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Results 351 - 400 of 1339
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Engbers Hannelie M - - 2008
The timing and yield of metabolic studies for patients with neurodevelopmental disorders is a matter of continuing debate. We determined the yield of additional or repeated metabolic studies in patients with neurodevelopmental disorders. Patients referred to a tertiary diagnostic center for patients with unexplained neurodevelopmental disorders were included. Initial metabolic ...
Pruessner Marita - - 2008
A dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been suggested as a factor in the etiology and exacerbation of psychosis, but has not been reported consistently. Sex differences are apparent in many aspects of psychotic disorders and may explain some of the equivocation associated with the regulation of the HPA ...
Mondelli Valeria V Division of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, UK. - - 2008
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity has been demonstrated in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, but the mechanisms underlying this abnormality are still unclear. Enlarged pituitary volume has been recently reported in patients with first episode psychosis and been interpreted as a consequence of an increased activation of the HPA axis. The ...
Medved V - - 2009
The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of metabolic abnormalities among previously unmedicated female patients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition schizophrenia spectrum disorders and their associations with olanzapine and risperidone treatment. We analysed 94 female patients who were treated with olanzapine or ...
Takahashi Tsutomu - - 2008
Abnormal neurodevelopment in midline structures such as the adhesio interthalamica (AI) has been reported in psychotic disorders, but it is unknown whether individuals at risk for the disorder share the AI findings observed in patients with florid psychosis. Magnetic resonance imaging of 162 patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP), 89 patients ...
Ozgürdal Seza - - 2008
Neurophysiological methods allow the examination of cognitive-cortical functioning in patients with schizophrenia in its prodromal states. As revealed by previous studies, event-related potential components such as auditory evoked P300 associated with cognitive processes, such as attention and orientation, are known to be reduced in amplitude in acute and chronic as ...
Hori Hiroaki - - 2008
The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) is a well-established self-report questionnaire measuring four temperament and three character dimensions. However, surprisingly few studies have used it to examine the personality of patients with schizophrenia, and none in Japan. Moreover, possible gender differences in personality among patients with schizophrenia have not been ...
Ostacher M J - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship between mood symptoms and episodes in patients with bipolar disorder and burden reported by their primary caregivers. METHOD: Data on subjective and objective burden reported by 500 primary caregivers for 500 patients with bipolar disorder participating in the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder ...
Limosin F - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the distributions of body mass index in a large sample of patients with schizophrenia, and to examine the association between body weight and antipsychotic drugs. METHOD: The data source was baseline data from a national survey conducted in 2005-2006 in 5756 patients. RESULTS: The mean age of ...
Fatjó-Vilas M - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported an increase of dermatoglyphic anomalies in schizophrenic patients compared to controls. However, the recognition of specific dermatoglyphic variables related to this disorder and their genetic and/or environmental component are still controversial. METHOD: We conducted a dermatoglyphic analysis in a new sample of 617 individuals: 205 ...
Ford Judith M - - 2008
Auditory P300 amplitude reduction in schizophrenia is canonical and may be explained by poor synchronization or reduced power of the underlying neural activity. We asked if patients have reduced synchrony and power, and whether together with P300 amplitude, they make unique or overlapping contributions to the discrimination between patients and ...
Force Rachel B RB Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, United - - 2008
Abnormal brain activity during the processing of simple sounds is evident in individuals with increased genetic liability for schizophrenia; however, the diagnostic specificity of these abnormalities has yet to be fully examined. Because recent evidence suggests that schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may share aspects of genetic etiology the present study ...
Cohen Alex S - - 2010
Our understanding of the emotion deficits in schizophrenia is limited. Findings from studies employing trait emotion instruments suggest that patients have attenuated levels of positive emotion (ie, anhedonia) and increased levels of negative emotion. Conversely, patients and controls have not statistically differed in their subjective reactions to positive or negative ...
Friedman Joseph I - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Comparisons of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data between first-episode and chronic schizophrenia patients assessed in different studies have led to the suggestion that the decreased fractional anisotropy observed in chronic schizophrenia patients is less pronounced in first-episode patients. However, such comparisons of imaging data generated across studies are susceptible ...
Leitman David I - - 2008
Patients with schizophrenia have difficulty in decoding facial affect. A study using event-related functional neuroimaging indicated that errors in fear detection in schizophrenia are associated with paradoxically higher activation in the amygdala and an associated network implicated in threat detection. Furthermore, this exaggerated activation to fearful faces correlated with severity ...
Quednow Boris B - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia patients exhibit impairment in prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response (ASR), which is commonly interpreted as a sensorimotor gating deficit. To date, it is unclear when these gating deficits arise. Results of animal studies and some human data suggest that PPI deficits are in part genetically ...
Bora Emre - - 2008
Although the existence of empathy deficits in schizophrenia is generally accepted, very few studies have directly investigated the issue. The nature of empathy deficits in healthy subjects and psychiatric patients is an understudied subject. The performances of the 30 outpatients with schizophrenia on a psychometric measure, the Empathy Quotient (EQ), ...
Witthaus Henning - - 2008
Schizophrenia is associated with neuroanatomical abnormalities. Gray matter decrease seems to predate first schizophrenic episode. Whether white matter abnormalities predate the onset of psychotic symptoms is unclear. We investigated this issue using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of structural magnetic resonance images to examine individuals with prodromal symptoms who were at ultra ...
Betensky Julia D JD Department of Psychiatry Research, The Zucker Hillside Hospital, North-Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, Glen Oaks, NY 11004, - - 2008
Although it is widely recognized that stress plays a key role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, little is known regarding the particular types of stress patients experience. Less is known about the interplay among stressful events, personality mediators, and emotional responses. In this study, we investigated 10 stress dimensions in ...
Lee Seung-Hwan - - 2008
The recent nonlinear analyses of electroencephalogram (EEG) data have shown that the correlation dimension (D2) reflects the degree of integration of information processing in the brain. There is now considerable evidence that auditory hallucination (AH) reflects dysfunctional gamma and beta frequency oscillations. Gamma oscillations are thought to reflect internally driven ...
Yeap Sherlyn - - 2008
CONTEXT: Visual Evoked Potential (VEP) abnormalities have been a fairly consistent finding in patients with schizophrenia, and it has been suggested that electrophysiological markers of early sensory processing may be useful as trait markers for the illness, and for development as potential diagnostic measures. OBJECTIVE: Clear amplitude reductions in the ...
Aydin Kubilay - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The disconnectivity hypothesis as part of the neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia states that an abnormality in brain development causing impaired corticocortical or interhemispheric connectivity leads to cognitive deficits and symptoms of the illness. Previous studies showed the altered morphology of corpus callosum in patients with schizophrenia. We investigated the ...
McCourt Mark E - - 2008
A hallmark of visuospatial neglect syndrome is that patients with lesions to right parietal cortex misbisect horizontal lines far rightward of veridical center. Neurologically normal subjects misbisect lines with a systematic leftward bias (pseudoneglect). Both phenomena, as well as neuroimaging studies, disclose a predominant right-hemisphere control of spatial attention. Numerous ...
Brumbaugh Meredith - - 2008
A 63-year-old male patient with a history of bipolar I disorder presented to the emergency department in an acutely psychotic state. The patient had just returned from vacation in a malarial high-risk area and, as a result, had taken five weekly doses of mefloquine for prophylaxis. The patient's bipolar disorder ...
Woodward Todd S - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Previous studies using delusion-neutral material have demonstrated that patients with schizophrenia, particularly those with delusions, display a bias against disconfirmatory evidence (BADE). In the current study we investigated the moderating impact of belief strength on this effect. METHODS: Thirty-three schizophrenia patients, 18 patients with obsessive compulsive disorder, and 25 ...
Kang Do-Hyung - - 2008
The authors performed a three-dimensional shape deformation analysis to clarify the various patterns of specific thalamic nuclei abnormality using three age-matched and sex-matched groups of 22 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 22 patients with schizophrenia and 22 control participants. Compared with the healthy volunteers, the anterior, lateral outward surface deformities ...
Brockhaus-Dumke Anke - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Abnormal sensory gating in schizophrenia has frequently been reported; however, only limited data on unmedicated patients and patients at risk to develop a psychosis have, as yet, been available. METHODS: P50 and N100 suppression were assessed with an auditory double-click paradigm in five groups: 18 at-risk subjects who did ...
Zetzsche T - - 2008
Alterations of amygdala structure and function have been repeatedly described in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). The aim of our study was to determine whether a functional polymorphism of the 5-hydroxytryptamine(1A) receptor (5-HTR(1A)) gene C -1019 G (identity number: rs6295 G/C) is associated with structural changes of the amygdala ...
Devrim-Uçok Müge - - 2008
The objective of this study was to evaluate the mismatch negativity (MMN) in patients with first-episode schizophrenia at acute and post-acute phases in order to determine the contribution of trait and/or state features to MMN disturbances in schizophrenia. Subject groups comprised 30 patients with first-episode schizophrenia at the acute phase ...
Tunca Zeliha - - 2008
Dystonic movements and Parkinsonism are frequently seen in gangliosidoses and these conditions have been reported to modify dopaminergic plasticity. We investigated whether the activity of hexosaminidase, a type-two ganglioside (GM2) degrading enzyme, correlates with drug-induced extrapyramidal system (EPS) side effects in psychiatric patients. We compared hexosaminidase activity in the lymphocytes ...
Yen Cheng-Fang - - 2008
The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between insight and neurocognition in a population of patients with bipolar I disorder who were in a remitted state. Using the Schedule of Assessment of Insight (SAI) and its expanded version, we evaluated 96 patients with bipolar I disorder in ...
De Hert Marc - - 2008
The presence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. There are limited data on the prevalence of MetS in patients with schizophrenia at the onset of the disorder and specifically no data on patients treated in the era when only first-generation antipsychotics ...
Ahuja Niraj - - 2008
The authors describe 12 patients with antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia. Six patients had erroneous ideas of being pregnant (four delusional and two non-delusional) temporally associated with hyperprolactinemia and resolving as prolactin levels returned to normal. The remaining six patients did not develop such ideas. Contrasting the clinical features of the two groups ...
Stevens Debra L - - 2008
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is an idiosyncratic and uncommon but serious adverse effect that has been reported with both typical and atypical antipsychotic agents. We describe a 58-year-old man with Down syndrome and dementia who was receiving low-dose olanzapine and rivastigmine therapy; he developed NMS 4 months after starting olanzapine. ...
Salvatore Paola - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Most physiological indicators of bipolar disorder (BPD) reflect current acute illness, and rarely have proved to be state-independent. Activity rhythms are highly abnormal in acute phases of BPD; we compared circadian activity rhythms in BPD I patients during ill and recovered states to those of normal controls to test ...
Hughes D - - 2008
For various reasons large numbers of patients treated with Clozapine end up discontinuing the treatment. The authors present the results of switching to Aripiprazole in patients who had to discontinue Clozapine because of neutropenia below the acceptable level for treatment with Clozapine. To summarize and present three cases of individuals ...
Nakaya Makoto - - 2008
The deficit subtype is hypothesized to constitute a homogeneous subgroup of schizophrenia patients. The Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome (SDS) was developed to categorize schizophrenia patients into deficit and non-deficit subtypes. Only one report, however, has suggested the use of a two-factor SDS. The present study used a two-factor SDS ...
Rais Monica - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral gray matter volume reductions have been found to progress over time in schizophrenia, with larger decreases related to poorer outcome, which has also been associated with cannabis use in schizophrenia patients. Progressive gray matter changes in patients who use cannabis may be more extensive than in those who ...
Saddichha Sahoo - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Although the treatment of schizophrenia, arguably one of the most devastating diseases today, has been immensely helped by the advent of second-generation antipsychotics, they have come at a considerable cost - the metabolic syndrome (MetS). This adverse effect has been described with several antipsychotics to range between 20%-60%, at ...
Dollfus Sonia - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: We and others have observed that patients with schizophrenia commonly presented a reduced left recruitment in language semantic brain regions. However, most studies include patients with leftward and rightward lateralizations for language. We investigated whether a cohort comprised purely of patients with typical lateralization (leftward) presented a reduced left ...
Monteleone P - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been proposed as a candidate molecule in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorders (BD). Reduced levels of peripheral BDNF have been found in drug-free MDD patients, in drug-treated depressed or manic patients with BD type I (BD-I), but not in ...
Docherty Nancy M - - 2009
Psychotic symptoms are exacerbated by stressful life events in schizophrenia patients as a group. Some individuals appear to be more vulnerable than others in this regard. This study tested whether schizophrenia patients are highly emotionally reactive compared with controls and whether the level of trait emotional reactivity in patients influences ...
Sánchez-Morla E M - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: P50 gating in schizophrenia has contributed much to our understanding of the pathophysiology of the illness. We examined euthymic bipolar patients to determine if they also have a P50 gating deficit. METHOD: P50 gating was measured in 81 euthymic bipolar patients (50 with a lifetime history of psychotic symptoms), ...
Kim Jin Hun - - 2008
Clozapine is known to be effective in treating schizophrenia patients with comorbid alcohol use disorders (AUD). However, few prospective studies have examined the effect of clozapine on community survival of the patient, which is one of the most important indicators of success for patients with schizophrenia. In this prospective, naturalistic, ...
Arango Celso - - 2008
Recent evidence suggests that schizophrenia reflects a neurodegenerative process. The studies have not compared brain change patterns in male and female patients with schizophrenia or examined the relation of these patterns to patient subgroups defined by specific symptom domains. Maximum Total Brain Volume (TBVmax), total cranial (TCV), total brain (TBV), ...
Takahashi Tsutomu - - 2008
Abnormal neurodevelopment in midline structures such as the adhesio interthalamica (AI) has been reported in schizophrenia, but not consistently replicated. We investigated the prevalence and anterior-posterior length of the AI in 62 schizophrenia patients (32 males, 30 females) and 63 healthy controls (35 males, 28 females) using magnetic resonance imaging. ...
Rajarethinam Rajaprabhakaran - - 2008
The reported prevalence of cavum septum pellucidum (CSP), is extremely variable (from 0.1% to 85%) depending upon the measurement method or imaging resolution. Higher prevalence of CSP has been found in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined the prevalence of CSP in a large number of first-episode schizophrenia patients, young ...
Toulopoulou Timothea - - 2008
Dichotic listening (DL) has been used as a tool to investigate possible left cerebral dysfunction in schizophrenia. However, the wide range of DL tests (e.g., words, emotions, sentences) as well as patient groups ("heterogeneity") has introduced several confounders. Assessing relatives of patients with schizophrenia may overcome some of these problems, ...
Montejo Angel L - - 2008
Sexual dysfunction is a disturbing and often underrecognized problem associated with schizophrenia and its treatment. The Psychotropic-Related Sexual Dysfunction (PRSexDQ-SALSEX) is a brief and relatively nonintrusive questionnaire that has shown adequate psychometric properties in patients with depression. This study examined the psychometric properties of the PRSexDQ-SALSEX in a sample of ...
Janno Sven - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Neuroleptic-induced movement disorders (NIMDs) have overlapping co-morbidity. Earlier studies have described typical clinical movement patterns for individual NIMDs. This study aimed to identify specific movement patterns for each individual NIMD using actometry. METHODS: A naturalistic population of 99 schizophrenia inpatients using conventional antipsychotics and clozapine was evaluated. Subjects with ...
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