Search Results
Results 651 - 700 of 1349
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Bont L - - 1999
The role of cellular immunity in disease severity in respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis is largely unknown. This study investigated the association between disease severity and systemic cytokine responses in hospitalized ventilated and nonventilated RSV bronchiolitis patients. In whole blood cultures stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), lymphoproliferative responses and interferon (IFN)-gamma ...
Nogués M - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and types of abnormalities of respiratory control during sleep in syringomyelia and syringobulbia and to provide a basis to predict patients at risk of sudden death. METHODS: Thirty patients (15 male and 15 female; mean age 39.0 +/- 12.6 years) with communicating syringomyelia were divided ...
Behbehani N A - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Acute myopathy following mechanical ventilation for near-fatal asthma (NFA) has been described recently, and some researchers have suggested that this complication is related to the use of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) and corticosteroids (CSs). OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of acute myopathy in a group of patients and to ...
Duke G J - - 1999
To discuss the clinical indications and complications of non-invasive ventilation. A review of articles published in peer-reviewed journals from 1966 to 1998 and identified through a MEDLINE search on non-invasive ventilation. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has been used in patients with respiratory failure caused by cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, acute respiratory distress ...
Saito Y - - 1999
We examined neuropathologically and immunohistochemically the respiratory centers in the brainstem of two patients with Joubert syndrome (JS), three patients with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) and a patient with apneustic breathing (prolonged inspiratory pause) due to unknown etiology. Immunoreactivity (IR) of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) was decreased in the dorsal ...
Jiang J S - - 1999
Extubation failure is significantly associated with increased morbidity and mortality in mechanically ventilated patients. In respiratory distress after extubation, non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) has been suggested to avoid the complications of invasive mechanical ventilation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of early application of NIPPV ...
Greenspan J S - - 1999
Liquid breathing has been in the medical literature for nearly 80 years and has been proposed as a means of improving gas exchange in patients with acute respiratory failure since the 1970s. There are many potential clinical applications of perfluorochemical (PFC) liquids that span many specialties in medicine. The ability ...
Krall S P - - 1999
BACKGROUND: To determine the effect of patient pathophysiology on the success or failure of noninvasive mechanical ventilation as determined by the need for subsequent endotracheal intubation. METHODS: Center-based, retrospective case analysis of all patients placed on non-invasive mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory distress. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Retrospective chart review was ...
Takeda S - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: Increased work of breathing (WOB) and respiratory muscle weakness have been identified as major causes of respiratory failure after thoracic surgery. This study was undertaken firstly to characterize the mechanical impairment in patients with respiratory failure after cardio-thoracic surgery, and secondly, to determine how diaphragmatic paralysis affects deterioration in ...
Croce M A - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Despite numerous advances in surgical critical care and ventilatory management, mortality rates for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have remained relatively constant. Pressure-limited and non-pressure-limited ventilatory techniques have been advocated with disparate results. We hypothesized that there are two forms of ARDS, which may account for the conflicting clinical ...
Butt W - - 1999
BACKGROUND: To review the recent advances in ventilatory therapy for acute respiratory failure in children. DATA SOURCES: Recent published peer-review articles on mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure in children. SUMMARY OF REVIEW: Advances in conventional treatment for acute respiratory failure (e.g. mechanical ventilation) have not increased survival in children. ...
Lee H T - - 1999
PURPOSE: Patients with severe hypothyroidism present unique challenges to anesthesiologists and demonstrate much increased perioperative risks. Overall, they display increased sensitivity to anesthetics, higher incidence of perioperative cardiovascular morbidity, increased risks for postoperative ventilatory failure and other physiological derangements. The previously described physiological basis for the increased incidence of postoperative ...
Raphaël J C - - 1999
Noninvasive long-term ventilation is consensually advocated when daytime hypercapnia > 6 kPa at steady state in chronic restrictive pulmonary syndromes. Several mechanisms can cause the occurrence of hypercapnia in these diseases. They may involve impairment of lung mechanics or airway function and cough, ventilation-perfusion mismatching, blunted central ventilatory drive or ...
Vazir-Marino F - - 1999
Variations in the amplitude of the atrial and ventricular depolarization waves of the intracardiac electrogram occur during different phases of respiration. Therefore, we tested whether controlled ventilation would reduce ablation attempts and increase the rate of success in patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation with general anesthesia. Thirty-eight children were divided into ...
Pizov R - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To assess clinical signs and management of primary blast lung injury (BLI) from explosions in an enclosed space and to propose a BLI severity scoring system. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. PATIENTS: Fifteen patients with primary BLI resulting from explosions on two civilian buses in 1996. RESULTS: Ten patients were extremely ...
Wunderlich R J - - 1999
Weaning from mechanical ventilation is physiologically and psychologically stressful for patients. The critical care nurse is in an optimal position to reduce patients' stress during this process. The findings of this exploratory study suggest practice changes--based on patients' perspectives--that help reduce patients' feelings of uncertainty and stress as they are ...
Bertolissi M - - 1999
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the effect on the respiratory gas exchange of the 30 degrees head-down position and the complete covering of the face by sterile drapes. These are used to cannulate the internal jugular vein and position the pulmonary artery catheter in the cardiosurgical patient. During the two manoeuvres, 20 ...
Martinez M - - 1999
Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) and prone position improve arterial oxygenation in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome. This study was undertaken to assess the combined effects of NO and prone position in these patients. Prospective clinical study. General intensive care service in a community teaching hospital. 14 mechanically ventilated ...
Lenz A G - - 1999
Oxidative stress in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is considered as an important pathophysiological mechanism in acute impairment of lung function. The present study investigated whether a pulmonary oxidant-antioxidant imbalance is indicated by substantial oxidative modification of proteins in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Oxidatively modified proteins in BAL fluid, as ...
Fernández-Cruz L - - 1998
Insufflation with helium is used to prevent respiratory acidosis, hypercapnia, and cardiovascular instability associated with carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumoperitoneum. The aim of this prospective study was to compare CO2 with helium pneumoperitoneum with special reference to respiratory and hemodynamic changes at different times during the operation. Altogether 22 pheochromocytoma patients ...
Jolliet P - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: To address the following issues regarding the use of prone position ventilation in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): a) response rate; b) magnitude and duration of improved oxygenation in responders during a 12-hr trial and the consequences of returning to the supine position; c) effects of ...
Celikel T - - 1998
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of standard medical therapy (ST) and noninvasive mechanical ventilation additional to standard medical therapy in hypercapnic acute respiratory failure (HARF). DESIGN: Single center, prospective, randomized, controlled study. SETTING: Pulmonary medicine directed critical care unit in a university hospital. PATIENTS: Between March 1993 and November ...
Carpenter C T - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Oxidant stress is a purported mechanism of tissue damage in patients with ARDS and acute lung injury (ALI). Isoprostanes, prostanoid compounds primarily formed nonenzymatically via lipid peroxidation, are precise markers of in vivo oxidant stress. Plasma levels of metabolites of 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2alpha (8-iso-PGF2alpha) correlate with outcome in patients with ARDS. ...
Vallverdú I - - 1998
The discrepancy in results from different studies regarding outcome of weaning from mechanical ventilation may be due to several factors such as the differences in patient populations and weaning indexes used. In order to analyze the clinical characteristics and weaning indexes in patients undergoing a 2-h T-piece weaning trial and ...
Thomachot L - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: Many heat and moisture exchangers with filter (HMEF) have been developed. In-house data from companies provide some information about their performances; unfortunately, to our knowledge, no comparative evaluation in clinical conditions has been undertaken of these newer products. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of ...
Shaffer J P - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical utility of placing airway stents to facilitate weaning in ventilator-dependent patients with large airway obstruction. METHODS: A chart review of mechanically ventilated patients who received expandable metal airway stents to attempt a facilitation of weaning. RESULTS: Eight patients, 3 women and 5 men, ranging in ...
Monchi M - - 1998
To identify the potential impact of novel therapeutic approaches, we studied the early predictive factors of survival at the onset of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in a 24-bed medical ICU of an academic tertiary care hospital. Over a 48-mo period, a total of 3,511 adult patients were admitted and ...
Dries D J - - 1998
More than 20 years ago, critical care workers first observed that oxygenation improved when patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome were ventilated in the prone position. In recent reports, on turning prone, from 50 to 100% of patients improve oxygenation to a degree sufficient to allow a reduction in the ...
Smirniotis V - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To compare pulmonary haemodynamic and gas exchange alterations in septic patients with ARDS receiving long-chain triglycerides (LCT) versus medium-chain triglycerides (MCT). DESIGN: Prospective, randomised, clinical study. SETTING: Surgical ICU patients in a University Hospital. PATIENTS: Twenty-one septic patients with ARDS were randomly assigned to receive 50 % of their ...
Fanfulla F - - 1998
AIM: To analyze the relationship between daytime respiratory and cardiac function in patients with compensated chronic heart failure (CHF) with and without periodic breathing (PB) or Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR). PATIENTS: We studied 132 patients (female, 13%; mean age, 53+/-8 years; body mass index, 25.9+/-3.5 kg/m2; left ventricular ejection fraction <40%; ...
Dolovich M - - 1998
PURPOSE: Continuous lateral rotational therapy (CLRT) <40 degrees is a method of altering the position of the ventilated patient to help clear secretions from the lung. CLRT has not been shown to reduce the incidence of atelectasis or pneumonia but potentially offers a way to maximize positional drainage in these ...
Thomachot L - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Ventilation with endotracheal intubation bypasses the upper airway and the normal heat and moisture exchanging process of inspired gases. A continuous loss of moisture and heat occurs and predisposes patients to serious airway damage. We therefore prospectively studied one heated humidifier system, one cold humidifier system and one heat ...
Hoffman W E - - 1998
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of ultra-rapid opioid detoxification on spontaneous respiration. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: University of Illinois, Chicago, Hospital. PATIENTS: 20 ASA physical status I and II patients undergoing ultra-rapid opioid detoxification, and 5 ASA physical status I and II control patients undergoing surgical procedures. INTERVENTIONS: Ultra-rapid ...
Szturmowicz M - - 1998
Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) is a glycolytic enzyme localized within neuronal and neuroendocrine tissues. Serum NSE is widely used as a marker of neuroendocrine tumors. Moderate serum NSE elevation has been reported in some patients with benign lung diseases. We decided to investigate whether the elevation of serum NSE in non-neoplastic ...
Betbesé A J - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate incidence, factors associated with unplanned endotracheal extubation (UEE), and prognostic factors for reintubation. DESIGN: A prospective study over a 32-mo period. SETTING: A 16-bed general intensive care unit of a tertiary university hospital. PATIENTS: Adult subjects undergoing endotracheal intubation for >48 hrs. INTERVENTIONS: Observation of patients who ...
Gravil J H - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are a major cause of hospital admissions, but do not require intensive investigation or complex therapy. We investigated the suitability of home care for severe uncomplicated exacerbations. METHODS: Over 3.5 years we assessed 962 patients with exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease after ...
Watanabe S - - 1998
Total eventration of the hemidiaphragm is a rare condition in adults. We report a 75-year-old woman with large eventration of the right diaphragm who required an emergency plication because of acute progressive respiratory distress. The symptom disappeared immediately after operation. Even in asymptomatic elderly patients with eventration, close follow-up is ...
White D - - 1998
We studied a group of spontaneously breathing patients anaesthetised for routine orthopaedic surgery using a circle system and isoflurane in a Komesaroff vaporiser within the circle. We observed and recorded: (1) the change in inspired isoflurane concentration caused by changing the fresh gas flow, (2) the increased respiration produced by ...
Kobayashi A - - 1998
The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and proinflammatory cytokines in alveolar macrophages (AMs) in the pathogenesis of ARDS following sepsis. ICU in a university hospital. Prospective exploratory, open-labeled study was carried out. A total of 24 patients were investigated: 8 ...
Li J - - 1998
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We describe seven patients presenting with combination substance abuse involving gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). METHODS: During a 3 month period, we identified consecutive patients with GHB ingestion confirmed by urine mass spectrometry presenting to a high-volume urban emergency department. RESULTS: All patients presented with acute delirium and transient but ...
Hilbert G - - 1998
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who have been intubated and mechanically ventilated may prove difficult to wean. Noninvasive ventilation may be used in an attempt to avoid new endotracheal intubation. The efficacy of administration of noninvasive pressure support ventilation was evaluated in 30 COPD patients with postextubation hypercapnic ...
Nava S - - 1998
BACKGROUND: In patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mechanical ventilation is often needed. The rate of weaning failure is high in these patients, and prolonged mechanical ventilation increases intubation-associated complications. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether noninvasive ventilation improves the outcome of weaning from invasive mechanical ventilation. DESIGN: Multicenter, ...
Deconinck N - - 1998
Acute myopathy occurs in critically ill patients, receiving neuromuscular blocking agents or corticosteroids during intensive care hospitalisation. We report three patients with acute quadriplegic myopathy, two of whom were not exposed to corticosteroids or neuromuscular blocking agents. The first of these latter two patients had a history of generalised anoxia ...
Boulain T - - 1998
The predisposing factors and complications of unplanned extubation (UEX) in mechanically ventilated adult patients are not well recognized. We designed a prospective multicenter observational study to identify risk factors and describe the complications of UEX. We followed 426 ventilated patients over a 2-mo period. Clinical characteristics such as diagnosis on ...
Groeneveld A B - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To determine the occurrence and clinical importance of increased pulmonary microvascular permeability in patients at risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). DESIGN: Prospective, cohort study. SETTING: Medical and surgical intensive care unit (ICU) and department of nuclear medicine of a university hospital. PATIENTS: Thirteen consecutive patients at risk ...
Gruson D - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: Leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is a polyfunctional cytokine integrated in cytokine networks and its concentration has been shown to be elevated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The aim of our study was to evaluate the production of LIF by culturing blood ...
Chastre J - - 1998
To describe the epidemiologic and microbial aspects of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), we prospectively evaluated 243 consecutive patients who required mechanical ventilation (MV) for > or = 48 h, 56 of whom developed ARDS as defined by a Murray lung injury score > ...
Cammarano W B - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the frequency of acute withdrawal syndrome related to the administration of analgesic and sedative medications in mechanically ventilated adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients; to identify associated clinical factors. DESIGN: Retrospective review of medical records. SETTING: An adult trauma/surgical ICU in an urban Level I trauma center. ...
Brett S J - - 1998
Elevated levels of nitric oxide (NO) are detectable in the exhaled breath of patients suffering from a number of inflammatory lung diseases. We hypothesized that NO would be detectable in the exhaled air of patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) undergoing mechanical ventilation and that the concentration would ...
Treggiari-Venzi M - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) is administered frequently in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pulmonary hypertension. The efficacy of this therapy over several days is not well known. The authors first determined the consistency of the response to repeated administration of NO and then the baseline variables that ...
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