis seen at our center including one illustrative case report. Reports of tropical and nontropical pyomyositis were found by review of Index Medicus, Medline, and ...
Sessa C - - 1997
From 1976 to 1994 we performed surgical treatment of 18 infected aneurysms of the infrarenal abdominal aorta. The aneurysm had ruptured in nine patients: into the retroperitoneum in six patients, and into an adjacent structure in three patients (duodenum, inferior vena cava, left renal vein). Two patients had an associated ...
Martin M V - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate shortened courses of antibiotics in the management of dentoalveolar abscesses. DESIGN: Prospective clinical study over a 3-year period. SETTING: Examinations department of the Liverpool University Dental Hospital. SUBJECTS: 759 patients, with acute dentoalveolar abscesses associated with swelling, and an elevation of axillary temperature to above 38.5 degrees ...
Nguyen L - - 1997
During an open clinical trial in an area where streptococcal infections are hyperendemic, we studied the genetic polymorphism of Streptococcus pyogenes isolates collected from patients and from healthy carriers living in close contact with them. The clonal diversity of isolates was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with three restriction enzymes ...
Menzies D - - 1997
In view of the important consequences with regard to policies for respiratory isolation of hospitalized patients with active tuberculosis, the duration of contagiousness after initiation of effective therapy was reviewed. All relevant English-language literature was reviewed to identify in vitro, animal experimental, and epidemiological evidence regarding contagiousness of patients with ...
Sands K E KE Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass, USA. - - 1997
Sepsis syndrome is a leading cause of mortality in hospitalized patients. However, few studies have described the epidemiology of sepsis syndrome in a hospitalwide population. To describe the epidemiology of sepsis syndrome in the tertiary care hospital setting. Prospective, multi-institutional, observational study including 5-month follow-up. Eight academic tertiary care centers. ...
Bjornson D C - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To describe the therapeutic management of Medicaid patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in urban long-term-care facilities (LTCFs) and to link individual therapies to patient outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective review of medical records in LTCFs of patients who had documented UTIs. METHODS: Patient data were collected from 17 LTCFs in ...
Iwen P C - - 1997
A 10-year retrospective analysis of invasive mold infections in hospitalized patients was performed to characterize the epidemiology and clinical features of invasive fungal sinusitis. Seventeen cases of invasive mold sinusitis were identified. Eleven cases were caused by Aspergillus flavus, three were caused by unspecified species, and one each was caused ...
Jacobs N J - - 1997
Serotyping was performed on Mycobacterium avium isolates from 40 AIDS patients from 5 geographic sites: Boston (17 patients), New Hampshire (4 patients), Finland (12 patients), Trinidad (3 patients), and Kenya (4 patients). Serovars were similar from the five sites. Serovars 4 and 8 were the most common. In addition, minimal ...
Shokeir A A - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: To review our experience with emphysematous pyelonephritis over the past 15 years. METHODS: Twenty patients with emphysematous pyelonephritis were reviewed regarding diagnosis, treatment, and outcome. RESULTS: Women outnumbered men (75% versus 25%), and 80% of patients were diabetic. The left kidney was more frequently affected than the right one ...
Maslo C - - 1997
We conducted a prospective observational study to determine the feasibility and impact of rifabutin prophylaxis (300 mg daily) for human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients whose CD4 cell counts were <100/mm3. Three hundred seventy-one patients (65.2% of all patients with CD4 cell counts of <100/mm3 [mean +/- SD, 30 +/- 25/mm3]) received ...
Vleminckx W G - - 1997
Splenic abscess is an uncommon entity and usually results in the death of the patient when left undiagnosed. A case is presented where bacteraemia with an anaerobic Gram-positive bacillus was associated with splenic abscess. Despite treatment with splenectomy and antibiotics the patient developed a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and ...
Mani V - - 1997
Antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for endoscopic procedures if the patient is at high risk of endocarditis or of symptomatic bacteraemia as a consequence of immunosuppression or neutropenia. In most circumstances parenteral amoxycillin and gentamicin are recommended. The addition of parenteral metronidazole is recommended in patients with neutropenia. Vancomycin or teicoplanin ...
Prasad PVS
50 male patients, diagnosed to have chronic folliculitis of legs (CFL), were included in a clinico epidemiological study. CFL affected predominantly young adults of the age group of 16 - 25 years. Severe pruritus was associated in 86&#x0025; of patients with CFL, and this symptom preceded the onset of new ...
Schiff R I - - 1997
The safety and clinical efficacy of a liquid, beta-propiolactone-stabilized intravenous gamma-globulin, Intraglobin-F, was evaluated in a multicenter, double-blind study comparing Intraglobin-F to Gamimune-N, Sandoglobulin, or Gammagard. beta-Propiolactone stabilizes the IgG molecule to decrease aggregate formation and is a potent virucidal agent that reduces the risk of viral transmission by intravenous ...
Melhus A - - 1997
CDC group DF-3 is a rare isolate from blood, stools and wounds. During the last few years attention to this bacterium has increased due to its association with diarrhoea and bacteremia in immunocompromised patients. This report presents an isolation of this bacterium from a decubitus ulcer of a subfebrile patient ...
Mrázová-Studená M - - 1997
Etiology, risk factors, symptomatology and outcome of 401 bacteremic episodes during the period of 6 years in a National Cancer Institute occurring among 9987 admissions were analyzed. Neutropenia as an independent risk factor was observed in 198 episodes, while 203 bacteremic episodes appeared in nonneutropenic patients. Both groups were compared ...
Chern C H - - 1997
The variable and nonspecific presentations of psoas abscess, as well as its infrequent incidence in the emergency department (ED), can result in delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. Previous reports have not discussed the diagnostic difficulties of psoas abscess from the viewpoint of emergency physicians (EPs), especially in light of the widespread ...
Voss A - - 1997
Aim of this study was to evaluate whether risk factors which predict the development of candidemia may also predict death in ICU patients with candidemia. During an 8-year-period all ICU patients whose blood cultures yielded Candida species (n = 40) were retrospectively evaluated in a case-control fashion. The average incidence ...
Duch-Samper A M - - 1996
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: An attempt was made to establish the effect of an intravenous antibiotic on anterior chamber (AC) fluid contamination when administered before surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study of AC contamination was conducted in 60 patients undergoing extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE)/intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. The final 20 ...
Thorpe E M - - 1996
A randomized, multicenter, investigator-blind trial was conducted to compare the efficacies of cefuroxime axetil and ciprofloxacin for treatment of patients with uncomplicated gonorrhea caused by penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG). A total of 832 patients (434 females and 398 males) received a single oral dose of cefuroxime axetil (1,000 mg [417 ...
Honda T - - 1996
Two patients with severe bronchiectasis, one patient without other disease and the other with hyper IgE syndrome, were successfully treated with long-term therapy with low doses of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ). Recurrent respiratory infections with productive cough and high fever were resistant to various antibiotics and often disturbed the patients' ...
Baláz M - - 1996
The authors studied a relationship between particular bacterial or fungal organisms isolated from blood cultures and type of malignancy and antineoplastic drugs in 237 cancer patients. Sixty four had acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), 43 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and 140 solid tumors (ST). All patients had at least one positive blood ...
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