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Results 501 - 550 of 981
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Yen T C - - 2000
The aim of this study was to use 99mTc-TRODAT-1 brain SPECT for investigation of the binding of dopamine transporter (DAT) in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway of symptomatic Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) and to compare the results with the abnormal cytidylate, adenylate, and guanylate (CAG) expansion in the MJD1 gene and other ...
Yoshimitsu T - - 2000
BACKGROUND: It has been found that brain atrophy develops more rapidly in patients with end-stage renal failure after initiation of dialysis therapy. The present study was designed to analyze the relationship between brain atrophy and asymptomatic ischemic brain lesions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed for the ...
Rombouts S A - - 2000
In patients with Alzheimer's disease, substantial tissue loss occurs in the medial temporal lobe. In this study, we applied a voxel-based, unbiased whole-brain analysis method to compare magnetic resonance imaging scans of seven patients with Alzheimer's disease and seven healthy elderly controls. Images were transformed to standard coordinate space and ...
Thomson A D - - 2000
The classic signs of vitamin deficiency only occur in states of extreme depletion and are unreliable indicators for early treatment or prophylaxis of alcoholic patients at risk. Post-mortem findings demonstrate that thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency sufficient to cause irreversible brain damage is not diagnosed ante mortem in 80-90% of these ...
Skiest D J - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility of brain thallium-201 single photon emission computerized tomography (Tl-201 SPECT) combined with Toxoplasma serology for the diagnosis of focal CNS lesions in patients with AIDS. METHODS: Sixty-one consecutive HIV-infected patients with focal CNS lesion(s) on head computed tomography (CT) or MRI scan who underwent brain ...
Goh K J - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Between September 1998 and June 1999, there was an outbreak of severe viral encephalitis due to Nipah virus, a newly discovered paramyxovirus, in Malaysia. METHODS: We studied the clinical features of the patients with Nipah virus encephalitis who were admitted to a medical center in Kuala Lumpur. The case ...
Ezzeddine M A - - 2000
Cholesterol emboli (CE) to the brain are an important but often unrecognized cause of stroke. The authors reviewed 29 cases of brain CE identified on autopsy. Most patients were elderly (mean age, 74 years) and presented with encephalopathy and acute renal failure. Ten patients developed symptoms spontaneously, 19 after a ...
Malone S - - 2000
PURPOSE: Radiosurgery is an effective treatment for arteriovenous malformations (AVM) with a low risk of developing brain necrosis. Models have been developed to predict the risk of complications. We postulated that genetic differences in radiosensitivity may also be a risk factor. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Fibroblast cultures were established from skin ...
Atre-Vaidya N - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: In this case study, the significance of perfusion abnormalities in catatonia is examined. BACKGROUND: Recurrent catatonic symptoms are frequently observed in psychiatric disorders, but the predictors of relapse of the catatonic symptoms remain unknown. Perfusion abnormalities have been reported during catatonic states; however, little is known about brain functioning ...
Basso A - - 2000
The paper reports the performance of 50 left- and 26 vascular right-brain-damaged (LBD, RBD) patients in the EC301 Calculation Battery, which explores different aspects of number and calculation processing. All patients underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological testing that also included evaluation for the presence and type of aphasia in LBD patients, ...
Yu P L - - 2000
The clinical experience with a new fluid therapy in children with acute brain edema complicated by infectious disease is reported. The clinical data of a retrospective group of 192 patients and a prospective study of 1,302 and 2,279 patients is summarized. One method of fluid therapy for children with acute ...
Gomez-Angel D - - 2000
Among other tests, craniocorpography (CCG) was performed in 21 patients after acoustic neurinoma surgery. After surgery, 17 patients (81%) had a developing vestibular compensation or an already normal CCG pattern; 3 patients (14%) had signs of persisting central nervous system dysfunction, either localized to the brain stem or in combination ...
Crevits L - - 2000
The most common site of focal lesions after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is the frontal lobe. This lobe, however, is difficult to examine clinically. Neuroimaging is not performed routinely and usually shows normal results in uncomplicated trauma. Antisaccades (AS) and remembered saccades (RS) are neuro-ophthalmological tests of frontal function. ...
al-Essa M A - - 2000
The clinical, biochemical, and neuroradiologic findings and clinical follow-up of seven patients with glutaric aciduria type II are reported. Three phenotypes of the disease are encountered: neonatal-onset form with congenital anomalies (two patients) or without congenital anomalies (three patients) and late-onset form (two patients). The neonatal-onset form presents as an ...
Lim C C - - 2000
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: An epidemic of suspected Japanese encephalitis occurred in Malaysia in 1998-1999 among pig farmers. In neighboring Singapore, an outbreak occurred among pig slaughterhouse workers. It was subsequently established that the causative agent in the outbreak was not the Japanese encephalitis virus but a previously unknown Hendra-like paramyxovirus ...
Van Hove J L - - 2000
We present four patients with typical neonatal onset non-ketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH) who developed hydrocephalus requiring shunting in early infancy. Brain imaging revealed acute hydrocephalus, a megacisterna magna or posterior fossa cyst, pronounced atrophy of the white matter, and an extremely thin corpus callosum in all. The three older patients had ...
Jacquemin C - - 2000
PURPOSE: To better describe the clinical and neuroimaging spectrum of abnormalities in clinical anophthalmos. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of all 17 patients admitted to the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital with clinical anophthalmos over a 15 year period who had a complete ophthalmological examination documented and received computed ...
Rovaris M - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Magnetisation transfer imaging (MTI) provides information about brain damage with increased pathological specificity over conventional MRI and detects subtle abnormalities in the normal appearing brain tissue, which go undetected with conventional scanning. Brain MRI and MTI findings were compared in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and systemic immune mediated ...
Seki K - - 2000
Cube-copying is often used to assess constructional ability of brain-damaged patients and the influence of unilateral spatial neglect is often pointed out in patients with right hemisphere lesions. However, some patients with severe neglect perform cube-copying satisfactorily. The aim of the present study is to identify the factors that affect ...
Al-Essa M A - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical, biochemical, neuroradiological, and neurophysiological findings of patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. METHODS: Retrospective study evaluating the data of 10 X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy patients diagnosed at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. RESULTS: The common presenting symptoms were deterioration in school performance, vision and ...
Gauggel S - - 2000
Little is known about the impact of feedback on the reaction times (RTs) of brain-damaged (BD) patients. The authors therefore investigated the effect of positive and negative feedback on these patients, using a 4-choice RT task. Participants were 107 BD patients with different etiologies and 50 orthopedic (OG) control patients. ...
Yamamoto T - - 2000
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been applied mainly for the treatment of intractable pain and involuntary movement disorders. Based on the rising numbers of patients undergoing DBS therapy, the possibility of emergent application of cardioversion for the treatment of occasional severe arrhythmia in DBS patients has also increased. However, there ...
Langham J - - 2000
Acute traumatic brain injury is a major cause of death and disability. Calcium channel blockers have been used in an attempt to prevent cerebral vasospasm after injury, maintain blood flow to the brain and so prevent further damage. To estimate the effects of calcium channel blockers in patients with acute ...
Meyers J E JE Mercy Rehabilitation Clinic, Suite 340, 500 Jackson Street, Sioux City, IA 51101, USA. - - 2000
The Sentence Repetition test (SR) has been used to assess aphasic and other patients in neuropsychological settings. SR has been shown to be reliable and valid, as well as sensitive to patients with brain injury. This study was conducted to update the normative data for the SR. Sensitivity and specificity ...
Ohara K - - 1999
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a safe and non-invasive technique for the in vivo study of brain chemistry and metabolism. As such, it is highly applicable to the study of living brain tissue in psychiatric diseases. Several neuropathological and neuroimaging studies have suggested that abnormalities of the basal ganglia nuclei ...
Ruff R M - - 1999
Discrepant criteria are utilized by various disciplines for the diagnosis of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study evaluates 76 patients, all of whom were diagnosed as having sustained a mild TBI according to the diagnostic criteria set forth by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine (ACRM); yet only 34% ...
Kriegstein A R - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Inhalation of heated heroin vapor ("chasing the dragon"), which is gaining popularity among drug users seeking to avoid the risks of parenteral drug administration, can produce progressive spongiform leukoencephalopathy. METHODS: We studied the clinical phenotype and course, MRI, MRS, and brain pathology in the first American patients described with ...
Iverson G L - - 1999
The Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT) is widely used in clinical neuropsychology as a measure of verbal fluency. It is important for psychologists to realize that using the recently published normative data will result in different clinical conclusions because the updated normative sample performed better than the original normative ...
Levy L M - - 1999
The stiff-person syndrome, a rare and disabling disorder, is characterized by muscle rigidity and episodic spasms that involve axial and limb musculature. Continuous contraction of agonist and antagonist muscles caused by involuntary motor-unit firing at rest are the hallmark clinical and electrophysiologic signs of the disease. Except for global muscle ...
Cicero B A - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: This study examined lexical emotional perception in patients with unilateral brain damage. BACKGROUND: Hypotheses pertaining to laterality and emotion were tested. More specifically, we were interested in whether the right hemisphere is dominant for verbally-presented emotion. In addition, we examined whether emotional content improves the performance of patients with ...
Postert T - - 1999
OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: Transcranial real time sonography (TCS) was applied to 49 patients with Huntington's disease and 39 control subjects to visualise alterations in the echotexture of the basal ganglia. For comparison T1 weighted, T2 weighted, and fast spin echo MRI was performed in 12 patients with Huntington's disease with ...
Meola G - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To compare brain involvement in myotonic dystrophy (DM) with that of proximal myotonic myopathy (PROMM). BACKGROUND: PROMM is a multisystem disease with many features in common with DM. METHODS: Twenty patients with DM (CTGF[500-700), 20 patients with PROMM, and 20 normal control subjects were studied. Neuropsychological testing was performed ...
Baskin D S - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether higher brain levels of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) are associated with improved neuropsychological function in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). DESIGN: Case series with single-blind post hoc analysis of biopsy specimens. SETTING: Urban hospital and medical school. PATIENTS: A consecutive sample of 8 patients with AD undergoing ...
Bitzani M - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate resting energy expenditure (REE) in brain dead patients and to investigate the hypothesis that the reduction in REE results from a decrease in cerebral blood flow. DESIGN: Prospective, open labeled, control study. SETTING: General intensive care unit of a tertiary referral teaching hospital. PATIENTS: 30 critically ill ...
Etchebehere E C - - 1999
Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic drug, was administered to a patient with Huntington's disease (HD) with marked choreiform movements. Brain SPECT with 99mTc-HMPAO was performed before and after treatment. Brain SPECT imaging has been performed in patients with HD in order to determine the status of basal ganglia perfusion. The use ...
O'Riordan J I - - 1999
Post infectious encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis are both inflammatory demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system. Whereas multiple sclerosis is a multi phasic disease with recurrent episodes disseminated in time and place, post infectious encephalomyelitis is usually considered to be a monophasic illness. This study used serial brain MRI to ...
Hadani M - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical validity of transcranial Doppler ultrasonographic (TCD) signs of total cerebral circulatory arrest for confirmation of brain death and to define the test protocol. DESIGN: Study of a diagnostic test. SETTING: General and neurosurgery intensive care units. PATIENTS: 137 patients in a coma (Glasgow Coma Score ...
Alanen A - - 1999
MRI of the brain and liver using T2 relaxation time measurements and proton spectroscopy (1H-MRS) of the brain was performed in four siblings with Wilson's disease (one with clinical disease and three asymptomatic) as well as age- and sex-matched control subjects. The T2 values of the liver were correlated with ...
Kraft E - - 1999
We studied 13 patients with Wilson's disease (WD) using localized magnetic resonance proton spectroscopy to test whether hepatic encephalopathy or impaired energy metabolism contributes to neurological dysfunction. Levels of myoinositol (MI), choline-containing compounds (Cho), creatine (Cr), N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), Glx (unresolved resonances of glutamate, glutamine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid) and lactate were ...
Becker G - - 1999
We analyzed trace metals in frozen brain tissue of several subcortical nuclei from 3 patients with primary adult-onset dystonia and 10 control subjects. Copper levels were significantly increased in the globus pallidus and putamen of patients with dystonia A slight increase in manganese content was identified in the putamen and ...
Kasher A - - 1999
Processing of implicatures was examined in 27 right-brain-damaged (RBD) and 31 left-brain-damaged (LBD) stroke patients with focal lesions using a new implicatures battery (IB) as part of an exploration of the neural basis and modularity of natural language pragmatics. Following Grice, we sampled implicatures of Quantity, Quality, Relation, and Manner. ...
Jørgensen E O - - 1999
In 231 patients with circulatory arrest of primary cardiovascular or pulmonary aetiology guidelines were established for predicting neurological outcome within the first year after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Outcome measures were brain death, persistent unconsciousness, persistent disability after awakening and complete recovery. A total of 116 patients remained unconscious while 115 regained ...
Brownell H - - 1999
This article examines several factors that influence the production of requests for behavior. Using a role-play methodology, we elicited request productions from well-recovered patients with right-hemisphere brain damage (RHD) and from non brain-damaged control participants. The stimulus items represented variation both on interpersonal factors based on characteristics of the people ...
Stover J F - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: Brain-injured patients are susceptible to secondary brain damage related to decreased cerebral perfusion pressure associated with edema formation and increased intracranial pressure (ICP). Whenever conventional therapy fails to reduce elevated ICP, barbiturate coma represents an additional intervention that may control ICP. In patients suffering from severe traumatic brain injury, ...
Al-Essa M A - - 1999
The cases of three infants, two Saudi and one Bahraini, with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency are reported. They presented in the neonatal period with lethargy, poor feeding, hypotonia, and frequent apneas. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of a blood spot indicated very low methionine level and of urine revealed high homocysteine. ...
Doricchi F - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Right-brain-damaged patients with left unilateral neglect are reported to misperceive the horizontal extension of contralesional stimuli as being shorter than that of ipsilesional stimuli. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the functional and anatomic correlates of horizontal space misrepresentation. METHODS: Eight right-brain-damaged patients with contralesional neglect and complete hemianopia (N+H+), nine right-brain-damaged ...
Murthy J M - - 1999
Clinical and MRI appearances were reviewed in 25 cases of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) seen in a university hospital in South India. Specific viral infections and Semple antirabies vaccination together accounted for 56% of antecedent events. Clinical and MRI features were suggestive of diffuse/multifocal form in 15 patients. Of the ...
Steen R G - - 1999
The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that subtle brain abnormality can be present in pediatric sickle cell disease (SCD) patients normal by conventional MR imaging (cMRI). We examined 50 SCD patients to identify those patients who were normal by cMRI. Quantitative MR imaging (qMRI) was then ...
Barbiroli B - - 1999
The authors studied, by in vivo phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS), the occipital lobes of 19 patients with mitochondrial cytopathies to clarify the functional relation between energy metabolism and concentration of cytosolic free magnesium. All patients displayed defective mitochondrial respiration with low phosphocreatine concentration [PCr] and high inorganic phosphate concentration ...
Korf B R - - 1999
PURPOSE: The basis for cognitive problems in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is unknown. A subset of NF1 patients with deletion of the entire NF1 gene has severe learning problems or mental retardation. We have reviewed neuroimaging studies (CT and MRI) in five such patients to determine whether structural ...
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