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Berger Sandy - - 2010
Previous studies have observed reduced vagal modulation in patients with acute schizophrenia and their first-degree relatives, thus suggesting a genetic predisposition. To investigate vagal modulation, we analyzed the coupling between heart rate and breathing as a putative measure of central autonomic function in 19 patients, 19 of their relatives and ...
Kebir Oussama - - 2010
Inhibition of return (IOR) is a phenomenon thought to reflect a mechanism to protect the organism from redirecting attention to previously scanned insignificant locations. A number of studies reported altered IOR in schizophrenia patients with a reduction of its amplitude. However, incomplete sampling of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) makes data ...
Takahashi Tsutomu - - 2010
While longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have demonstrated progressive gray matter reduction of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) during the early phases of schizophrenia, it remains unknown whether patients with schizotypal features exhibit similar STG changes. In this study, longitudinal MRI data were obtained from 18 patients with first-episode ...
Voss A - - 2010
The recently reported cardiac autonomic dysregulation in patients with schizophrenia is characterized by a decreased vagal and an increased sympathetic modulation. This impairment possibly contributes to the increased cardiovascular mortality rate that is up to three times higher in these patients than in general population. The aim of this study ...
Compilato Domenico - - 2010
Celiac disease (CD) is a lifelong, T cell-mediated enteropathy, triggered by the ingestion of gluten and related prolamins in genetically susceptible subjects, resulting in minor intestinal mucosal injury, including villous atrophy with crypt hyperplasia and intraepithelial lymphocytosis, and subsequent nutrient malabsorption. Although serological tests for antiendomysial (EMA) and anti-tissue transglutaminase ...
Gonzalez-Torres Miguel Angel - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Depersonalization occurs in healthy individuals and across a broad range of psychiatric patients. Data on depersonalization in persons linked to patients through genetics, environment or education are scarce. Due to their higher risk of developing psychosis, first-degree healthy relatives might show differences with the general population. This study examines ...
Puri Basant K - - 2010
Several important progressive brain changes occur in schizophrenia. Continuous progressive brain tissue decreases and lateral ventricular volume increases in chronically ill patients, up to at least 20 years after their first symptoms. The total duration of psychosis may be negatively associated with the grey matter volume change, and positively associated ...
Nagamine Takahiko - - 2010
During treatment of acute-phase schizophrenia, attention needs to be given to physical as well as psychological symptoms. It is often difficult, however, to obtain information on physical symptoms from patients with psychomotor excitation, and only laboratory examinations can provide objective data. The results of laboratory parameters measured in 68 patients ...
Witthaus Henning - - 2010
Accumulating evidence from postmortem and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies suggests that abnormalities of medial temporal lobe structures are critically involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. It is still unclear, however, whether certain abnormalities are already present in individuals at ultra high-risk (UHR) for transition into psychosis. Recent studies involving ...
Magri Chiara - - 2010
Genome-wide screenings for copy number variations (CNVs) in patients with schizophrenia have demonstrated the presence of several CNVs that increase the risk of developing the disease and a growing number of large rare CNVs; the contribution of these rare CNVs to schizophrenia remains unknown. Using Affymetrix 6.0 arrays, we undertook ...
Chiu Cheng-An - - 2010
Indoxyl sulphate (IS) and p-cresylsulphate (PCS) are uremic toxins with similar protein-binding, dialytic clearance, and proinflammatory features. Few studies have evaluated the possible associations between these solutes and coronary artery disease (CAD) in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. A hospital-based case control study was performed. A total of 209 T2D ...
Tayoshi Shin'Ya - - 2010
Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) is thought to play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. High magnetic field proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) provides a reliable measurement of GABA in specific regions of the brain. This study measured GABA concentration in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and in the left ...
Suga Motomu - - 2010
Previous literature has suggested an important role of inferior frontal gyrus, which mainly consists of Brodmann's Area (BA) 44 and 45, in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. While recent neuroimaging techniques have revealed differential functional correlates of BA 44 and 45 in healthy individuals, previous studies have not yet separately evaluated ...
Becker H E - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Neurocognitive abnormalities are prevalent in both first episode schizophrenia patients and in ultra high risk (UHR) patients. AIM: To compare verbal fluency performance at baseline in UHR in patients that did and did not make the transition to psychosis. METHOD: Baseline verbal fluency performance in UHR-patients (n=47) was compared ...
Kilic Gamze - - 2010
We examined whether the GRIK3 (T928G) polymorphic variants in patients with schizophrenia are different from those of their first-degree relatives and healthy controls. The study population was composed of 256 patients with schizophrenia, 305 first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and 242 healthy control subjects. The GRIK3 (T928G) polymorphism was determined ...
Huang Xiao-Qi - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations (LFF) in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal have been shown to reflect cerebral spontaneous neural activity, and the present study attempts to explore the functional changes in the regional brain in patients with schizophrenia using the amplitude of the BOLD ...
Gurbuz O - - 2009
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) signs in a group of institutionalized patients with schizophrenia. Three hundred thirty-nine patients with schizophrenia were examined and compared with 107 age-matched and gender-matched control subjects. TMD signs were evaluated according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria ...
Fujii Akira - - 2010
Various studies have revealed that sexual dysfunction is prevalent in schizophrenia patients treated with either first- or second-generation antipsychotics. Although sexual dysfunction may have a negative impact on adherence to treatment, no reports have studied sexual dysfunction in schizophrenia patients compared with healthy controls in Asian populations. We employed a ...
Chan Raymond C K - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Neurological soft signs (NSS) have been associated with the neuropsychopathology of schizophrenia, and have been proposed as candidate endophenotypes for this clinical group. However, the prevalence rate of NSS in non-psychotic first-degree relatives is not fully known. The authors systematically and quantitatively reviewed the literature to determine the magnitude ...
Hoerst Mareen - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Emotional dysfunction in a frontolimbic network has been implicated in the pathophysiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The amygdala is a key region of the limbic system and plays an important role in impulsivity, affect regulation, and emotional information processing and thus is likely related to BPD symptoms. Alterations ...
Dekker N - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Cannabis use is common in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia and this is associated with poor disease outcome. More insight in the cognitive-motivational processes related to cannabis use in schizophrenia may inform treatment strategies. The present study is the first known to compare implicit and explicit cannabis associations in individuals ...
Hubl Daniela - - 2010
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Heschl's gyrus (HG) is functionally involved in the genesis of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). This dysfunction seems to be structurally facilitated. The aim of the study was to analyze macrostructural features of HG in a group of patients reporting AVH who demonstrated white matter diffusion tensor imaging abnormalities reported ...
Waters Flavie - - 2009
Few studies have examined electrophysiological functioning in schizophrenia patients with first-rank (passivity) symptoms (FRS). In this study, we conducted a broad assessment of FRS patients' performance using data collected as part of the Western Australia Family Study of Schizophrenia, with a focus on event-related potential (ERP) measures [P50 suppression, mismatch ...
S??nchez-Morla Eva Mar??a - - 2009
P50 sensory gating deficit has repeatedly been demonstrated in schizophrenia. Studies have produced inconsistent findings with respect to normalization of P50 gating in patients with schizophrenia receiving treatment with different antipsychotics. The current study was designed to determine whether there is a difference in P50 gating in schizophrenia patients treated ...
Hajek Tomas - - 2010
Decreased volumes of subgenual cingulate (SGC) have been reported primarily among familial bipolar patients, which is one of the hallmarks of an endophenotype. In order to investigate specificity of SGC volume abnormalities to familial mood disorders and to test whether SGC volumes represent an endophenotype for BD, we measured SGC ...
Rutter Lindsay - - 2009
The "default network" represents a baseline condition of brain function and is of interest in schizophrenia research because its component brain regions are believed to be aberrant in the disorder. We hypothesized that magnetoencephalographic (MEG) source localization analysis would reveal abnormal resting activity within particular frequency bands in schizophrenia. Eyes-closed ...
White Tonya - - 2011
Emerging evidence implicates white matter (WM) abnormalities in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, there is considerable heterogeneity in the presentation of WM abnormalities in the existing studies. The object of this study was to evaluate WM integrity in a large sample of patients with first-episode (FE) and chronic schizophrenia in ...
Crespo-Facorro Benedicto - - 2010
Evidence so far indicates that the consistent association between insular cortex abnormalities and schizophrenia is already present at early phases of the illness. In the present investigation we aimed to study the specificity of insular structural abnormalities in schizophrenia by using region-of-interest morphometry to assess insular cortex morphological characteristics in ...
Turetsky Bruce I - - 2009
Embryonic insults during early gestation increase the risk of schizophrenia. Abnormal forebrain development during this period is often characterized by a shallow olfactory sulcus. The adjacent orbital sulcus does not develop until the third trimester and so is immune to early intrauterine insults. We measured olfactory and orbital sulcal depths ...
Jepsen Jens Richardt Moellegaard - - 2010
Only few prospective longitudinal studies have assessed the course of intelligence deficits in early onset schizophrenia (EOS), and these have used different age appropriate versions of Wechsler Intelligence Scales and age appropriate norms. The post-psychotic development of intelligence in EOS has predominantly been characterized as relatively stable in these studies. ...
Di Xin - - 2009
Schizophrenia is thought to be a mental disorder caused by the disconnection of brain regions. Cumulative evidence of white matter deficit in patients with schizophrenia has been reported using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), but these studies have not been quantitatively reviewed. In the study reported herein, we used activation likelihood estimation ...
Xiu Mei Hong - - 2009
Accumulating evidence showed that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Decreased BDNF levels have been found in the serum of schizophrenic patients with mixed results. In the present study, we assessed serum BDNF levels in a large group of 364 schizophrenic patients (157 on ...
Mitelman Serge A - - 2009
Decreased callosal size and anisotropy have been described in schizophrenia patients but their longitudinal progression remains poorly understood. We performed diffusion-tensor and structural magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and at follow-up four years later in 49 chronic schizophrenia patients and 16 healthy comparison subjects. Schizophrenia patients were subdivided into good-outcome ...
Mané Anna - - 2009
Schizophrenia is a disabling illness, characterized by a heterogeneous course including clinical deterioration and poor outcome. Accumulating findings in schizophrenia suggest that it might involve two pathophysiologic processes, one early in life (neurodevelopmental), and one after onset of the illness (neurodegenerative). Longitudinal imaging studies after onset of the illness may ...
Plaze Marion - - 2011
Auditory verbal hallucinations are a cardinal symptom of schizophrenia. Bleuler and Kraepelin distinguished 2 main classes of hallucinations: hallucinations heard outside the head (outer space, or external, hallucinations) and hallucinations heard inside the head (inner space, or internal, hallucinations). This distinction has been confirmed by recent phenomenological studies that identified ...
Nunes Paulo Menezes - - 2009
Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) often exhibit impulsive and aggressive behavior. The hippocampus and amygdala form part of the limbic system, which plays a central role in controlling such expressions of emotional reactivity. There are mixed results in the literature regarding whether patients with BPD have smaller hippocampal and ...
Sanchez-Moreno Jose - - 2009
Despite the additional complications associated with alcohol misuse in bipolar populations, it is generally the case that studies exploring neurocognitive aspects of bipolar disorder specifically exclude patients with alcohol abuse or dependence. Given the role of cognitive dysfunctions in overall illness outcome, this study addressed the neurocognitive functioning of patients ...
Hao Yihui - - 2009
Healthy siblings of schizophrenia patients have an almost 9-fold higher risk for developing the illness than the general population. Disruption of white matter (WM) integrity as indicated by reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), is believed to be the key substrate of schizophrenia. However, it remains ...
Mitelman Serge A - - 2009
We have previously demonstrated that putaminal but not caudate volumes are associated with poor outcome in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Present longitudinal study was designed to investigate progressive differences in striatal volumes among chronic schizophrenia patients with different outcomes and healthy subjects. Structural MRI scans were acquired at baseline and ...
Potvin Stéphane - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Psychoactive substances (PAS) may interact with antipsychotics in the development of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) in schizophrenia. PAS exert acute and chronic impacts on the basal ganglia. Clinical data have been gathered about the effects of PAS on EPS in schizophrenia, producing inconsistent results. This meta-analysis sought to determine whether ...
Jindal Ripu D - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: Though increased risk of sudden death in patients with schizophrenia is well-documented, the mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies report two known risk factors for sudden cardiac death and other arrhythmias in schizophrenia, i.e., decreased RR interval variability (RRV) and increased QT interval variability (QTV). However, these studies did not ...
Zhang Xiang Yang - - 2009
Excessive free radical production leading to oxidative stress may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Oxidative stress increases serum thioredoxin (TRX), a redox-regulating protein with antioxidant activity recognized as an oxidative-stress marker. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical significance of serum TRX levels in various ...
Qi Ling Yan - - 2009
S100B is a calcium-binding protein, mainly produced and secreted by astrocytes, and it mediates the interaction among glial cells and between glial cells and neurons. Recently, several studies have shown increased serum 100B levels in patients with schizophrenia, suggesting that S100B might be relevant to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. To ...
Walter Henrik H Department of Psychiatry, Division of Medical Psychology, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-University Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105, Bonn, Germany. - - 2009
To study the mesolimbic dopamine system during expectation and receipt or omission of rewards in partially remitted patients with schizophrenia treated with the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine. We studied 16 patients with a current episode of schizophrenia, all treated with the atypical drug olanzapine, and 16 healthy subjects using functional magnetic ...
Smyrnis Nikolaos - - 2009
Slower mean reaction time (RT), known as psychomotor slowing, is well documented in patients with schizophrenia. Fewer studies have shown increased variability of RT in these patients suggesting a basic difference in the distribution of RT. In this study median RT and its variability were measured for visually guided saccades ...
Verma Swapna K - - 2009
Metabolic risk factors, such as obesity, as well as abnormalities in glucose and lipid metabolism, have been shown to have an increased prevalence in patients with schizophrenia, especially in those treated with antipsychotic medication. However, studies looking at these abnormalities in drug-naive patients have been few in number and have ...
Severance Emily G - - 2011
Prenatal influenza exposure increases the risk for schizophrenia and brings to question how other respiratory viruses may contribute to neuropsychiatric disease etiopathology. Human coronaviruses cause respiratory infections that range in seriousness from common colds to severe acute respiratory syndrome. Like influenza, coronaviruses can be neurotropic. To test for associations between ...
Cvetić Tijana - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to investigate neurological deficit in schizophrenia and to compare soft neurological signs in positive and negative subtypes of schizophrenia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 66 patients with schizophrenia were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale to classify the subtype of schizophrenia: positive subtype ...
Penttilä Jani - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: Cerebral abnormalities have been detected in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). In comparison to BD with a later onset, early-onset BD has been found to have a poorer outcome. However, it is yet unknown whether neuroanatomical abnormalities differ between age-at-onset subgroups of the illness. We searched for cortical folding ...
Kim Eosu - - 2009
It has been proposed that positive emotional biases could make bipolar manic (BM) patients maintain abnormally approaching behaviors during social interactions. To test this hypothesis, we measured interpersonal distance (IPD) and gaze angle of BM patients and normal controls (NCs) during social interaction in immersive virtual environment. Overall, IPDs of ...
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