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Results 251 - 300 of 986
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Ietswaart Magdalena - - 2008
Changes in emotional and social behaviour are relatively common following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Impairments in recognising the emotional state of others may underlie some of the problems in social relationships that these patients experience. The few previous studies examining emotion recognition in TBI typically assessed patients once, long after ...
Zuccoli G - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Wernicke encephalopathy is a severe neurologic disorder that results from a dietary vitamin B1 deficiency. It is characterized by changes in consciousness, ocular abnormalities, and ataxia. This study was undertaken to analyze and compare findings on MR imaging and neurologic symptoms at clinical presentations of patients with ...
Sanus Galip Zihni - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Although cavernomas are the most common brain vascular malformations, the etiology and risk factor(s) are still not entirely known. Recent publications focusing on the molecular basis suggest that genetic factors may play a role in the development of the brain vascular malformations. We aimed to show HLA typing in ...
Neumann-Haefelin Tobias - - 2007
MRI is increasingly used as the primary imaging modality in acute stroke, since it allows treatment based on individual pathophysiology rather than strict time windows. PET studies have confirmed that regions with disturbed diffusion frequently indicate irreversible tissue damage, although they may in part be viable. The mismatch between a ...
Kassubek Jan - - 2007
Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was analyzed using optimized voxel-based morphometry in 21 patients with pure hereditary spastic paraparesis (pHSP) and 12 patients with complicated HSP (cHSP). PHSP patients showed only small regional grey matter volume reduction, whereas significantly decreased grey matter volumes were localized pericentrally in cHSP. ...
Serletis Demitre - - 2007
OBJECT: The authors prospectively assessed the value of awake craniotomy used nonselectively in patients undergoing resection of supratentorial tumors. METHODS: The demographic features, presenting symptoms, tumor location, histological diagnosis, outcomes, and complications were documented for 610 patients who underwent awake craniotomy for supratentorial tumor resection. Intraoperative brain mapping was used ...
Geerts J - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for clinical use in patients with a brain tumour in the setting of a regional hospital. Twenty-three patients underwent a fMRI examination as preoperative evaluation for a tumour adjacent to a eloquent brain area. ...
van Haren Neeltje E M - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Considering the magnitude of the reported changes in brain volume over time in first-episode patients it is unlikely that these changes are constant over the life-span of the schizophrenic illness. Thus, one would expect the progression in brain volume change in schizophrenia to follow a more complex trajectory over ...
Agrawal A - - 2007
Fever in patients with severe head injury is a commonly-encountered diagnostic and management problem. Neurogenic fever (NF) is a non-infectious source of fever in the patient with head injury and, if untreated, can cause damage to the brain in many ways. Until recently, NF was thought to be a relatively ...
Serebro-Sorek K - - 2007
PURPOSE: This study focused on basic attentional impairments among persons with TBI who were behaviourally evaluated as suffering from either apathetic or disinhibition symptoms. METHODS: Differences in orienting responses (ORs) and habituation rates were examined between patients (n = 18) and controls (n = 18) and between two TBI sub-groups: ...
Laureys Steven - - 2007
The clinical and para-clinical examination of residual self-consciousness in non-communicative severely brain damaged patients (i.e., coma, vegetative state and minimally conscious state) remains exceptionally challenging. Passive presentation of the patient's own name and own face are known to be effective attention-grabbing stimuli when clinically assessing consciousness at the patient's bedside. ...
Avdibegovi─ç Esmina - - 2007
AIM: To assess the frequency of silent brain infarcts and cerebral cortical atrophy in psychiatric patients with cognitive dysfunction. METHODS: One hundred and ninety four patients with cognitive dysfunction determined by the use of the Benton Visual Retention Test and Wechsler Memory Scale were analyzed according to age, gender, education, ...
Vedolin L - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There are no reliable markers to predict neurologic outcome of patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) II. We hypothesized that brain MR imaging and MR spectroscopy are useful in depicting features related to cognitive impairment (CI) in MPS II. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen male patients with MPS II were ...
Yang L-K - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To investigate serum levels of folate, B12, and total homocysteine (tHcy) in elderly post-stroke patients, and the possible correlations with radiological markers of neuropathology. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Department of Neurology, Cardinal Tien Hospital. SUBJECTS: Eighty-nine elderly post-stroke patients were enrolled for dietary assessment and blood tests. Neuroradiological assessment ...
Abatzoglou I - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Non-linear analysis was applied on MEG signals of Alzheimer Disease (AD) patients in order to investigate the underlying complexity of the brain dynamics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Single channel SQUID was used to record the MEG signals in 9 AD patients and 5 normal individuals. The magnetic activity, for ...
Low Cristiane - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Early brain insults can cause cavitary lesions including porencephaly (POR) and multicystic encephalopathy (MCE). The objective of this study was to investigate clinical and electrographic correlates associated to these types of destructive brain lesions. METHOD: Patients with POR and MCE were selected and submitted to clinical and Video-EEG monitoring. ...
Cho Byung-Sik - - 2007
Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) shows some similarities to neuroBeçhet disease (NBD) in that both conditions have some analogous clinical features and they are both pathologically associated cerebral vasculopathy. This study compared the clinical manifestations, brain MRI findings and prognosis of NPSLE and NBD patients. Forty three patients with NPSLE ...
Hildebrandt Helmut - - 2007
Patients in a vegetative state (VS) show a spontaneous wake-sleep-cycle but no evidence of awareness, of interaction with the environment, voluntary action, and language comprehension. The neuropathological conditions underlying VS are still not fully understood. In this retrospective study we focused on VS due to hypoxia and used SPECT, VEP ...
Savoiardo Mario - - 2007
Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is caused by leakage of CSF, and characterized on MRI by brain sagging, dilatation of veins and dural sinuses, subdural fluid collections and post-contrast enhancement of the thickened dura. A few cases may present a very severe brain sagging through the tentorial notch and swelling of ...
Ammermann Heidi - - 2007
The object of this study was to analyze magnetic resonance imaging data from patients with disorders of consciousness who were suffering from non-traumatically induced brain lesions with respect to the pattern of vulnerability and to examine the associations between the sizes of these lesions and the clinical outcome of the ...
Formisano R - - 2007
AIM: To assess the incidence of late post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) in patients with very severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) who either received or did not receive anti-epileptic prophylactic treatment. METHODS: Two populations were studied: 55 patients retrospectively and 82 subjects prospectively. RESULTS: Ten patients (18%) in the first population showed ...
Chen J J H - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (Tc-99m ECD) brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been used to detect abnormal regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in women with primary fibromyalgia (FM). The main aim of this study was to investigate the rCBF deficit in concomitant FM patients and compare it ...
Freeman Alexandra F - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome is a multisystem disorder with abnormalities of the immunologic, connective tissue, and skeletal tissue systems. Central nervous system abnormalities have not been considered a feature of hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome. We aimed to determine whether central nervous system abnormalities detected on brain MRI exist in hyperimmunoglobulin E ...
Goldenberg Georg - - 2007
We present two studies aimed at elucidating why patients with dysexecutive syndrome encounter difficulties with the use of tools and technical devices. Two different groups of patients with dysexecutive syndrome took part in them. Their results were compared with those of two groups of normal controls and in the first ...
Di H B - - 2007
BACKGROUND: A challenge in the management of severely brain-damaged patients with altered states of consciousness is the differential diagnosis between the vegetative state (VS) and the minimally conscious state (MCS), especially for the gray zone separating these clinical entities. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the differences in brain activation in response to ...
Ginestroni A - - 2007
Morphometry and spectroscopy were performed in 3 patients with fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). The brain stem and cerebellum were atrophic and satisfied criteria for olivopontocerebellar atrophy in 2 patients. However, the vermis was relatively spared and the basis pontis maintained its oval shape. The only spectroscopic abnormality was a ...
Soriano-Mas Carles - - 2007
Structural neuroimaging studies have reported a variety of brain alterations between groups of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients and healthy controls. However, the large heterogeneity in discrete anatomical measures that exists among patients prevents a clear discrimination of single patients from healthy subjects. This reduces the potential clinical applicability of structural ...
Cohen Oren S - - 2007
We report a rapid, dramatic and sustained improvement following bilateral pallidal stimulation in two patients affected by intractable generalized tardive dystonia. Both patients had a chronic psychiatric disorder and developed chronic disabling generalized dystonic symptoms persisting despite prolonged withdrawal of neuroleptics and all available symptomatic treatment. The clinical benefit in ...
Cherubini Andrea - - 2007
In this study, we defined an operator-independent protocol for reconstructing the anatomical connections originating from fMRI activations in order to demonstrate that results obtained with this protocol are affected by alterations of functional activations. Seven healthy volunteers and two patients who sustained traumatic brain injury underwent an fMRI with a ...
Malhi G S - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Using single-voxel proton spectroscopy we aimed to investigate changes in metabolite levels in key brain regions during hypomania and euthymia in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). METHOD: Nine patients with a diagnosis of BD and nine age, sex, education, and handedness-matched comparison subjects underwent magnetic resonance proton spectroscopy (H(1)-MRS) ...
Tomimoto H - - 2007
The insula of Reil constitutes a functionally intriguing complex of the brain related to multifunctional activities. We examined the subinsular region in 119 consecutively autopsied patients, as T2 hyperintense lesions are frequently observed in magnetic resonance diagnosis of this region. The patients were admitted in neurology wards and were diagnosed ...
Perneczky Robert - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that brain reserve allows patients with more years of schooling to cope better with brain damage. Research has been mainly focussed on Alzheimer's disease and no studies exist on patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). The aim of this study was to provide evidence for brain ...
Alterman R L - - 2007
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) at the globus pallidus pars internus (GPi) is an effective treatment for some patients with medically refractory torsion dystonia. In this chapter we review the classification and treatment of torsion dystonia including the current indications for DBS surgery. Details of the DBS procedure and programming of ...
Morganti Francesca - - 2007
Topographical disorientation represents one of the main consequences of brain injury. Up to now several methodological approaches have been used in the assessment of the brain injured patient's navigational abilities showing a moderate correlation with the impairments observed in everyday contexts. We propose a combination of standardized neuropsychological tests and ...
Hutchinson Peter P University of Cambridge Academic Department of Neurosurgery, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom. - - 2007
Brain edema is a common pathophysiological process seen in many neurosurgical conditions. It can be localized in relation to focal lesions or generalized in diffuse types of brain injury. In addition to local adverse effects occurring at a cellular level, brain edema is associated with raised intracranial pressure (ICP), and ...
Bennett Stacey S SS Department of Nursing, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, - - 2007
Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can be a common problem associated with the treatment of acute brain injury. High frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is a developing therapy for the treatment of ARDS in adult patients that can be life saving. However, often patients with acute, severe brain injury demonstrate intracranial ...
van Harten Barbera - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 has been associated with poor cognitive performance and dementia, particularly in elderly patients. The exact mechanisms underlying the cognitive dysfunction in DM remain unclear. Imaging studies of the brain could be helpful to give more insight into possible structural brain lesions underlying ...
Iłzecka Joanna - - 2006
A PRoliferation-Inducing Ligand (APRIL) is a cytokine with the ability to induce tumorigenesis. The aim of the study was to measure serum APRIL levels in patients with brain glioblastoma multiforme. Twenty five patients with brain tumor and a control group of 25 subjects took part in the study. APRIL was ...
Nobili Flavio - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Headache in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is controversial, as is evidence of brain impairment in patients with SLE and headache. Perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed to investigate brain impairment in SLE patients with migraine-like headache either from the period of diagnosis or later in the ...
Iwasaki Shinichi - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To describe a series of patients with hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis (HCP) associated with chronic middle ear inflammation. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case review. SETTING: University Hospital. PATIENTS: Six consecutive patients between the years 2000 and 2004 who had both middle ear disease and HCP (three men and three women; age ...
Sinclair Alex J - - 2006
Dystonia complicating homocystinuria is extremely rare in the absence of thromboembolic disease. We report a unique case of recurrent dystonia in a patient with homocystinuria secondary to pyridoxine-unresponsive cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency. Brain MRI was normal. Two biochemical markers for homocystinuria, homocystine and methionine, were markedly elevated during periods when our ...
Sakai Y - - 2006
We report 2 children (patients 1 and 2) with Kearns-Sayre syndrome and 1 (patient 3) with Leigh syndrome, who underwent serial diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) studies for 2.8 (patient 1), 4.2 (patient 2), and 1.0 years (patient 3). The DWI revealed the persistent hyperintense signals in the pontine and mesencephalic ...
Vivas Ana B - - 2006
The study of the performance of patients with neurological disorders has been fruitful in revealing the nature and neural basis of inhibition of return (IOR). Thus, in recent years, studies have reported abnormal IOR in patients with Alzheimer's disease, patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, and brain-damaged patients. In the present study, ...
Ota Miho - - 2006
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (MyD) is a common inherited neuromuscular disorder. In addition to neuromuscular symptoms, many MyD patients show central nervous system neuropathology. This study evaluated whether MyD patients display diffusion tensor (DT) abnormalities associated with regional cortical atrophy and clinical features. Three-dimensional T1-weighted and DT magnetic resonance images ...
Blood Anne J AJ Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown 02129, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. - - 2006
The pathophysiology of dystonia is still poorly understood. We used diffusion tensor imaging to screen for white matter abnormalities in regions between the basal ganglia and the thalamus in cervical and hand dystonia patients. All patients exhibited an abnormal hemispheric asymmetry in a focal region between the pallidum and the ...
Lampl Yair - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Malignant middle cerebral artery (MMCA) infarction is associated with severe brain edema which may lead to a rapid deterioration of consciousness, increase of intracranial pressure, brain midline shift and finally, herniation. We examined the correlation between the degree of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and MMCA. METHODS: Twenty-five consecutive ...
Atmaca Murad - - 2007
Neuroanatomic abnormalities have been implicated in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). To date, no study has measured the orbito-frontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate, caudate nucleus, and thalamus concurrently in first-episode patients. Thus, we performed a volumetric MRI study in patients who were treatment-naive and healthy controls focusing on the ...
Su Deng-Huang - - 2006
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Central diabetes insipidus (DI) is an established phenomenon after hypoxic encephalopathy or brain death, but hypopituitarism is seldom described. This study investigated the characteristics of 11 patients with DI and hypopituitarism which developed after severe hypoxic encephalopathy. METHODS: The medical records of patients with DI and hypopituitarism after severe ...
Voss Henning U - - 2006
We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to study 2 patients with traumatic brain injury. The first patient recovered reliable expressive language after 19 years in a minimally conscious state (MCS); the second had remained in MCS for 6 years. Comparison of white matter integrity in the patients and 20 normal ...
Sakai Kenji - - 2006
We report two sporadic cases of tauopathy with unusual neuropathological features. The ages of the patients at death were 86 and 74 years, and the disease durations were 4 and 3 years, respectively. The former patient showed progressive dementia and amyotrophy (autopsy revealed that severe cervical spondylosis was responsible for ...
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