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Pastore Serena S University of Trieste, Trieste, - - 2014
For children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) who fail to respond to methotrexate, the delay in identifying the optimal treatment at an early stage of disease can lead to long-term joint damage. Recent studies indicate that relevant variants to predict methotrexate response in JIA are those in 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide-transformylase (ATIC), ...
Stallmach Andreas A Andreas Stallmach, Luisa Nickel, Martin Bürger, Carsten Schmidt, Klinik für Innere Medizin IV, Universitätsklinikum Jena, Jena 07747, - - 2014
To detect high risk patients with a progressive disease course of ulcerative colitis (UC) requiring immunosuppressive therapy (IT). A retrospective, multicenter analysis of 262 UC patients from eight German tertiary inflammatory bowel disease centres was performed. Patients were divided into two groups depending on the patients need to initiate immunosuppressive ...
Zhang Fu-Bo FB Fu-Bo Zhang, Ai-Min Zhang, Zhi-Bin Zhang, Xin Huang, Xi-Tao Wang, Jia-Hong Dong, Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, - - 2014
To investigate preoperative differential diagnoses made between intrahepatic biliary cystadenoma and intrahepatic biliary cystadenocarcinoma. A retrospective analysis of patient data was performed, which included 21 cases of intrahepatic biliary cystadenoma and 25 cases of intrahepatic biliary cystadenocarcinoma diagnosed between April 2003 and April 2013 at the General Hospital of PLA. ...
Chen Yuanyuan Y Yuanyuan Chen, Eric M Yoshida, Division of Gastroenterology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9, - - 2014
A case is presented of a 36-year-old male with primary sclerosing cholangitis-associated inflammatory bowel disease (PSC-IBD) and two synchronous stage 1 adenocarcinomata of the colon, who was initially treated with a subtotal colectomy with ileostomy. One year later, the patient presented with extensive intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy and peritoneal carcinomatosis, as well ...
Garin Eduardo H EH Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida, 1600 SW Archer Rd., HD214, Gainesville, FL, 32610, USA, - - 2014
Minimal Change Disease (MCD) in relapse is associated with increased podocyte CD80 expression and elevated urinary CD80 excretion, whereas focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) has mild or absent CD80 podocyte expression and normal urinary CD80 excretion. One patient with MCD, one patient with primary FSGS and three patients with recurrent FSGS ...
Tanaka Atsushi A Department of Medicine, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1, Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, 173-8605, Japan, - - 2014
Bezafibrate is reported to have biochemical efficacy for patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) refractory to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), yet the long-term effect is still unknown. In Japan, nationwide surveys of PBC have been performed since 1980. In the current study, we retrospectively examined whether response to bezafibrate treatment is ...
Tien Connie C Asian Pacific Liver Center, Saint Vincent Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, - - 2014
Increased risk of defective urinary phosphate reabsorption and osteoporosis has been reported in HIV and chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). Goals of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of renal phosphate wasting and abnormal bone mineral density in CHB patients taking TDF compared ...
Ogawa Satoshi S International University of Health and Welfare Mita Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
The postmarketing surveillance registry evaluated the safety and efficacy of rivaroxaban in Japanese patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) treated with rivaroxaban. A total of 10,038 patients with AF were enrolled between April 18, 2012 and December 16, 2013. Overall, 48.9% of the patients were of 75 years or older. The median ...
Nabih Mona I MI Department of Internal Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt. Electronic address: - - 2014
Alfa fetoprotein (AFP) is widely used as a surveillance test for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among patients with liver cirrhosis (LC). However, the clinical use of AFP has been shown to present some important limitations in sensitivity and specificity. Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted matrix glycoprotein that is emerging as a ...
El Bokl Mohamed A MA Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, - - 2014
Liver cirrhosis leads to decreased production of clotting factors that are generally all produced in the liver except factor VIII and von Willebrand factor. However, cirrhotic patients are not protected from thrombosis. The present study aimed to assess the procoagulant and anticoagulant factors in cirrhotic patients with and without bleeding ...
Di Carlo G G Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Science, Pediatric Dentistry Unit, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; Section of Orthodontics, Department of Dentistry, Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, - - 2014
To assess whether morphology and dimension of the upper airway differ between patients characterized by various craniofacial morphology. Ninety young adult patients from the Postgraduate Clinic, Section of Orthodontics, Department of Dentistry, Health, Aarhus University, Denmark, with no obvious signs of respiratory diseases and no previous adeno-tonsillectomy procedures. Thirty patients ...
Ylmaz Bülent B aDepartment of Gastroenterology, Izzet Baysal State Hospital bDepartment of Gastroenterology, Abant Izzet Baysal University School of Medicine, Bolu Departments of cInternal Medicine dGastroenterology, Kocaeli University School of Medicine, Kocaeli, Turkey eCleveland Clinic, Department of Pathobiology, Cleveland, Ohio, - - 2014
Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been used as a simple, affordable, and easily accessible marker to predict prognosis in a variety of inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. However, there are few studies investigating their role in patients with hepatitis B. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between NLR ...
Ito-Yamaguchi Akiko A Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fukushima Medical University , Fukushima , Japan - - 2014
Abstract Objective: To evaluate effects of metformin on endocrine, metabolic parameters and endometrial androgen receptor (AR) expression in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Design: Prospective observational study. Methods: We analyzed blood samples from 10 PCOS patients, of whom endometrium was also analyzed in five patients. Before and after three months of ...
Pfeifer Charlotte D CD Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, - - 2014
To determine the pancreatic iron (R2*) and fat content (FC) in comparison to hepatic and cardiac R2* in patients with iron overload disorders like β-thalassemia major (TM), Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) or hereditary hemochromatosis. R2* rates were assessed in the liver, heart and pancreas of 42 patients with TM, 29 subjects ...
Madre Merce M FIDMAG Research Foundation Germanes Hospitaláries Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Departament de Psiquiatria i Medicina Legal, Doctorat de Psiquiatria i, Psicologia Clínica, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Division of Psychiatry, University College of London, London, - - 2014
Schizoaffective patients can have neurocognitive deficits and default mode network dysfunction while being acutely ill. It remains unclear to what extent these abnormalities persist when they go into clinical remission. Memory and executive function were tested in 22 acutely ill schizoaffective patients; they also underwent fMRI scanning during performance of ...
Arnason Thomas T 1] Gastrointestinal Pathology Service, Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA [2] Division of Anatomical Pathology, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, - - 2014
Collagenous gastritis is a rare condition defined histologically by a superficial subepithelial collagen layer. This study further characterizes the morphologic spectrum of collagenous gastritis by evaluating a multi-institutional series of 40 patients (26 female and 14 male). The median age at onset was 16 years (range 3-89 years), including 24 ...
Migita Kiyoshi K Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Research Center, Nagasaki Medical Center, Omura, Department of Rheumatology, Isahaya Health Insurance General Hospital, Nagasaki, Department of Infection and Host Defense, Graduate School of Medicine, Shinshu University, Matsumoto, Department of Pathology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine and Proteo-Science Center, Ehime, Department of Rheumatology, Sasebo City General Hospital, Sasebo, Department of Rheumatology, Shinto Kumamoto Hospital, Kumamoto, Clinical Research Center, Sagamihara National Hospital, National Hospital Organization, Sagamihara, Institute of Tropical Medicine (NEKKEN), Nagasaki University and Department of Rheumatology, Nagasaki University Hospital, Nagasaki, Japan. - - 2014
The aim of this study was to analyse the role of circulating cleaved IL-1β in patients with FMF. We enrolled 20 patients with FMF (5 males and 15 females), 22 patients with RA (4 males and 18 females) and 22 healthy controls (6 males and 16 females). Serum levels of ...
Kopylov Uri U Division of Gastroenterology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada, - - 2014
Clinical efficacy and risk of complications are associated with intracellular levels of thiopurine metabolites 6-thioguanine nucleotides (6-TGN) and 6-methylmercaptopurines (6-MMP) in patients with Crohn's disease. Therapeutic monitoring of thiopurine metabolites is not widely available. Surrogate markers such as hematologic indices (MCV, leukopenia) have been proposed. To evaluate accuracy of hematologic ...
Gurses Kadri Murat KM Department of Cardiology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, 06100 Ankara, - - 2014
Atrial fibrosis has been found to be associated with recurrent atrial fibrillation (AF) following catheter ablation. Autoantibodies against M2-muscarinic receptors (anti-M2-R) may play a role in the development of AF by inducing left atrial (LA) fibrosis. In this study, we aim to compare anti-M2-R levels between paroxysmal lone AF patients ...
Maejima Nobuhiko N Division of Cardiology, Yokohama City University Medical Center, 4-57 Urafune-cho, Minami-ku, Yokohama 232-0024, - - 2014
We sought to compare the morphological features of non-culprit plaques with >50% diameter stenosis in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) with those of culprit plaques in patients with ACS and stable angina pectoris (SAP) using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and integrated backscatter intravascular ultrasound (IB-IVUS). A total of 150 ...
Corredor Zuray Z Grup de Mutagènesi, Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Edifici C, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra, Cerdanyola del Vallès, - - 2014
Patients suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD) exhibit a high incidence of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, as well as high levels of genomic damage. To confirm the association of CKD with genomic damage we have carried out the largest study to date addressing this issue, using a total of 602 ...
Verhoeven E E Department of Intensive Care, Cliniques St-Luc, Université catholique de Louvain , Brussels , - - 2014
A 55-year-old man was admitted after a suspected hypnotic overdose of valerian extracts. In addition to altered consciousness, the first clinical symptoms included not only diffuse rash on the face, trunk, and limbs, but also an inspiratory dyspnea with a marked hypoxemia. A major laryngeal edema was noted during orotracheal ...
Debono Miguel M Academic Unit of Endocrinology, Department of Human Metabolism, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK (MD, RJR, JN-P); Medical Statistics and Clinical Trials Research Unit, The School of Health and Related Research, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK (MBr); The Departments of Endocrinology (MD, RJR, JN-P), Radiology (MBu) and Endocrine Surgery (BH), Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield, - - 2014
Context: Incidental benign adrenocortical adenomas, 'adrenal incidentalomas', are found in 4.5% of abdominal CT scans, with the incidence increasing to 10% in patients over 70 years. These incidentalomas frequently show evidence of excess cortisol secretion but without overt Cushing's syndrome. The mortality rate is increased in Cushing's syndrome. Objective: To ...
Tanida Satoshi S Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Aichi, - - 2014
& Aims: Behçet's disease is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory disease that can involve the mouth, skin, eyes, genitals, and intestines. Active intestinal Behçet's disease can be complicated by gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and perforation. We performed a multicenter, open-label, uncontrolled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adalimumab, a fully ...
Chevalier-Bidaud Brigitte - - 2014
ATS/ERS Task Force has highlighted that special attention must be paid when FEV1 and FVC are concomitantly decreased (<5th percentile) and the FEV1/FVC ratio is normal (>5th percentile) because a possible cause of this non specific pattern (NSP) is collapse of small airways with normal TLC measured by body plethysmography ...
Park Young Min YM Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Pundang Jesaeng Hospital, Deajin Medical Center, Seongnam, Gyeonggi, - - 2014
We investigated extrathyroidal extension (ETE) through frozen biopsy for intraoperative decision making in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). During the period of the study an operation was performed in 268 patients with PTC and ETE was evaluated using intraoperative frozen biopsies of thyroid tissue. Extrathyroidal extension was confirmed in ...
Paudel Klara K Department of Renal Medicine and Transplantation, Barts Health NHS Trust, London, - - 2014
Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS), ultrasound of lungs (lung ultrasound comets: LUC) and serum biomarkers (N-Terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, NT-proBNP) have been used to assist clinicians to determine hydration status in dialysis patients. But how do they compare? We performed simultaneous measurements of BIS, LUC and NT-proBNP in 27 peritoneal dialysis patients ...
Matsuda Shunichi S Department of Neurology, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8655, - - 2014
The aim of paper was to investigate abnormalities in visual scanning using an eye-tracking device with patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) and SCA31, pure cerebellar types of spinocerebellar degeneration. Nineteen SCA patients (12 patients with SCA6 and 7 patients with SCA31) and 19 normal subjects in total participated ...
Terashi Hiroo H aDepartments of - - 2014
Abstract Background: There is a need to define the basic characteristics of various kinematic parameters recorded during walking in patients with vascular parkinsonism (VP). The present study was designed to determine the kinematic features of walking in VP patients. For this purpose, gait acceleration and cycle were recorded continuously over ...
Celikoglu Mevlut M a Associate Professor, Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Akdeniz University, Antalya, - - 2014
Objective: To evaluate the mandibular dental, alveolar, and skeletal transversal widths in patients affected by unilateral (UCLP) and bilateral (BCLP) cleft lip and palate and to compare the findings with a well-matched normal occlusion sample using cone beam computed tomography images. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 75 ...
Siler Dominic A DA Department of Anesthesiology & Perioperative Medicine, Knight Cardiovascular Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, - - 2014
Patients recovering from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are at risk for developing delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Experimental and human studies implicate the vasoconstrictor P450 eicosanoid 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in the pathogenesis of DCI. To date, no studies have evaluated the role of vasodilator epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) in DCI. Using mass ...
Hirashio Shuma S Department of Nephrology, Hiroshima University Hospital, Hiroshima, - - 2014
Telomeric G-tails play a pivotal role in maintaining the intramolecular loop structure of telomeres. Previous in vitro studies have suggested that the erosion of telomeric G-tails triggers cellular senescence, leading to organ dysfunction and atherosclerosis. The authors recently established a method to measure telomeric G-tail length using a hybridization protection ...
Olesen Jonas Bjerring JB Department of Cardiology, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Niels Andersens Vej 65, 2900 Hellerup, Denmark Department of Cardiology, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Kettegård Allé 30, 2650 Hvidovre, Denmark - - 2014
Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulation (NOAC) agents have been approved for stroke prophylaxis in atrial fibrillation (AF). We investigated 'real-world' information on how these drugs are being adopted. Using Danish nationwide administrative registers, we identified all oral anticoagulation-naïve AF patients initiating oral anticoagulation from 22 August 2011 through 31 October ...
Miyake T T Departments of Dermatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, - - 2014
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated T/NK lymphoproliferative disorders are a group of diseases that include classical and systemic hydroa vacciniforme (HV), and hypersensitivity to mosquito bites (HMB). Patients with systemic HV (sHV) and HMB often have a poor prognosis, although little is known about the prognostic factors. In order to elucidate the ...
Niyaz Leyla L Assistant Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, Ondokuz Mayis University Hospital, Samsun, Turkey - - 2014
A patient that developed paresis of the sixth cranial nerve and bilateral papilloedema after the bee sting to the periocular area is presented. Magnetic resonance venography showed a unilateral transverse and sigmoid sinus thrombosis. The patient was successfully treated with anticoagulation and intracranial pressure lowering treatment.
Meijer Julia H JH Academic Medical Center, Academic Psychiatric Centre, Department of Early Psychosis, University of Amsterdam, - - 2014
Olfactory identification deficits (OIDs) are seen in schizophrenia patients and individuals at increased risk for psychosis but its pathophysiology remains unclear. Although dopaminergic imbalance is known to lie at the core of schizophrenia symptomatology, its role in the development of OIDs has not been elucidated yet. This study investigated the ...
Keijzers Marlies M Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht and GROW Research Institute for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands Department of Pulmonology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht and GROW Research Institute for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, - - 2014
Thymectomy is frequently used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis (MG). But indication, timing or surgical approach remain controversial. This study reports our experiences with robotic thymectomy and surgical and neurological outcomes in a large cohort of patients with MG. We retrospectively analysed the outcome of 125 patients with MG ...
Alhajeri Hebah H Department of Medicine, McGill University, 845 Sherbrooke St W, Montreal, H3A 0G4, Quebec, Canada; Division of Rheumatology, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 Côte Ste-Catherine, Montréal, H3T 1E3, Quebec, - - 2014
Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the new 2013 classification criteria for systemic sclerosis (SSc) in an independent cohort of SSc subjects and to assess the contribution of individual items of the criteria to the overall sensitivity. Method: SSc subjects from the Canadian Scleroderma ...
Aiyer Amiethab A AA Institute for Foot and Ankle Reconstruction, Mercy Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA - - 2014
Metatarsus adductus (MA) is a congenital condition in which there is adduction of the metatarsals in conjunction with supination of the hindfoot through the subtalar joint. It is generally believed that MA precedes the development of hallux valgus. Historically, studies have demonstrated that patients with a history of MA were ...
Yamamura Hitoshi - - 2014
We experienced four Japanese patients with spontaneous retroperitoneal bleeding, a rare disease. We categorized the clinical characteristics of spontaneous retroperitoneal bleeding in these patients treated in our hospital and discuss the risk factors of spontaneous retroperitoneal bleeding. Three of the 4 patients did not have a bleeding tendency as indicated ...
van Lümig P P M PP Department of Dermatology, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, The - - 2014
Concerns exist about a risk of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in psoriasis patients and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients treated with TNF-inhibitors. However, current data also show that in some psoriasis patients, NMSC is diagnosed relatively short after the start of TNF-inhibitors, which suggests that these NMSC can be explained by ...
Degirmenci Eylem E Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey, - - 2014
Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is defined as an involuntary, irregular clonic, or tonic movement of muscles innervated by the ipsilateral seventh cranial nerve. It is reported that the coexistence of non-motor- and motor-related symptoms can be seen in patients with HFS. Postural disturbances were investigated in some movement disorders; however, postural ...
Athlin Simon S Department of Infectious Diseases, Örebro University Hospital, Sweden - - 2014
We studied the immunoglobulin (Ig) response to causative serotype-specific capsular polysaccharides in adult pneumococcal pneumonia patients. Serotypes were grouped according to degree of encapsulation and invasive potential. Seventy patients with pneumococcal pneumonia, 20 of whom were bacteremic, were prospectively studied. All pneumococcal isolates were serotyped and Ig titers to the ...
Arevalo-Manso Juan Jose JJ Department of Neurology and Stroke Centre, La Paz University Hospital; IdiPAZ, Hospital La Paz Institute for Health Research; Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain jjarevaloes@hotmail.com - - 2014
It is unknown whether monitors that include atrial fibrillation recognition software (AF-RS) increase the rate of early atrial fibrillation (AF) detection in acute stroke. We aimed to evaluate the AF detection rate of an AF-RS monitor and compare it with standard monitoring. This was a retrospective, single-centre observational study conducted ...
Del Valle Elisa E Department of Nephrology, Instituto de Investigaciones Metabólicas, Buenos Aires, - - 2014
Controversy exists on which vitamin D (D2 or D3) and which dosage scheme is the best to obtain and maintain adequate 25 OH D levels in dialysis patients safely. We tried to determine whether high-dose vitamin D2 supplementation could obtain optimal vitamin D status without inducing hypercalcemia. We studied 82 ...
Matika Ryan W RW Departments of Anesthesiology, * and Medicine, † the University of Arizona College of - - 2014
Chronic hemodialysis is associated with significant thrombophilia. Of interest, hemodialysis patients have increased carboxyhemoglobin and exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), signs of upregulated heme oxygenase (Hmox) activity. Given that CO enhances plasmatic coagulation, we determined if patients requiring chronic hemodialysis had an increase in endogenous CO, plasmatic hypercoagulability and decreased fibrinolytic ...
Wolff Anette S B AS Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, 5021 Bergen, Norway; - - 2014
Patients with the autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I (APS-I), caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene, and myasthenia gravis (MG) with thymoma, show intriguing but unexplained parallels. They include uncommon manifestations like autoimmune adrenal insufficiency (AI), hypoparathyroidism, and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis plus autoantibodies neutralizing IL-17, IL-22, and type ...
Malerba Mario M Department of Internal Medicine, University of Brescia, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by poorly reversible airflow limitation, with an abnormal pulmonary and systemic inflammatory response to tobacco smoking. Systemic inflammation promotes atherosclerosis, to treat the complications of which beta-blockers are paramount. In the COPD setting, however, the use of beta-blockers has been limited by fears ...
Lee Min-Yi MY Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Municipal Min-Sheng Hospital, - - 2014
We aimed to determine the association between plasma aldosterone and renin levels as well as their ratios with carotid plaques in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque score were evaluated in 111 patients with stable CAD. Plasma renin and aldosterone levels were measured in ...
Cresti Alberto A Cardiological Department, Misericordia Hospital, Grosseto, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
Atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial flutter (AFL) are strong atrial thrombosis (THR) risk factors. In recent-onset tachyarrhythmias, the incidence of left atrial appendage (LAA) THR, detected by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), has been widely studied, ranging from 6% to 18% (AF) and 4% to 11% (AFL). On the contrary, few studies ...
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