Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 981
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Marchi Nicola - - 2008
Central nervous system (CNS) diagnostics is a promising tool for detection of neurological disorders, including brain metastases. One of the earliest applications of CNS diagnostics was based on serum markers of blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction, which often correlates with acute, chronic, or incipient brain disease. In the case of brain ...
Olson Robert Anton - - 2008
GOAL OF WORK: Detection of cognitive impairment in patients with brain metastases is important for both patient management and clinical trials. The most commonly used cognitive screen, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), though convenient, is not sensitive in these patients. More sensitive tools are less convenient and, therefore, uncommonly ...
Maruya Jun - - 2008
A 43-year-old woman suffered clinical brain death after severe head injury. The patient met the criteria for the diagnosis of clinical brain death on Day 3. Aggressive hemodynamic and respiratory managements coupled with triple hormone therapy were performed at the family's request, resulting in continued cardiac activity for a prolonged ...
Wu Y - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression ofmonocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in the brain tissue of patients with intractable epilepsy (IE) and to explore its role in the pathogenesis of IE. MATERIAL: Patients with IE were collected from the Department of Neurosurgery of several Chinese hospitals between 2002 and 2005. The average ...
Lange Rael T - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to compare 104 patients with acute uncomplicated mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) to a sample of 104 patients from an inpatient substance abuse program to determine whether these patients could be differentiated by their pattern of relative cognitive strengths and weaknesses. Patients were matched ...
De Sanctis V - - 2008
Data from the Italian Ministry of Health show that approximately 300-500 per 100.000 Italians are admitted to hospital each year for either TBI or subarachnoid haemorrhage with an annual mortality of 20 per 100.000; 90% of these TBI are of medium severity. Traumatic brain injury-induced hypopituitarism in adults are more ...
Brinar Vesna V - - 2008
A patient is described who presented with focal brain lesion considered to be a tumor and later developed disseminated white matter disease. After 21 years of clinical and MRI follow up, the diagnosis of isolated neurosarcoidosis was confirmed by histology. The follow up of more than 21 years in this ...
Joo Eun Yeon - - 2008
PURPOSE: To investigate the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), we compared brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images of drug na?ve IGE patients with those of age/sex matched healthy volunteers. METHODS: Brain interictal 99mTc-ethylcysteinate dimer SPECT was performed in 21 patients ...
Sturdza Alina - - 2008
GOALS OF WORK: To document the use of steroids and frequency of their side effects in patients with brain metastases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A survey of oncologists who manage patients with brain metastases was conducted to document steroid prescribing practice in our institution. In addition, a retrospective chart review of ...
Prakash S - - 2008
Two young patients are described who made complete recovery from locked-in syndrome (LIS) after snakebites. LIS was a presenting feature in a patient of presumed snake bite who showed complete response to polyvalent Anti-snake venom (ASV). This case suggests that elapid snake bite should be suspected in unresponsive patient found ...
Pilitsis Julie G - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: As new clinical applications for deep brain stimulation (DBS) emerge and the number of patients with DBS systems continues to grow, lead technology will also advance. To direct improvement of these leads, improved understanding of the effects of the DBS electrodes and stimulation parameters on the surrounding brain parenchyma ...
Kuo H-C - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the correlation among intelligence, brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) and genotype in classic myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen patients with classic DM1 were administered intelligence and neuropsychological tests and brain MRI focusing on a semi-quantitative rating scale of subcortical white matter lesions ...
Lai M-H - - 2008
Functional imaging in patients with movement disorders has suggested abnormalities of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). We describe a patient with thoracic cord lesion with subsequent severe neuropathic pain. Right hemichorea developed and was related to adjunctive therapy with gabapentin. The patient's hemichorea decreased gradually after cessation of gabapentin. The ...
Wilhelm Julia - - 2008
AIMS: The individual extent of structural brain tissue changes in patients with alcohol dependence is influenced by genetic factors, gender, age and possibly a dose/duration-effect. Aim of the present study was to investigate different types of alcoholic beverages with regard to hippocampal volume loss in patients suffering from alcoholism. METHODS: ...
Riedl Stefan - - 2008
Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) is a heterogeneous brain midline anomaly associated with ophthalmological, endocrinological, and/or neurodevelopmental symptoms. The clinical phenotype correlates with abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. However, variations of the septum pellucidum (SP) appearance and their clinical impact have not been studied in depth. Sixty-eight patients with optic ...
Piga Mario - - 2008
PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of brain MRI and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in early detection of central nervous system abnormalities in patients affected by Wilson's disease (WD) with or without neurological involvement. METHODS: Out of 25 consecutive WD patients, 13 showed hepatic involvement, ten hepatic and neurological manifestations, ...
Nakajima Makoto - - 2008
A 58-year-old man was admitted due to mild right-sided hemiparesis and a speech disturbance. We diagnosed an atherosclerotic brain infarction of the left cerebral hemisphere. The patient had severe clubbing of his fingers and toes bilaterally. Based on the history, clinical features, and X-ray examinations, he was diagnosed as having ...
Yoshii Yoshihiko - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Nobody knows whether cognitive dysfunction affects survival. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the dysfunction is caused by the tumor itself or by its treatment. METHODS: Patients with 20 gliomas (LGG, 7; MG, 13 [AG, 4; GM, 9]) in the right brain (nondominant) and 11 gliomas (LGG, 1; MG, 10 ...
Inoue T - - 2008
We studied changes in brain volume on magnetic resonance imaging in 10 patients with and without EC-IC bypass surgery who met the inclusion criteria for the Japanese EC-IC bypass trial, a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, prospective study of patients with hemodynamic brain ischemia due to cerebral artery occlusive disease. We also ...
Gunther Max L - - 2008
Delirium, or acute brain dysfunction, is a life-threatening global disturbance in cognitive functioning that frequently manifests in critically ill patients. This review examines the current status of knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of delirium in the ICU, in particular, evaluating the role of iatrogenic factors such as sedatives and analgesic administration ...
Signoretti Stefano - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to demonstrate the posttraumatic neurochemical damage in normal-appearing brain and to assess mitochondrial dysfunction by measuring N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels in patients with severe head injuries, using proton (1H) magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy. METHODS: Semiquantitative analysis of NAA relative to creatine-containing compounds (Cr) and ...
Mukhopadhyay Pritha - - 2008
This work concerns the investigation of executive functions in patients with focal brain lesion. In order to identify the underlying substrates for executive functions, 54 patients with focal cortical (n=30), subcortical (n=13) and cerebellar damage (n=10) (M=9; F=1) in the age range of 24-65 years with a minimum of Class ...
Owen Adrian M - - 2008
The assessment of residual brain function in the vegetative state, is extremely difficult and depends frequently on subjective interpretations of observed spontaneous and volitional behaviors. For those patients who retain peripheral motor function, rigorous behavioral assessment supported by structural imaging and electrophysiology is usually sufficient to establish a patient's level ...
Degos Vincent - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: At the acute phase of traumatic brain injury (TBI), brain swelling contributes substantially to the development of secondary neurological lesions. Elucidating the pathophysiology of brain swelling is crucial to improve TBI management. In a previous study, specific gravity (SG) of the noncontused hemisphere, as estimated by computed tomography (CT), ...
Brunetti-Pierri Nicola - - 2008
The authors report the clinical, neuroradiologic, and neuromuscular pathological findings in a patient with GM1 gangliosidosis. The proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, previously reported in a single patient with GM1 gangliosidosis, detected a mild reduction of N-acetylaspartate, consistent with relative paucity of axons and neurons and increased levels of myoinositol suggestive ...
Leon-Carrion Jose - - 2008
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To find an easy-to-use, valid and reliable tool for evaluating the level of functional dependence of an individual with brain damage who seeks a diagnosis of his/her functional dependence in daily activities. METHODS: Eighty-one patients with acquired brain injury (ABI) in post-acute phase, 40 traumatic brain injury (TBI) ...
Iversen Ih - - 2008
Brain-computer interface methodology based on self-regulation of slow-cortical potentials (SCPs) of the EEG (electroencephalogram) was used to assess conditional associative learning in one severely paralyzed, late-stage ALS patient. After having been taught arbitrary stimulus relations, he was evaluated for formation of equivalence classes among the trained stimuli. A monitor presented ...
Blomquist Gunnar - - 2008
The compound {N-methyl-[(11)C]}2-(4'-methylaminophenyl)-6-hydroxybenzothiazole, "PIB", measured by positron emission tomography, has been demonstrated to image brain beta-amyloid deposition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study the benefit of measuring the PIB accumulation rate together with the unidirectional influx of PIB into the brain was investigated in healthy control subjects and ...
Soldatos Theodoros - - 2008
The optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) may be increased in brain-injured patients, especially children, with intracranial hypertension. We investigated whether measurements of ONSD correlated with simultaneous noninvasive and invasive measurements of the intracranial pressure (ICP) in brain-injured adults. Seventy-six critical care patients (58 males; 47 +/- 18 years old) were ...
Fei G-Q GQ Department of Neurology, Zhongshan Hospital and Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, - - 2008
Nonalcoholic Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) is prone to be underestimated in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to improve its awareness and early accurate diagnosis. We conducted a retrospective review of the cases of 12 patients with nonalcoholic WE, consisting of clinical characteristics and MR imaging features as well ...
Lidzba K - - 2008
Patients with congenital lesions of the left cerebral hemisphere may reorganize language functions into the right hemisphere. In these patients, language production is represented homotopically to the left-hemispheric language areas. We studied cerebellar activation in five patients with congenital lesions of the left cerebral hemisphere to assess if the language ...
Curtis Kelly L - - 2008
A known-groups design was used to determine the classification accuracy of verbal fluency variables in detecting Malingered Neurocognitive Dysfunction (MND) in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants were 204 TBI and 488 general clinical patients. The Slick et al. (1999) criteria were used to classify the TBI patients into non-MND and ...
Tomkins O - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important cause of focal epilepsy. Animal experiments indicate that disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the frequency, extent and functional correlates of increased BBB permeability in patient with PTE. ...
Ito S - - 2008
We report 3 patients with myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRF) diagnosed by mitochondrial A8344G mutation. Cerebellar ataxia was the first symptom in all patients. Conventional brain MR imaging showed atrophy of the superior cerebellar peduncles and the cerebellum in all patients and brain stem atrophy in 2 patients. In ...
Welzel T - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) will show abnormal fractional anisotropy (FA) in the normal-appearing brain after prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI). These abnormalities will be more accentuated in patients with underlying vascular risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study by use of DTI and conventional T2-weighted MR images ...
Joo Eun Yeon - - 2007
To investigate changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). We compared the 99mTc-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images of patients with OSAHS with those of age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. University hospital. Twenty-seven patients with severe OSAHS and ...
Hebb Matthew O - - 2007
We describe the unusual clinical course of a patient with cranial dystonia (i.e., Meige syndrome) and additional upper limb involvement, who developed sustained relief of motor symptoms following cessation of a prolonged course of bilateral pallidal deep brain stimulation (DBS). Early response to therapy proved titratable and reversible; however, the ...
Saksena Sona - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Cerebral edema is a major complication in patients with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolite alterations and cerebral edema in patients with FHF using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and diffusion tensor imaging, and to look for ...
Wilde Mark C - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of comorbid obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on the cognitive functioning of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. DESIGN: A case-control study. Neuropsychologic test performances of TBI patients with OSA were compared with those who did not have OSA. The diagnosis of OSA was based on standard ...
Rabinstein Alejandro A - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence and associations of paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) among febrile patients in the neurological intensive care unit (NICU). METHODS: Prospective data collection of consecutive patients admitted to an academic NICU for >48 hours. Fever was defined as body temperature >38.3 degrees C (101.0 degrees F) on ...
Al-Kandari Fareeda A - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Neurological complications have been reported in patients with sickle-cell disease (SCD) using positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography (CT), but not with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The objective of this study was to investigate brain perfusion in the patients with SCD using ...
Welsh Robert C - - 2007
PURPOSE: To investigate the source of significant difference in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) between patients with acute symptoms of neuropsychiatric (NP) systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (NPSLE) and normal controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diffusion-weighted echo-planar imaging was performed on 1.5-T scanners in 17 female and four male NPSLE patients with acute ...
Dehail Patrick P Service de Médecine Physique et Réadaptation, Hôpital Pellegrin - CHU de Bordeaux. - - 2007
To assess postural instability in patients with traumatic brain injury upon enrolment to vocational adjustment. A cross-sectional study. Sixty-eight patients at the time of admission to a vocational adjustment programme and 52 healthy age-matched controls were evaluated. Complaints of dizziness, or balance impairment and data from a clinical examination were ...
Egger Karl - - 2007
The present study assessed patterns of brain tissue alterations in different types of primary dystonia using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Nine patients with primary generalized dystonia (GD), 11 patients with primary cervical dystonia (CD), and 11 patients with primary focal hand dystonia (FHD) as well as 31 age and gender-matched controls ...
Bergman R - - 2008
A 77-year-old woman was admitted to the intensive care unit after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to pulseless electrical activity. She was treated with mild therapeutic hypothermia to minimise secondary anoxic brain damage. After a 24 h period of therapeutic hypothermia with a temperature of 32.5 degrees ...
Ietswaart Magdalena - - 2008
Changes in emotional and social behaviour are relatively common following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Impairments in recognising the emotional state of others may underlie some of the problems in social relationships that these patients experience. The few previous studies examining emotion recognition in TBI typically assessed patients once, long after ...
Zuccoli G - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Wernicke encephalopathy is a severe neurologic disorder that results from a dietary vitamin B1 deficiency. It is characterized by changes in consciousness, ocular abnormalities, and ataxia. This study was undertaken to analyze and compare findings on MR imaging and neurologic symptoms at clinical presentations of patients with ...
Sanus Galip Zihni - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Although cavernomas are the most common brain vascular malformations, the etiology and risk factor(s) are still not entirely known. Recent publications focusing on the molecular basis suggest that genetic factors may play a role in the development of the brain vascular malformations. We aimed to show HLA typing in ...
Neumann-Haefelin Tobias - - 2007
MRI is increasingly used as the primary imaging modality in acute stroke, since it allows treatment based on individual pathophysiology rather than strict time windows. PET studies have confirmed that regions with disturbed diffusion frequently indicate irreversible tissue damage, although they may in part be viable. The mismatch between a ...
Kassubek Jan - - 2007
Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was analyzed using optimized voxel-based morphometry in 21 patients with pure hereditary spastic paraparesis (pHSP) and 12 patients with complicated HSP (cHSP). PHSP patients showed only small regional grey matter volume reduction, whereas significantly decreased grey matter volumes were localized pericentrally in cHSP. ...
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