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Results 201 - 250 of 1338
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Polgár P - - 2010
Neuropsychological characterization of the schizophrenia deficit syndrome is an unresolved issue. The initial assumption was that patients with deficit syndrome show more definitive impairments on tests sensitive for frontal and parietal functions compared with nondeficit patients,but recent studies failed to confirm this assumption. The fundamental question is whether a more ...
Preuss Ulrich W - - 2010
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is located at the rostum of the corpus callosum and involved in both cognitive and emotional brain processes. It has been suggested to be involved in P300 event-related potential generation. A large sample of schizophrenia inpatients and controls was examined in order to assess the ...
Brébion Gildas - - 2010
Previous studies have revealed semantic memory impairments in patients with schizophrenia, and suggested that certain of these impairments were related to thought disorganization. One explanation offered for this is a broadening of the boundaries of semantic categories in schizophrenia. We selected 16 semantic categories, and required a sample of 41 ...
Liu Jia-Xiu - - 2010
Although patients with bipolar I and II disorders exhibit heterogeneous clinical presentations and cognitive functions, it remains unclear whether these two subtypes have distinct neural substrates. This study aimed to differentiate the fiber abnormalities between bipolar I and II patients using diffusion tensor images. Fourteen bipolar I patients, thirteen bipolar ...
Subramaniam Rn - - 2010
Transcatheter uterine artery embolisation (UAE) for the treatment of symptomatic fibroids has been performed in several centres in the United States, Western Europe and Asia with promising results. This study reports the authors' experience with UAE at the University Malaya Medical Centre. Fifty women with symptomatic uterine fibroids who declined ...
Torio Michiko - - 2010
Urolithiasis is quite rare in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) compared with the incidence at 9-18% in adult cases. The diagnosis and treatment of pediatric IBD is challenging. Indeterminate colitis (IC), originally proposed as a subgroup of fulminant IBD, has also been used for patients when the diagnosis of either ...
Herberth M - - 2011
Little is known about the biological mechanisms underpinning the pathology of schizophrenia. We have analysed the proteome of stimulated and unstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from schizophrenia patients and controls as a potential model of altered cellular signaling using liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry proteomic profiling. PBMCs from patients and controls ...
Huang Shou-Hung - - 2011
Few studies have examined alterations of the brain in elderly bipolar patients. As late-onset mania is associated with increased cerebrovascular morbidity and neurological damage compared with typical/early-onset mania, we investigated differences in the volume of various cortical regions between elderly patients with early-onset versus late-onset mania. We recruited 44 bipolar ...
Rametti Giuseppina - - 2010
The anterior cingulate cortex is a cerebral region engaged in several emotional and cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate possible anterior cingulate and paracingulate sulcal abnormalities in schizophrenia. Twenty-three patients with DSM-IV diagnoses of schizophrenia were compared with 23 healthy subjects matched for age, gender, and ...
Molina V - - 2011
To study the short-term effect of treatment with quetiapine on prepulse inhibition (PPI) deficits of the startle reflex in schizophrenia patients. Using PPI, we studied a group of 21 schizophrenia patients and 16 controls. Seventeen of the patients were re-tested with PPI after 21 days of treatment with quetiapine. At ...
Meduri Mario - - 2010
The goal of this report was to highlight lateral ventricle morphology and volume differences between schizophrenia patients and matched controls. Subjects identified as suitable for analysis comprised 15 schizophrenia patients and 15 healthy subjects. The method applied is three-dimensional (3D) volume rendering starting from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies ...
Makris Nikolaos N Athinoula A. Martinos Imaging Center, Department of Neurology, Center for Morphometric Analysis, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United - - 2010
The cerebral white matter (WM) is critically involved in many bio-behavioral functions impaired in schizophrenia. However, the specific neural systems underlying symptomatology in schizophrenia are not well known. By comparing the volume of all brain fiber systems between chronic patients with DSM-III-R schizophrenia (n=88) and matched healthy community controls (n=40), ...
Henquet Cécile - - 2010
Little is known about the experiential dynamics of the interaction between cannabis and vulnerability to psychosis. To examine the effects of cannabis on psychotic symptoms and mood in patients with psychosis and healthy controls. Patients with a psychotic disorder (n = 42) and healthy controls (n = 38) were followed ...
Mitelman Serge A - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To compare progressive changes in lateral ventricular size in chronic schizophrenia patients with good and poor outcomes. BACKGROUND: Several longitudinal studies associated excessive ventricular enlargement with poor outcome early in the course of schizophrenia. Changes in its chronic phase have not been as well ascertained. METHODS: We used MRI ...
Haut Kristen M - - 2010
Persecutory delusions, a common symptom of schizophrenia, involve a disruption in the way that patients determine the intentions of others and especially their trustworthiness. However, it is unclear to what extent general preference affects trustworthiness judgments in patients with schizophrenia and how that relates to paranoid symptomology. Patients with schizophrenia ...
Kempton Matthew J - - 2010
Lateral ventricular enlargement is one of the most consistent findings in patients with schizophrenia; however whether progressive ventricular dilation occurs during the course of the illness has been controversial. To clarify this we conducted a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies measuring the lateral ventricles in patients with schizophrenia and a control ...
Scheef Lukas - - 2010
PURPOSE: To determine whether well-described patterns of altered perfusion in schizophrenia can be identified by using continuous arterial spin labeling (CASL) with a whole-brain imaging sequence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was approved by the ethics committee of the local institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained from ...
Osuntokun Olawale - - 2011
The relative risk of changes in metabolic parameters during treatment with atypical antipsychotics has not been fully investigated. Baseline-to-endpoint mean and anytime-categorical changes in metabolic parameters were evaluated in Lilly active comparator-controlled clinical trials. Olanzapine-treated patients gained significantly more baseline-to-endpoint weight versus risperidone- (3.3 kg [N = 713; median exposure [ME, days] = 68] ...
Arnfred Sidse Marie Hemmingsen - - 2011
Several electroencephalographic (EEG) studies in schizophrenia report that the patients have reduced evoked gamma activity following visual and auditory stimulation. Somatosensory gamma activity has not previously been examined. It has been suggested that a dysfunction basic to schizophrenia spectrum traits would involve proprioceptive information processing and this has recently been ...
Whitford Thomas J TJ Psychiatry Neuroimaging Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. - - 2010
While the neuroanatomical underpinnings of the functional brain disconnectivity observed in patients with schizophrenia (SZ) remain elusive, white matter fiber bundles of the brain are a likely candidate, given that they represent the infrastructure for long-distance neural communication. This study investigated for diffusion abnormalities in 19 patients with chronic SZ, ...
Hasenkamp Wendy - - 2010
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is an acoustic startle paradigm that has been used as an operational measure of sensorimotor gating. Many patients with schizophrenia have impaired PPI, and several lines of evidence suggest that PPI may represent a heritable endophenotype in this disease. We examined startle magnitude and latencies in 40 ...
Gabalda Megan Key - - 2010
Abnormalities in dermatoglyphic indices and minor physical anomalies (MPAs) are two permanent markers of fetal development that have been studied in schizophrenia. This study sought to: (1) compare select dermatoglyphic indices across patients, first-degree relatives, and non psychiatric controls; (2) assess for associations between dermatoglyphic indices and symptoms in patients ...
Bouaziz Noomen - - 2010
The existence of association between hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHC) and schizophrenia has been suggested by several recent studies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of HHC and its main determinants, and sought a correlation with clinical features in Tunisian patients with schizophrenia. Plasma homocysteine (Hcy), folate, and vitamin B12, as well ...
Liu Dengtang - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Inhibition of return (IOR) has been tested in patients with schizophrenia with contradictory results. Some studies indicated that patients with schizophrenia have normal levels of IOR; however, other studies reported delayed or blunted IOR. Inconsistency in findings might be due to differences across studies in relevant aspects associated with ...
Bachmann Silke - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: The inability to adequately suppress the second of two identical stimuli is called sensory gating deficit and can be studied by recording evoked potentials to auditory stimuli, e.g. the P50 and the N100. It has been considered the physiological correlate of schizophrenia patients' perception of being flooded by sensory ...
Scorza Fulvio A - - 2010
Patients with schizophrenia have a two- to three-fold increased risk of premature death as compared to patients without this disease. It has been established that patients with schizophrenia are at a high risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Moreover, an important issue that has not yet been explored is a possible ...
Luck David - - 2010
Alterations of the fornix in chronic patients with psychosis are well established, but its integrity in the early stage of schizophrenia remains unknown. Thirty-two patients experiencing first-episode schizophrenia (FES) and 25 matched controls completed a DTI scan. DTI-tractography was used to estimate fractional anisotropy (FA) in bilateral fornices. The analysis ...
Wong Dean F DF Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. - - 2010
Several studies have examined the link between the cannabinoid CB1 receptor and several neuropsychiatric illnesses, including schizophrenia. As such, there is a need for in vivo imaging tracers so that the relationship between CB1 and schizophrenia (SZ) can be further studied. In this paper, we present our first human studies ...
Lai I-Ching - - 2010
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been reported to be an effective treatment for auditory hallucination (AH) in schizophrenia patients. The efficacy of rTMS and immediate changes in cardiac autonomic function (CAF) after rTMS in severe schizophrenia patients with AH (n = 8) were investigated. Three patients reported a >or=50% ...
Goghari Vm - - 2011
Abnormalities in connectivity are thought to contribute to the symptoms of schizophrenia. Accumulating evidence suggests that antipsychotic medication affects both subcortical and cortical grey and white matter volumes. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of antipsychotic medication on two white matter tracts: a subcortical-cortical tract, the ...
Takano Akihiro - - 2010
Inflammatory/immunological process and glial contribution are suggested in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We investigated peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in brains of patients with chronic schizophrenia, which were reported to be located on mitochondria of glial cells, using [11C]DAA1106 with positron emission tomography. Fourteen patients and 14 age- and sex-matched normal controls ...
Bora Emre - - 2010
BACKGROUND: We conducted a meta-analysis of gray matter abnormalities in bipolar disorder (BD) using voxel-based morphometry studies to help clarify the structural abnormalities underpinning this condition. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted for voxel-based morphometry studies of patients with BD. Meta-analyses of gray matter differences between BD and control subjects ...
Nilsson Astrid Kristine Kahr - - 2010
There is an unsettled debate on whether borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder should be considered related or distinct. This study aimed to further the understanding of the similarities and differences between the 2 disorders by comparing borderline patients, bipolar patients, and controls in terms of various affective temperaments and ...
Inagaki Takuji - - 2010
Previous studies have demonstrated the autonomic dysregulation in patients with schizophrenia using electrophysiological methods, such as electrodermal measures and heart rate analysis. Several theories have been proposed to explain the underlying mechanisms of schizophrenia and its autonomic function. Recently, the measurement of salivary alpha-amylase has been considered to be a ...
Lee Seung-Hwan - - 2010
This study investigated gamma-band activity (GBA) and its phase synchrony in schizophrenia patients viewing human faces. Twenty-five schizophrenia patients were compared with 25 normal controls. Event-related potentials were recorded from all participants while they were viewing emotionally neutral faces. The spectral power and phase synchrony in the frequency band from ...
Giakoumaki Stella G - - 2010
We examined whether startle abnormalities are present in bipolar disorder (BD) patients and their unaffected siblings. Twenty-one remitted patients with BD, 19 unaffected siblings, and 42 controls were presented with 18 pleasant, 18 unpleasant, and 18 neutral pictures. Acoustic probes (104 dB) were presented during 12 of 18 pictures in ...
Lee Seung-Hwan - - 2010
This study was designed to clarify the consecutive temporal mechanisms and gender effects underlying facial affect processing in patients with schizophrenia and normal controls through electrophysiological measurements. The following four event-related potential (ERP) components were chosen as indexes of four distinct stages: P100, N170, N250, and P300. A total of ...
Haukvik Unn Kristin - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Heterogeneous findings have been reported in studies of basal ganglia volumes in schizophrenia patients as compared to healthy controls. The basal ganglia contain dopamine receptors that are known to be involved in schizophrenia pathology and to be vulnerable to pre- and perinatal hypoxic insults. Altered volumes of other brain ...
Ebdrup Bjørn H - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Enlarged ventricles and reduced hippocampal volume are consistently found in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Studies investigating brain structure in antipsychotic-naive patients have generally focused on the striatum. In this study, we examined whether ventricular enlargement and hippocampal and caudate volume reductions are morphological traits of antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia. METHODS: ...
Aston Jacqueline - - 2010
Hyperprolactinaemia is often found in patients with schizophrenia and usually considered a consequence of antipsychotics. Prolactin levels were measured in 43 At-Risk Mental State individuals (ARMS) and 26 patients with First Episode Psychosis (FEP). Hyperprolactinaemia was found in 25.6% of ARMS and 46.2% of FEP. Within 60 antipsychotic-naïve ARMS and ...
Rettenbacher M A - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Clozapine is known to induce neutropenia as well as agranulocytosis. Some cases of olanzapine- and risperidone-induced neutropenia and agranulocytosis have also been reported. We prospectively investigated schizophrenia patients treated with second generation antipsychotics with respect to alterations of white blood cell counts. METHODS: In an analysis of our drug ...
Santos José Luis - - 2010
Dysfunctional auditory sensory processing has generally been found in schizophrenia and it has been suggested that these deficits might be related to clinical and psychosocial variables. The present study included P50 recordings using a simple-paired click auditory evoked potential paradigm in sixty patients with deficit schizophrenia (DS), sixty patients with ...
Jayakumar Peruvumba N - - 2010
We reported increased high-energy phosphate metabolism in the basal ganglia of antipsychotic-na?ve schizophrenia patients using (31)P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS). These patients were followed up for 1 year and and reassessed using (31)P MRS. Fourteen (8 males) patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia and 14 (11 males) healthy controls underwent (31)P MRS ...
Molina Vicente - - 2010
First episodes (FE) of psychosis may evolve or not to schizophrenia in ensuing years, but there is a lack of reliable predictors of which patients will have to face such an unfavorable outcome. Given the replicated structural alterations of the brain in schizophrenia, it seems advisable to assess whether the ...
Dekker Nienke - - 2010
Adolescent-onset cannabis use, compared with adult-onset use, has been associated with a higher risk for developing symptoms of schizophrenia-like psychotic disorders. To test the hypothesis that onset of cannabis use in early adolescence in male schizophrenia patients is associated with abnormalities in white matter structure and integrity, we used high ...
Molina Vicente - - 2010
Sensorimotor gating deficits are relevant in schizophrenia and can be measured using prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex. It is conceivable that such deficits may hinder the cognitive functions in schizophrenia patients. In this study, using PPI and a neuropsychological battery, we studied this possibility in a group of ...
Anticevic Alan A Department of Psychology, Washington University in St. Louis, MO 63130, USA. - - 2010
Previous work has demonstrated less accurate alignment of cortical structures for patients with schizophrenia than for matched control subjects when using affine registration techniques. Such a mismatch presents a potential confound for functional neuroimaging studies conducting between-group comparisons. Critically, the same issues may be present for subcortical structures. However, to ...
Jindal Ripu D - - 2010
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key factor known to mediate neuronal proliferation, differentiation, survival and response to stress. Decreases in BDNF levels have been reported in schizophrenia, but studies in treatment naïve patients are few. Herein we report on serum BDNF levels in a series of patients with first-episode ...
Berger Sandy - - 2010
Previous studies have observed reduced vagal modulation in patients with acute schizophrenia and their first-degree relatives, thus suggesting a genetic predisposition. To investigate vagal modulation, we analyzed the coupling between heart rate and breathing as a putative measure of central autonomic function in 19 patients, 19 of their relatives and ...
Kebir Oussama - - 2010
Inhibition of return (IOR) is a phenomenon thought to reflect a mechanism to protect the organism from redirecting attention to previously scanned insignificant locations. A number of studies reported altered IOR in schizophrenia patients with a reduction of its amplitude. However, incomplete sampling of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) makes data ...
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