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Leon-Carrion Jose - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between three QEEG global indexes and their association with functional outcome after neurorehabilitation in non-acute acquired brain injury (ABI) patients (traumatic brain injury and stroke). METHODS: Twenty-one adult ABI patients in post-acute phase were studied. Delta-alpha ratio (DAR), Power Ratio Index (PRI) and Mean Brain ...
Al-Mosalem O A - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: Energy metabolism is usually manipulated in many neurodegenerative diseases. Autism is considered a definable systemic disorder resulting in a number of diverse factors that may affect the brain development and functions both pre and post natal. The increased prevalence of autism will have enormous future public implications and has ...
Mohammadi Bahram - - 2009
Neuroimaging studies in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) investigating movements of the hands have in general found increased activation compared to healthy controls, which has been interpreted in terms of cortical adaptation as a result of corticospinal tract damage. Here, we investigated brain activations to vertical tongue movements using functional MRI ...
Chieregato Arturo - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To verify the values and the time course of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the cortex located beneath an evacuated acute subdural hematoma (SDH) and their relationship with neurological outcome. METHODS: rCBF levels were measured in multiple regions of interest, by means of a Xe-computed tomographic technique, in ...
Peck Kyung K - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is used to assess language laterality in preoperative brain tumor patients. In postsurgical patients, susceptibility artifacts can potentially alter ipsilateral fMRI activation volumes and the assessment of language laterality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of fMRI to correctly measure ...
Valayannopoulos V - - 2009
AIMS: Ornithine delta-aminotransferase (OAT) deficiency causes gyrate atrophy (GA) of the retina, as a consequence of high plasma ornithine concentrations. Because creatine synthesis requires the conversion of arginine and glycine into ornithine and guanidinoacetate, high ornithine concentration inhibits this reaction thus causing secondary creatine deficiency. The aim of this study ...
Katsakiori P F - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Dystonia is a medically intractable condition characterized by involuntary twisting movements and/or abnormal postures. Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) has been used successfully in various forms of dystonia. In the present study, we report on eight patients with secondary dystonia, treated with DBS in our clinic. METHOD: Eight patients (five ...
Bichuetti D B - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical characteristics of patients with relapsing neuromyelitis optica (NMO) from a tertiary care center in Brazil and compare the groups with normal and abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Retrospective review of 41 patients followed at the Neuroimmunology Clinic of the Federal University of São ...
Squitieri Ferdinando - - 2009
Huntington disease (HD) mutation increases gain-of-toxic functions contributing to glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. Riluzole interferes with glutamatergic neurotransmission, thereby reducing excitotoxicity, enhancing neurite formation in damaged motoneurons and increasing serum concentrations of BDNF, a brain cortex neurotrophin protecting striatal neurons from degeneration. We investigated metabolic and volumetric differences in distinct brain areas ...
Tiehuis A M - - 2009
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Both vascular disease and diabetes type 2 (DM2) decrease cognitive functioning in elderly people. It is uncertain if DM2 affects cognition independent of vascular disease. In patients with symptomatic arterial disease, we studied the effect of DM2 on cognition and identified clinical and radiological determinants for impaired ...
Lo Calvin - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To determine if diffusion tensor imaging can differentiate patients with chronic cognitive impairment after mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) from normal controls. METHODS: Ten patients with persistent cognitive impairment after mild TBI were evaluated at least 2 years after injury. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were ...
Piguet O O Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Randwick NSW, - - 2009
Diagnosis of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) relies on criteria that are constraining and potentially ambiguous. Some features are open to clinical interpretation and their prevalence unknown. This study investigated the sensitivity of current diagnostic criteria in a large group of patients with bvFTD. Forty-five patients with clear evidence of ...
Tubbs R Shane - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: Although very uncommon, Chiari I malformation (CIM) with syringomyelia may be associated with concomitant syringobulbia. We hypothesized that the anatomy of the craniocervical region may be different in CIM patients with syringomyelia who develop syringobulbia in conjunction with their syringomyelia compared to other patients with CIM with and without ...
Zach Petr - - 2009
Investigations of alterations in brain asymmetry often focus on the planum temporale of patients with schizophrenia. Data also suggest changes in laterality of demented patients associated with a more marked impairment of the left hemisphere. Our study was performed on autoptic brain tissue of 84 patients, out of which there ...
Ciccarelli Olga O Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square, London. - - 2009
We aimed to investigate differences in fractional anisotropy (FA) between primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and the relationship between FA and disease progression using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Two scanners at two different sites were used. Differences in FA between ALS patients and controls scanned in ...
Ding Xiao-Qi - - 2009
Callosal fibres play an important role in psychomotor and cognitive functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible microstructural abnormalities of the corpus callosum in children with developmental delay, who have normal conventional brain MR imaging results. Seventeen pediatric patients (aged 1-9 years) with developmental delay were studied. ...
Wobrock Thomas - - 2009
Chronic alcohol abuse leads to morphological changes of the brain. We investigated if these volumetric changes are reversible after a period of abstinence. For this reason 41 male and 15 female alcohol patients underwent MRI-scanning after in-patient detoxification (baseline) entering alcoholism treatment programs, and between 6 and 9 months later ...
Broekman Marike L D - - 2009
Patients with Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) have an increased risk of developing neoplasms. The most common brain tumors, found in 15%-20% of NF1 patients, are hypothalamic-optic gliomas, followed by brainstem and cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas. These tumors generally have a benign nature. NF1 patients are predisposed to a 5-fold increased incidence ...
Woehrle Johannes C - - 2009
Fourteen consecutive patients with segmental dystonia underwent chronic deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery in the frame of a prospective study protocol. Twelve patients received chronic pallidal stimulation, while 2 patients with prominent dystonic tremor received chronic thalamic ventrointermediate nucleus stimulation. Twelve patients had primary dystonia, and 2 patients secondary dystonia. ...
Duning Thomas - - 2009
Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder characterized by a deficient activity of the enzyme α-galactosidase A, resulting in a vasculopathic involvement of various organ systems, e.g. cerebral structures. Marked cerebral vasculopathy with subsequent white matter lesions (WML) are a frequent finding in FD patients. Recent studies discussed ...
Berman Brian D - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for idiopathic generalized dystonia. More recently, it has been applied as a treatment for focal and segmental dystonias. This patient population offers an opportunity to study the effects of alteration of pallidal outflow ...
Jang Sung Ho - - 2009
Diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) is useful for elucidating the status of the corticospinal tract (CST). The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of DTT for determining the causes of motor weakness in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Five patients with TBI were recruited for this study. ...
Schlosser Hans-Georg - - 2009
Based on the knowledge that traumatic brainstem damage often leads to alteration in brainstem functions, including the vestibulo-ocular reflex, the present study is designed to determine whether prediction of outcome in the early phase after severe traumatic brain injury is possible by means of vestibulo-ocular monitoring. Vestibulo-ocular monitoring is based ...
Sievers C - - 2009
Although long-term exposure of the brain to increased GH/IGF-1 likely influences cerebral functions, no in vivo studies have been directed towards changes of the brain structure in acromegaly. Here, we used high resolution magnetic resonance images to compare volumes of gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ...
Silvoni Stefano - - 2009
To describe results of training and 1-year follow-up of brain-communication in a larger group of early and middle stage amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients using a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI), and to investigate the relationship between clinical status, age and BCI performance. A group of 21 ALS patients were tested ...
Son Su Min - - 2009
Diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) is known to be useful in detecting white matter lesions. In the current study, we report on two hemiparetic patients with risk factors who showed abnormalities of the corticospinal tract (CST) on diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) prior to the manifestation of hemiparesis. Two hemiparetic patients with ...
Wachter Dorothee - - 2009
After traumatic brain injury (TBI), patients present with psychological disorders that may be explained by post-traumatic pituitary insufficiency (PI). The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between hypopituitarism, neuropsychological changes and findings on CT scans after TBI. Hospital charts of 55 TBI patients were screened for age, ...
Jansen C - - 2008
Abstract Aims: The panencephalopathic type of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (PECJD) has extensive abnormalities in cerebral white matter as well as the cortex. PECJD has rarely been described in Caucasians and debate continues on its classification and pathogenesis. We describe our experience of PECJD over a 14-year period of surveillance for CJD ...
Norlinah M I - - 2008
Secondary paroxysmal dyskinesias (PxD) have been previously reported in patients with multiple sclerosis, lacunar infarcts, head trauma, metabolic disorders such as hyperglycaemia, hypocalcaemia, migraine and central nervous system (CNS) infections. The causative lesions typically involve the basal ganglia structures, medulla and rarely the spinal cord. We report two patients who ...
Gnjidić Zivko - - 2008
During the past 25 years, we came across 60 patients with corticotroph pituitary adenomas and Cushing's disease. Neuroradiological examination showed prominent volume loss of the brain parenchyma, unexpected for the patient's age. This "brain atrophy" appeared to regress after surgical removal of pituitary adenoma and normalization of cortisol level. Observed ...
van der Knaap M S - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Histiocytosis, both Langerhans and non-Langerhans cell type, can be associated with cerebellar white matter abnormalities, thought to be paraneoplastic. The associated clinical picture consists of ataxia, spasticity, and cognitive decline. Hormonal dysfunction is frequent. MRI shows cerebellar white matter abnormalities, as well as brainstem and basal ganglia abnormalities. This ...
Aydin K - - 2009
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a persistent infection of the central nervous system by the measles virus. Patients in the initial stages of SSPE show behavioral symptoms and usually normal cranial MR imaging findings. We aimed to investigate the gray matter volume changes in patients with early ...
Zhang Weihong W FM Kirby Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD 21205, - - 2009
Although DTI can provide detailed information about white matter anatomy, it is not yet straightforward enough to quantify the anatomical information it visualizes. In this study, we developed and tested a new tool to perform brain normalization and voxel-based analysis of DTI data. For the normalization part, manually placed landmarks ...
Rovaris M - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Although in benign multiple sclerosis (BMS) locomotor disability is absent or only minimal, subclinical cognitive impairment seems to occur in many cases. Diffusion tensor (DT) MRI enables us to quantify the extent of "actual" tissue damage, which goes undetected when using conventional MRI. Against this background, we investigated the ...
Enns Gregory M - - 2008
Although the survival of patients who have urea cycle disorders has improved with the use of modalities such as alternative pathway therapy and hemodialysis, neurologic outcome is suboptimal. Patients often manifest with a variety of neurologic abnormalities, including cerebral edema, seizures, cognitive impairment, and psychiatric illness. Current hypotheses of the ...
Murakami Aki - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Preterm or low birth weight infants display a greater propensity for white matter injury caused by hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in the perinatal period. Such episodes can result in periventricular leukomalacia, which may substantially influence later brain development. Noninvasive methods of assessing the severity of injury at the earliest stage of ...
Rotge Jean-Yves - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Many neuroimaging studies exploring the volumes of brain structures in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been published in the past 2 decades. In this study, we attempted to provide a complete overview of structural alterations in OCD by meta-analyzing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search ...
Rai Vijan - - 2008
PURPOSE: To use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics for measuring cytotoxic and interstitial components of cerebral edema (CE) in acute hepatic failure (AHF) patients. CE is a major complication in patients with AHF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DTI was performed in 20 patients with AHF and 15 controls. Ten patients underwent ...
Bosma Ingeborg - - 2008
We investigated the mechanisms underlying neurocognitive dysfunction in patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) by relating functional connectivity revealed by magnetoencephalography to neurocognitive function. We administered a battery of standardized neurocognitive tests measuring six neurocognitive domains to a group of 17 LGG patients and 17 healthy controls, matched for age, sex, ...
Glannon Walter - - 2008
Neurostimulation to restore cognitive and physical functions is an innovative and promising technique for treating patients with severe brain injury that has resulted in a minimally conscious state (MCS). The technique may involve electrical stimulation of the central thalamus, which has extensive projections to the cerebral cortex. Yet it is ...
Saitoh Makiko - - 2008
Changes in the molecular species of lipids associated with peroxisomal d-bifunctional protein (d-BP) deficiency were investigated in cerebral tissues to elucidate the pathological mechanisms underlying this disorder. Total phospholipids in the gray and white matters of the patient's brain were decreased to approximately 73% and 50% of control levels, respectively, ...
di Norcia Valerio - - 2008
AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Gliosarcomas are rare malignant primary brain tumors that usually affect the fifth or sixth decades of life. The purpose of this study was to describe our experience with such lesions in elderly patients and to establish their prognosis factors. METHODS: Between 1993 and 2001, 7 patients over ...
Oishi Kenichi - - 2009
BACKGROUND: In patients with the cerebellar variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-C), reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) has been reported in several brain areas. However, since previous studies have employed predetermined regions of interest (ROI), the brain areas showing the earliest alterations in FA are unknown. The sensitivity of detecting early-stage ...
Enzinger Christian - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A hypoxic-ischemic origin of transient global amnesia (TGA) has been suggested on the basis of the observation of infarctlike diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) abnormalities in some affected individuals. We tested this hypothesis by comparing vascular risk factors, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers of cerebral small-vessel disease, and other ...
Hirano Shigeki - - 2008
To elucidate characteristic changes of brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in cerebellar degenerative disorders. Eight patients with the cerebellar variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-C), 7 patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type-3 (SCA-3), 3 patients with SCA-6, and 13 healthy age-matched volunteers participated in this study. Brain AChE activity was measured by [(11)C] ...
Kemmerer David D Department of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1353, USA. - - 2008
Previous neuropsychological studies suggest that, compared to other categories of concrete entities, lexical and conceptual aspects of body part knowledge are frequently spared in brain-damaged patients. To further investigate this issue, we administered a battery of 12 tests assessing lexical and conceptual aspects of body part knowledge to 104 brain-damaged ...
Bizzi A A Department of Neuroradiology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milan, Italy. - - 2008
Childhood white matter disorders often show similar MR imaging signal-intensity changes, despite different underlying pathophysiologies. The purpose of this study was to determine if proton MR spectroscopic imaging ((1)H-MRSI) may help identify tissue pathophysiology in patients with leukoencephalopathies. Seventy patients (mean age, 6; range, 0.66-17 years) were prospectively examined by ...
Uddin Lucina Q - - 2008
Split-brain patients present a unique opportunity to address controversies regarding subcortical contributions to interhemispheric coordination. We characterized residual functional connectivity in a complete commissurotomy patient by examining patterns of low-frequency BOLD functional MRI signal. Using independent components analysis and region-of-interest-based functional connectivity analyses, we demonstrate bilateral resting state networks in ...
Ho Chi Long - - 2008
OBJECT: This study addresses the changes in brain oxygenation, cerebrovascular reactivity, and cerebral neurochemistry in patients following decompressive craniectomy for the control of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: Sixteen consecutive patients with isolated TBI and elevated ICP, who were refractory to maximal medical therapy, ...
Abadal Josep M - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this series was to describe the ultrasonographic perfusion pattern in patients with brain death. METHODS: Thirteen patients with different neurologic disorders in whom brain death developed were studied. Transcranial perfusion was analyzed after injection of 2.5 mL of a sulfur hexafluoride ultrasonographic contrast agent. Time-intensity curves ...
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