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Results 301 - 350 of 1339
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Langan C - - 2009
Dissecting trait neurobiological abnormalities in bipolar disorder (BD) from those characterizing episodes of mood disturbance will help elucidate the aetiopathogenesis of the illness. This selective review highlights the immunological, neuroendocrinological, molecular biological and neuroimaging abnormalities characteristic of BD, with a focus on those likely to reflect trait abnormalities by virtue ...
Arakawa Ryosuke - - 2009
Previous in vivo imaging studies reported no difference in dopamine transporter (DAT) bindings in the striatum between control subjects and patients with schizophrenia. However, as the signals of radioligands with moderate affinity were insufficient for allowing the evaluation of small amounts of DAT, DAT binding in extrastriatal regions has not ...
Chang Jae Seung - - 2009
The cardiac autonomic dysfunction has been reported in patients with schizophrenia. Heart rate variability (HRV) provides non-invasive indices of cardiac autonomic modulation. This study examined whether patients with schizophrenia may show a distinctive pattern of HRV compared to healthy controls. Nine measures of time, frequency and complexity domains were extracted ...
El-Mallakh Rif S - - 2009
In epilepsy, slow-release formulations of carbamazepine (CBZ) have fewer adverse events (AEs) compared with immediate-release (IR) formulations. As CBZ is used for mania, it is important to determine whether a similar pattern exists for bipolar patients. This was a 3-month, blinded, random-assignment study to an IR formulation or extended-release carbamazepine ...
Lee Seung-Tae - - 2009
There is a wide interethnic variance in the pharmacokinetic profile of clozapine (CLZ), but the accumulated data are limited to some regional populations. In this study, we investigated the pharmacokinetic profile of CLZ in Korean patients and examined the association between serum CLZ parameters and clinical outcome. We assessed 78 ...
Torres Ivan J - - 2009
Patients with schizophrenia and water imbalance may represent a subset of patients with distinct pathophysiological abnormalities and susceptibility to cognitive impairment. Specifically, patients with polydipsia and hyponatremia have been shown to have smaller anterior hippocampal volumes, which are also associated with various impairments in neuroendocrine function. To determine whether abnormalities ...
Frisoni Giovanni B - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Elderly schizophrenia patients frequently develop cognitive impairment of unclear etiology. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies revealed brain structural abnormalities, but the pattern of cortical gray matter (GM) volume and its relationship with cognitive and behavioral symptoms are unknown. METHODS: Magnetic resonance scans were taken from elderly schizophrenia patients (n ...
Gavin David P - - 2009
BACKGROUND: A restrictive chromatin state has been thought to be operant in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Our objective was to ascertain whether differences exist between baseline levels of a repressive chromatin mark such as dimethylated lysine 9 of histone 3 (H3K9me2) in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls and whether ...
Peupelmann Jeannine - - 2009
Altered amygdala activity in patients with schizophrenia can influence respiratory patterns and consequently cardiovascular parameters. Hence, we examined respiration and heart rate time series complexity as well as coupling of both signals. Electrocardiograms and respiratory signals were obtained from 25 unmedicated patients with schizophrenia and controls. Approximate entropy (ApEn) was ...
Yao J K - - 2010
Schizophrenia is characterized by complex and dynamically interacting perturbations in multiple neurochemical systems. In the past, evidence for these alterations has been collected piecemeal, limiting our understanding of the interactions among relevant biological systems. Earlier, both hyper- and hyposerotonemia were variously associated with the longitudinal course of schizophrenia, suggesting a ...
Whitford Thomas J - - 2009
Of the few studies that have directly investigated the neuroanatomical correlates of delusions in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia, a number have paradoxically reported a positive correlation between delusion severity and regional grey matter volume. In order to explore this relationship, 31 patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) underwent a clinical interview ...
Kishi Taro - - 2009
BACKGROUND: A recent study reported an association between rs2234693, which influences enhancer activity levels in estrogen receptor alpha gene (ESR1), and schizophrenia. This study reported that schizophrenic patients with the CC genotype have significantly lower ESR1 mRNA levels in the prefrontal cortex than patients with other genotypes. The symptoms of ...
Bär Karl-Jürgen - - 2010
Recent studies revealed cardiac autonomic dysfunction in patients with acute schizophrenia, which appears to be mainly related to reduced vagal and increased sympathetic modulation. To understand the significance of cardiac autonomic function in patients with schizophrenia, we extended these studies to relatives of patients. In this study, we assessed cardiac ...
Coscia Denise M - - 2009
Thalamic abnormalities have been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, although the majority of studies used chronic samples treated extensively with antipsychotics. Moreover, the clinical and neuropsychological correlates of these abnormalities remain largely unknown. Using high-resolution MR imaging and novel methods for shape analysis, we investigated thalamic subregions in 35 ...
Kuwahara Tatsuro - - 2009
Recently, we encountered patients with catatonic schizophrenia who developed severe tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, and hypertension approximately 10 min after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Therefore, to examine whether delayed sympathetic hyperactivity occurs following ECT in patients with catatonic schizophrenia, we performed spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). Nine patients with catatonic ...
Koethe Dagmar - - 2009
Anandamide is a bioactive lipid binding to cannabinoid receptors. A homeostatic role for anandamide has been suggested in schizophrenia. We investigated its role in initial prodromal states of psychosis. We measured the levels of anandamide and its structural analog oleoylethanolamide in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of patients in the initial ...
Chillag Kipp L - - 2009
The paroxysmal dyskinesias are a heterogeneous group of movement disorders. They are distinguished from one another by the mechanism through which abnormal movements are induced. Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia is the most common subtype, consisting of involuntary dyskinesias induced by purposeful movements. It typically responds favorably to anticonvulsants. This retrospective review ...
Hoptman Matthew J MJ Division of Clinical Research, Nathan Kline Institute, 140 Old Orangeburg Road, Orangeburg, NY 10962, USA. - - 2010
A significant proportion of patients with schizophrenia demonstrate abnormalities in dorsal prefrontal regions including the dorsolateral prefrontal and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices. However, it is less clear to what extent abnormalities are exhibited in ventral prefrontal and limbic regions, despite their involvement in social cognitive dysfunction and aggression, which represent ...
Krakowski Menahem - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: The second-generation antipsychotic agents clozapine and olanzapine have been associated with weight gain and increased lipid and glucose blood levels. Since some of the neurotransmitters that are impaired in aggressive patients are involved in lipid/glucose metabolism, aggressive patients may represent a subgroup with a differential profile of adverse metabolic ...
Gudlowski Yehonala - - 2009
Recent studies revealing evidence of increased serotonergic neurotransmission in schizophrenia has generated substantial interest in the role of serotonin in its pathophysiology. None of these studies, however, have queried whether dysfunctional serotonergic activity might already have been present in subjects of at-risk mental state for schizophrenia before the onset of ...
van Bruggen Marion - - 2009
Atypical antipsychotics interfere with central and peripheral neurotransmitter systems and with hormonal production. In this study we compared the effect of olanzapine and risperidone on hormonal state and sexual function (by using the Questionnaire for Sexual Dysfunction, QSD) in 40 patients with a first episode psychosis. Results were compared to ...
Wobrock Thomas - - 2009
Subtle structural brain abnormalities are an established finding in first-episode psychosis. Nevertheless their relationship to the clinical course of schizophrenia is controversially discussed. In a multicentre study 45 first-episode schizophrenia patients (FE-SZ) underwent standardized MRI scanning and were followed up to 1 year. In 32 FE-SZ volumetric measurement of three ...
Schlagenhauf Florian F Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Mitte, Germany. - - 2009
Increased attribution of incentive salience to neutral or aversive stimuli might be associated with dysfunction of neuronal processing of positive and negative reinforcement and contribute to the formation of delusions in schizophrenia. Fifteen unmedicated patients with schizophrenia (8 drug-naive and 7 drug-free for at least 3 months) and 15 age- ...
Takahashi Tsutomu - - 2009
Morphologic abnormalities of the insular cortex have been described in psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, but it remains unknown whether these abnormalities develop progressively over the course of the illness. In the current study, longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained from 23 patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP), 11 patients ...
Nilsson, Björn
In schizophrenia, subtle aberrations in the brain cause functional disturbances like psychotic symptoms and social disability. There are, however, also disturbances outside the CNS indicating a systemic manifestation in the disease. The aim of the present thesis was to gain deeper understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying schizophrenia with a ...
Walther Sebastian - - 2009
Although cycloid psychoses share psychopathological features with schizophrenia, their course and outcome are comparable to those seen in bipolar affective disorder. The diagnostic category is of interest because it has been demonstrated that cycloid psychoses can be diagnosed reliably and distinguished from other psychoses based on treatment response and neurophysiology. ...
Virit Osman - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: Several oxidants and antioxidants have been evaluated in schizophrenia. However, previous studies frequently focused on individual parameters. Determination of the total oxidant and antioxidant status may be more useful. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate both plasma total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) together with the oxidative ...
Shiloh Roni - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia patients may exhibit alterations in core/body temperature. Hence, we intended to examine the potential existence of thermoregulatory abnormalities in ambulatory schizophrenia patients. METHODS: Anonymous electronic patient record data of the Leumit Health Fund (Israel) were screened for all schizophrenia patients who have no other apparent chronic co-morbidity (mental ...
Kaspárek Tomás - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: Studies of brain morphology suggest a link between movement sequencing ability and basal ganglia dysfunction. Unfortunately, relevant studies have provided inconsistent data, which may be the result of differences in the methods of brain morphology assessment, statistical analysis or heterogeneity of the populations studied. AIM: To test the hypothesis ...
He Qing - - 2009
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic disorder characterised by an inability to metabolise phenylalanine. Several studies have reported that the Corpus Callosum (CC) is one of the most severely affected structures with respect to volume loss in early treated PKU patients. In this work, we aim to detect the abnormalities of ...
Peters Bart D - - 2009
There is growing evidence that brain white matter abnormalities are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Cannabis use is an independent risk factor for schizophrenia.We tested the hypothesis that cannabis use during early adolescence is associated with white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia patients. Thirtyfive male recent-onset schizophrenia patients, with and ...
Verma Swapna - - 2009
Studies have shown that patients with schizophrenia have smaller hippocampi than healthy comparison subjects. There are, however, inconsistencies regarding the relationship between clinical characteristics and topographical differences in hippocampal volumetry. The authors investigated hippocampal volumes in minimally treated patients with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders, relative to comparison subjects. Thirty-nine consecutive ...
Mitelman Serge A - - 2009
Previous studies have reported continued focal gray matter loss after the clinical onset of schizophrenia. Longitudinal assessments in chronic illness, of white matter in particular, have been less conclusive.We used diffusion-tensor and structural magnetic resonance imaging in 16 healthy subjects and 49 chronic schizophrenia patients, subdivided into good-outcome (n=23) and ...
Venkatasubramanian Ganesan - - 2008
Recent imaging studies suggest that the so-called "soft" neurological signs in schizophrenia might have neuroanatomical validity. We examined gray matter volume correlates of neurological soft signs (NSS) in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia patients using an automated image analysis technique. NSS were assessed using a modified neurological evaluation scale with good inter-rater reliability. ...
Lawyer Glenn - - 2008
Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disease in which different dimensions could be associated with localized subtypes in cortical thickness of the brain. Subtypes in data that includes patients and controls could be associated with patient/control could associate with patient/control groupings. Testing for subtypes provides a non-parametric investigation of group differences. Cortical ...
Gasparotti Roberto - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Corpus callosum is the most important commissure of the brain and therefore represents a first-choice candidate to challenge hypotheses of disrupted inter-hemispheric connectivity and white matter pathology in patients with schizophrenia. Recent studies on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of corpus callosum yielded promising but equivocal evidence of reduced fractional ...
Sanches R F - - 2008
The aim of the present study was to determine whether specific subgroups of schizophrenic patients, grouped according to electrodermal characteristics, show differences in the N-acetylaspartate/creatine plus choline (NAA / (Cr + Cho)) ratios in the frontal, cingulate and perirolandic cortices. Skin conductance levels (SCL) and skin conductance responses to auditory ...
Kumari Veena - - 2010
Previous small-sample studies have shown altered frontotemporal activity in schizophrenia patients with auditory hallucinations and impaired monitoring of self-generated speech. We examined a large cohort of patients with schizophrenia (n = 63) and a representative group of healthy controls (n = 20) to disentangle performance, illness, and symptom-related effects in ...
de Wilde O M - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To evaluated P300 (P3b) abnormalities in young first episode patients with schizophrenia and their healthy young siblings. METHODS: An auditory oddball paradigm was used to assess P300 in 53 patients, 27 unaffected siblings and 28 healthy controls. Amplitude and latency of the three midline sites (Fz, Cz, and Pz) ...
Hawken Emily R - - 2009
Primary polydipsia, excessive fluid intake without medical cause, is present in over 20% of seriously and persistently ill psychiatric inpatients. The long-term effects of primary polydipsia on longevity have not previously been examined. Inpatients in a psychiatric hospital were screened for polydipsia in 1985. Those identified to be polydipsic, the ...
Brans Rachel G H - - 2008
To investigate whether genetic and/or disease-related factors are involved in progressive structural brain changes in schizophrenia, magnetic resonance imaging scans with a 5-year scan interval were acquired in patients, their same-gender siblings and matched healthy controls. Structural equation modelling was applied to assess disease and familial effects. Whole brain and ...
McCormick Laurie M - - 2008
Converging evidence suggests a role for the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa (AN). This study sought to determine whether ACC volume was affected by starvation in active AN and, if so, whether this had any clinical significance. Eighteen patients with active AN and age- and ...
Molina V - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Processes underlying cortical hypoactivation in schizophrenia are poorly understood but some evidence suggests that a deficient sensory filtering is associated with the condition. This filtering deficit can be studied by using measures of prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the contribution of sensory filtering deficits ...
O'Driscoll Gillian A - - 2008
Abnormal smooth pursuit eye-tracking is one of the most replicated deficits in the psychophysiological literature in schizophrenia [Levy, D. L., Holzman, P. S., Matthysse, S., & Mendell, N. R. (1993). Eye tracking dysfunction and schizophrenia: A critical perspective. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 19, 461-505]. We used meta-analytic procedures to quantify patient-control differences ...
Carpenter David M - - 2008
White matter abnormalities have been detected using diffusion tensor imaging in a variety of locations in the brains of patients with schizophrenia. Studies that included first-episode patients report less severe or no abnormalities but more pronounced deficits in chronic patients. Here, we investigated these abnormalities in a very large group ...
Fitzgerald Paul B - - 2008
Patients with schizophrenia often fail to respond to standard antipsychotic medications or have a partial treatment response. Few treatment options are available for these patients. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was developed and investigated over the last 10 years as a potential treatment option for various psychiatric conditions. Increasingly, studies ...
Dragovic Milan - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to provide a useful and quick estimate of premorbid intelligence that can be used in the population of schizophrenia patients. METHOD: Regression analysis (stepwise procedure) was used to identify which of five demographic variables significantly predicted National Adult Reading Test (NART) scores ...
Takahashi Hidetoshi - - 2008
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) and habituation of the acoustic startle reflex (ASR) are considered to be candidate endophenotypes of schizophrenia. However, to our knowledge, only one group has investigated these startle measures in Asian patients with schizophrenia. In the present study, we evaluated these startle measures in 51 Japanese patients with ...
Takahashi Tsutomu - - 2008
An increased prevalence of large cavum septum pellucidum (CSP), a marker of midline neurodevelopmental abnormality, has been reported in schizophrenia. However, not all studies have been able to replicate this finding and very few studies have been conducted in large samples. In the current study, magnetic resonance imaging was used ...
Leyba Leonard - - 2008
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) studies comparing schizophrenia patients and controls may have been confounded by the vascular effects of heavier long-term cigarette use in patients. The blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response to a simple sensorimotor task was compared between schizophrenia patient with a smoking history (mean 17 pack ...
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