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Results 401 - 450 of 1339
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Puri Basant K - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The aim was to carry out the first voxel-based morphometry study of grey matter changes in the whole brain in schizophrenia associated with a history of seriously and violently offending. METHODS: Structural cerebral magnetic resonance imaging scans of 26 patients with schizophrenia were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry: 13 of ...
Rădulescu Anca R - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Using a prefrontal-limbic dysregulation model for schizophrenia, we tested whether a dynamic control systems approach in conjunction with neuroimaging might increase detection sensitivity in characterizing the illness. Our analyses were modeled upon diagnostic tests for other dysregulatory diseases, such as diabetes, in which trajectories for the excitatory and inhibitory ...
Sikich Linmarie - - 2008
Early-onset psychotic illnesses in children and adolescents are not as rare as is commonly believed. These disorders, which include schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder with psychotic features, and major depression with psychotic features, often have a chronic and severe course and poor long-term outcome. Many patients with early-onset schizophrenia have ...
Benmessaoud Dalila - - 2008
The -1438A/G polymorphism of the 5-HT2A gene has been found to be associated with clinical response to clozapine and other second generation antipsychotics. Testing the impact of this marker on response to first generation antipsychotics (which have a lower affinity for the 5-HT2A receptor) provides the opportunity to help disentangling ...
Treasaden Ian H - - 2008
The aim of this study was to bring together all the results of in vivo studies of ethane excretion and cerebral spectroscopy in patients with schizophrenia who have dangerously seriously violently offended in order to determine the extent to which they shed light on the degree to which the membrane ...
Amado Isabelle - - 2008
Although impairments in predictive saccades have been reported in patients with schizophrenia, this has never been explored in their biological relatives. We examined predictive saccades in age-and sex-matched siblings of patients with schizophrenia. Thirty siblings of schizophrenia patients, 30 healthy matched control subjects and 30 patients with schizophrenia performed a ...
Sacchetti Emilio - - 2008
There is evidence of a link between schizophrenia and a deficit of working memory, but this has been derived from tasks not specifically developed to probe working memory per se. Our aim was to investigate whether working memory deficits may be detected across different paradigms using the self-ordered pointing task ...
Kairalla I C J - - 2008
The adaptive behavior of human beings is usually supported by rapid monitoring of outstanding events in the environment. Some investigators have suggested that a primary attention deficit might trigger symptoms of schizophrenia. In addition, researchers have long discussed the relationship between schizophrenia and the schizophrenia-like psychosis of epilepsy (SLPE). On ...
Modestin Jiri - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The long-term evolution of neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal syndromes (EPS) of Parkinsonism, akathisia and tardive dyskinesia (TD) is still a controversial issue worth exploring. METHOD: A total of 200 inpatients on regular typical neuroleptics (NL) and/or clozapine were assessed in 1995 with regard to the prevalence of EPS. Altogether, 83 patients ...
Puri Basant K - - 2008
This study directly assessed, for the first time, whether there was a change in brain cell motion-restricted membrane phospholipids in vivo in male forensic patients with schizophrenia who had seriously and violently offended (homicide, attempted murder, or wounding with intent to cause grievous bodily harm) while psychotic, by quantification of ...
Fornito A - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) abnormalities are commonly reported in studies of patients with bipolar disorder (BD), but it is unclear whether these precede or follow illness onset. We investigated the evidence for early neurodevelopmental anomalies in the ACC and adjacent paracingulate cortex (PaC) of BD patients by studying cortical ...
Bora Emre - - 2007
Cognitive insight is a new concept. There are very few data regarding the relationship between cognitive insight and positive symptoms. The goal of the present study was to investigate the impact of acute psychosis (delusions and hallucinations) on overconfidence in judgments and self-reflectiveness of patients with schizophrenia. The Beck Cognitive ...
Akkaya Cengiz - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To report the outcomes of a retrospective database analysis to compare the effectiveness of atypical and typical antipsychotic drugs. METHODS: Medical records of patients admitted to the psychiatry outpatient clinic between January 1998 and October 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. Data obtained from patient records were noted on a special ...
Hoffman R E - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Determining how patients distinguish auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) from their everyday thoughts may shed light on neurocognitive processes leading to these symptoms. METHOD: Fifty patients reporting active AVHs ('voices') with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. Data were collected to determine: (a) ...
Teixeira Antonio Lucio - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory and immune alterations occur and may be relevant in patients with schizophrenia. Chemokines are a subgroup of cytokines that play a major role in the recruitment of determined subsets of leukocytes into tissues. To date no study has evaluated whether levels of chemokines are altered in patients with ...
Baas D - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have been found to display abnormalities in social cognition. The aim of the study was to test whether patients with schizophrenia and unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenic patients display behavioural signs of social brain dysfunction when making social judgements. METHOD: Eighteen patients with schizophrenia, 24 first-degree ...
Divac Nevena - - 2007
The aim of the study was to analyse the prevalence of polypharmacy with antipsychotic drugs and analyse types of coprescribing episodes at the University Psychiatric Hospital in Serbia. A sample of 120 patients (198 hospitalisations) was analysed. The prevalence of polypharmacy was calculated as the proportion of patients receiving two ...
Roig Llesuy J - - 2007
Different structural alterations of the central nervous system (CNS), such as an increase in ventricular size, decrease in hippocampus and amygdala volume, and other abnormalities that are probably secondary to a loss of neuronal mass and neuropili (axons and dendrite ramifications) linked to a precocious alteration in neurodevelopment are described ...
Yatham Lakshmi N - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Patients with bipolar disorder have changes in brain structures but it is unclear if these are present at disease onset and thus predispose subjects to develop the disorder, or whether they develop during the course of the disorder, either due to the effects of multiple episodes or as a ...
Hoogendoorn Mechteld L C - - 2008
The objectives of this study were 1) to examine whether the prevalence of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) in schizophrenia patients with the Deficit syndrome is higher than the reported approximately 2% for the population of schizophrenia patients as a whole, and 2) to estimate the overall prevalence of 22q11DS among ...
Zipparo Lisa - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: This study explored the concurrent courses of the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological changes that occurred over the first 2-3 years of illness in patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES). METHODS: Fifty-two patients with FES underwent neuropsychological testing and a structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) scan within three months of their first ...
Okabe Nobuyuki - - 2008
The aim of this study was to examine the clinical characteristics of patients with gender identity disorder (GID) at a GID clinic in Japan. A total of 603 consecutive patients were evaluated at the GID clinic using clinical information and results of physical and neurological examinations. Using DSM-IV criteria, 579 ...
Suzuki Katsuaki - - 2008
Reelin, a secretory protease that plays major roles in neurodevelopment and synaptic plasticity, may also play a role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The present study was undertaken to examine whether the expression of two receptors for reelin, very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) and apolipoprotein E receptor type 2 (ApoER2), ...
de Wilde O M - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Results of studies on antisaccade (AS) deficit in relatives of patients with schizophrenia are inconclusive. We hypothesized that AS performance in siblings of patients with schizophrenia is worse than in healthy controls and better than in patients with schizophrenia. METHOD: We included 55 first-episode patients with schizophrenia, 28 healthy ...
Huang J T-J - - 2008
Although some insights into the etiology of schizophrenia have been gained, an understanding of the illness at the molecular level remains elusive. Recent advances in proteomic profiling offer great promise for the discovery of markers underlying pathophysiology of diseases. In the present study, we employed two high-throughput proteomic techniques together ...
Kawasaki Yasuhiro - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Evaluating cerebral asymmetry in schizophrenia patients potentially leads to understanding the extent to which the disorder involves a neurodevelopmental failure. We sought to clarify in which brain regions of the patient the normal cerebral asymmetry is disrupted and the extent of disruption. METHODS: Voxel-based morphometry to evaluate gray matter ...
Monkul E Serap - - 2008
Prior studies demonstrate structural abnormalities of cerebellar vermis in adult bipolar patients. Cerebella of 16 young bipolar patients (mean age+/-S.D.=15.5+/-3.4) and 21 healthy controls (mean age+/-S.D.=16.9+/-3.8) were examined using magnetic resonance imaging. The volumes of right, left and total cerebellum, vermis, and areas of vermal regions V1 (lobules I-V), V2 ...
Bär Karl-Jürgen - - 2008
Disturbed autonomic nervous system (ANS) function in schizophrenia might contribute to increased cardiovascular mortality. We obtained heart rate variability indices from 40 unmedicated schizophrenic patients and 58 matched controls. Mainly we found that patients displaying stronger psychotic symptoms as assessed by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale exhibit more severe cardiac ...
Suzuki T - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To report the usefulness of antipsychotic dose-reduction for avoiding paralytic ileus in a patient with chronic schizophrenia and comorbid dementia. CASE SUMMARY: A 65-year-old in-patient developed severe paralytic ileus warranting a transfer to the general hospital. Constipation was very troublesome and he often needed enema to prevent intestinal obstruction. ...
Niekawa Nobuyuki - - 2007
The present study examined financial competence in patients with schizophrenia and the relationship between their financial competence and cognitive function. The subjects consisted of 25 patients with schizophrenia (10 inpatients and 15 outpatients) and 22 normal controls who were community-dwelling people with no psychiatric disorders or cognitive deficit. To assess ...
Zarkowski Paul - - 2007
Malingering is easy to define, difficult to detect, and very costly for any health care system. The structured interview of reported symptoms (SIRS) was constructed using rational strategies to detect malingering in patients endorsing psychotic symptoms. This study validated the SIRS using evoked potentials. Nineteen patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for ...
Kleinlogel H - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: NoGo-stimuli during a Continuous Performance Test (CPT) activate prefrontal brain structures such as the anterior cingulate gyrus and lead to an anteriorisation of the positive electrical field of the NoGo-P300 relative to the Go-P300, so-called NoGo-anteriorisation (NGA). NGA during CPT is regarded as a neurophysiological standard index for cognitive ...
L'Italien Gilbert J - - 2007
Metabolic syndrome is a strong determinant of new-onset diabetes and coronary heart disease in general populations. Given the higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome among mentally ill patients, the syndrome poses a greater health risk to this population. Atypical antipsychotic treatment may exacerbate this condition. We compared both the rate and ...
Saze Teruyasu - - 2007
Structural and functional abnormalities of the insular cortex have been reported in patients with schizophrenia. Most studies have shown that the insular volumes in schizophrenia patients are smaller than those of healthy people. As the insular cortex is functio-anatomically divided into anterior and posterior subdivisons, recent research is focused on ...
Aydin K - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The callosal disconnectivity theory was previously proposed to explain the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The goal of this study was to investigate the metabolic integrity of the corpus callosum in patients with schizophrenia by proton MR spectroscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve first-episode and 16 chronic patients meeting the ...
Price Gary - - 2008
A model of disconnectivity involving abnormalities in the cortex and connecting white matter pathways may explain the symptoms and cognitive abnormalities of schizophrenia. Recently, diffusion imaging tractography has made it possible to study white matter pathways in detail, and we present here a study of patients with first-episode psychosis using ...
Kelly Tammas - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunctions are being recognized as a major roadblock to functional recovery in patients with bipolar disorders. Little is known about the treatment of these cognitive dysfunctions. Donepezil, approved to treat memory dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease, is evaluated for cognitive dysfunctions common in bipolar disorder. Of concern is some ...
Crumlish Niall - - 2007
Insight, psychopathology and functioning are related in schizophrenia, but it is unclear whether insight relates independently to functioning after controlling for psychopathology. Equally, any such relationship may vary culturally. We investigated the relationship between insight, psychopathology and functioning in 60 patients with schizophrenia in Mzuzu, a town in Malawi. After ...
Cohen Randi - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Atypical antipsychotics are commonly used to treat behavioral disturbances in elderly demented patients. However, recent data have brought the tolerability of these drugs into question, as the majority of them have been associated with an increased risk for cerebrovascular events and death in this population. Specifically, increased risk has ...
Balogh Zita - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to investigate the earliest stages of visual information processing using electroretinography (ERG) in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and to compare these values with those of healthy control volunteers. In the acute stage of the illness, patients with schizophrenia exhibited decreased a-wave amplitude ...
Galderisi Silvana - - 2008
Negative symptoms of schizophrenia have generally been found in association with ventricular enlargement and prefrontal abnormalities. These relationships, however, have not been observed consistently, most probably because negative symptoms are heterogeneous and result from different pathophysiological mechanisms. The concept of deficit schizophrenia (DS) was introduced by Carpenter et al to ...
Yasukawa Rei - - 2007
During periods of psychological stress, excess amounts of free radicals are produced, and they play an important role in the pathophysiological process. Bilirubin oxidative metabolites, biopyrrins, are generated from bilirubin as a result of this scavenging action against free radicals. We investigated whether the urinary excretion of biopyrrin is altered ...
Grootens Koen P - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine whether patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have deficits in cognitive inhibition as measured with an anti-saccade eye task similar to patients with schizophrenia (Sz). Furthermore, we investigated whether these inhibition errors were more prominent among BPD patients with psychotic-like symptoms ...
Bearden Carrie E - - 2008
Declarative memory impairments are common in patients with bipolar illness, suggesting underlying hippocampal pathology. However, hippocampal volume deficits are rarely observed in bipolar disorder. Here we used surface-based anatomic mapping to examine hippocampal anatomy in bipolar patients treated with lithium relative to matched control subjects and unmedicated patients with bipolar ...
Zhang Zhijun - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to explore whether there are differences in cerebral asymmetry between subgroups of schizophrenic patients with or without auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) and normal controls by using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (efMRI). A total of 26 Chinese Han male patients with paranoid schizophrenia (diagnosed ...
Bediou Benoit - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies of schizophrenia suggest that this disorder has a substantial genetic component. Cognitive and social abilities, as well as the volumes of brain regions involved in emotion processing, have been found to be distributed along a continuum when comparing patients, siblings and controls, with siblings showing intermediate scores. ...
Puri B K - - 2007
The aim of the study was to examine the association of arachidonic acid-related signal transduction with cerebral metabolism in patients with schizophrenia who have violently and dangerously offended while psychotic. Cerebral 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy was carried out in 11 male patients with schizophrenia who had violently offended (homicide, attempted ...
Mitelman Serge A - - 2007
In spite of significant advances in treatment of patients with schizophrenia and continued efforts towards their deinstitutionalization, a considerable group of patients remain chronically hospitalized or otherwise dependent on others for basic necessities of life. It has been proposed that these patients belong to a distinct etiopathological subgroup, termed Kraepelinian, ...
Tadokoro Yukari - - 2007
PURPOSE: To prospectively investigate the incidence of interictal psychoses of epilepsy patients, and make a comparison between those with interictal psychoses and patients with schizophrenia in respect to their responses to antipsychotic drugs, as well as psychotic states. METHODS: We undertook a two-part prospective investigation. In Part I, the psychotic ...
Ditman Tali - - 2007
Impairments in the buildup and use of context may lead to disorders of thought and language in schizophrenia. To test this hypothesis, event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured while patients and healthy controls read sentences that were highly causally related, intermediately related, or unrelated to preceding contexts. Although patients were slower ...
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