Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 1338
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Potvin Stephane - - 2007
The lifetime prevalence of substance use disorders among schizophrenia patients is close to 50%. The negative consequences of substance abuse in schizophrenia are well documented, but the aetiology of this comorbid condition remains unknown. Mounting evidence suggests that dual-diagnosis patients have fewer negative symptoms and better social skills, compared to ...
Keefe Richard S E - - 2007
The average patient with schizophrenia performs on cognitive tests at the lowest 5% to 10% of the general population. Cognitive impairments impact patients on virtually every aspect of functioning, interfere with patients' ability to engage in real-world tasks, and affect long-term outcome. Therefore, cognitive deficits should be included in the ...
Goldman M B MB Department of Psychiatry, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. - - 2007
Diminished hippocampal volume occurs in the anterior segment of some schizophrenic patients, and in the posterior segment in others. The significance of hippocampal pathology in general and these segmental differences in specific is not known. Several lines of evidence suggest anterior hippocampal pathology underlies the life-threatening hyponatremia seen in a ...
Kempisty Bartosz - - 2007
We investigated the genotype frequency of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 1298A>C polymorphism in the group of patients with bipolar disorder type I (BDI) (n=200) and schizophrenia (n=200) and in the control group (n=300). Odds ratio (OR) for patients with BD and schizophrenia in 1298CC homozygous state was 3.768 (95% CI=1.752-8.104); P=0.0003; ...
Price Gary - - 2007
A model of disconnectivity involving abnormalities in the cortex and connecting white matter pathways may explain the clinical manifestations of schizophrenia. Recently, diffusion imaging tractography has made it possible to study white matter pathways in detail and we present here a study of patients with first-episode psychosis using this technique. ...
Kinnaman Joanna E Strong - - 2007
Assessment of motivation to change substance use can be helpful in evaluating treatment readiness and outcome. However, the utility of self-report measures of motivation with schizophrenia patients is questionable. In the current study patients with schizophrenia and either concurrent cocaine dependence or remitted dependence completed the University of Rhode Island ...
Brisch Ralf - - 2007
MRI and post-mortem studies indicate an increased prevalence of cavum septi pellucidi (CSP) in schizophrenia and affective disorder. The aim of this study was to characterize the CSP and the septal tissue among patients with schizophrenia, patients with affective disorder, and control subjects. The volumes of CSP and septal tissue ...
Goldman Morris B MB Department of Psychiatry, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. - - 2007
Schizophrenia, many believe, reflects an enhanced vulnerability to psychological stress. Controlled exposure to stressors, however, has produced inconclusive results, particularly with regards to neurohormones. Some of the variability may be attributable to the nature and psychological significance of the stimulus and failure to control physiologic confounds. In addition, it is ...
Braff David L - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Inhibitory measures such as prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex (PPI) and event related potential P50 suppression have been widely reported to show deficits in schizophrenia patients. The relationship between PPI and P50 suppression in schizophrenia patients has remained unclear. METHODS: One hundred fifty-six schizophrenia patients and 104 ...
Nestor Paul G PG Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, Boston, MA 02125-3393, USA. - - 2007
Thirty patients with chronic schizophrenia and 30 age-matched controls performed the Attention Network Test (ANT). A subset of the patient group (n=18) also had available magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures of the cingulum bundle (CB) fractional anisotropy and volume. The patients showed a significantly different pattern of ANT ...
Huguelet Philippe - - 2007
Little is known of the relations between psychosis, religion and suicide. One hundred and fifteen outpatients with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder and 30 inpatients without psychotic symptoms were studied using a semi-structured interview assessing religiousness/spirituality. Their past suicide attempts were examined. Additionally, they were asked about the role (protective or ...
Drake Richard - - 2007
The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability, validity and structure of the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS) in 257 subjects presenting with acute first episodes of schizophrenia or related disorders. The PSYRATS have been shown to assess dimensions of hallucination and delusions reliably and validly in chronically ...
Zhang Xiang Yang - - 2007
Several lines of evidence suggest that central brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) modulates food intake, metabolism, and increases in body weight. Reports have also shown that serum BDNF is altered in schizophrenic patients treated with antipsychotics. This study aimed to determine if there was a relationship between BDNF and antipsychotic-induced weight ...
Jayakumar P N - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To examine the volumetric and metabolic correlates of caudate nucleus in antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients in comparison with healthy controls. METHOD: Twelve antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients and 13 healthy controls underwent (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy of basal ganglia. Magnetic resonance imaging volume of caudate nuclei was measured using scion image software. ...
Wan Chunling - - 2006
This study aims to find the biomarkers or associated proteins in body fluids of schizophrenia patients so that we can further understand the etiology of schizophrenia. We applied proteomic technologies combining two-dimensional electrophoresis with Coomassie blue staining and mass spectrometry and identified a procedure for the clinical screening of disease-influenced ...
Laws Keith R - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: Object recognition deficits are well documented in certain neurological disorders (e.g., Alzheimer's disease, herpes simplex encephalitis). Although agnosic problems have been documented in some patients with schizophrenia (Gabrovska et al., 2003), no study has investigated whether such deficits differentially affect specific categories of information (as they sometimes do in ...
Roberts Lesley L Department of Primary Care and General Practice, University of Birmingham Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK. - - 2007
Excess morbidity and mortality associated with schizophrenia is well established. Despite this, no previous multi-centre study has investigated whether patients with schizophrenia receive equitable physical healthcare within primary care. To determine whether patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia receive the same levels of physical health care from primary care practitioners ...
Harrison Ben J - - 2006
Reports of abnormal activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) are common in functional neuroimaging studies of schizophrenia, although very few have examined brain activity in patients close to the onset of illness. In this H(2)(15)O PET study, eight young male patients with first-episode schizophreniform psychosis and age-matched control subjects ...
Iwata Yasuhide - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Numerous studies have linked schizophrenia with altered immune function. The selectin family of adhesion molecules plays a prominent role in immune/inflammatory responses. To further study the immunological processes in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, we determined the serum levels of selectins in patients with schizophrenia. For specificity, we also investigated ...
Kawasaki Yasuhiro - - 2007
Currently available laboratory procedures might provide additional information to psychiatric diagnostic systems for more valid classifications of mental disorders. To identify the correlative pattern of gray matter distribution that best discriminates schizophrenia patients from healthy subjects, we applied discriminant function analysis techniques using the multivariate linear model and the voxel-based ...
Brunelin Jérôme - - 2007
Patients with schizophrenia, particularly those with positive symptoms show impaired verbal source monitoring. Specific cognitive deficits have been observed during both active and remission phases of the illness as well as in groups of unaffected first degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia. This type of schizophrenia vulnerability marker may precede ...
Pagsberg A K - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Brain morphometry in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis offer a unique opportunity for pathogenetic investigations. METHODS: We compared high-resolution 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of the brain in 29 patients (schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder, delusional disorder or other non-organic psychosis), aged 10-18 to those of 29 matched controls, using ...
Veggetti Mariela I - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The diagnosis of bipolar disease frequently requires a long time since the age of onset, especially because the disease is misdiagnosed with schizophrenia. The aim of the present work was to investigate whether sera from bipolar patients have an active substance that allows making a fast identification of the ...
Malhotra Savita - - 2006
In recent years, the development of positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has enhanced our understanding of the physiological functioning of the intact brain. To study cerebral cortical perfusion defects in patients with childhood onset schizophrenia (COS) and to assess their neuropsychological functioning. This cross-sectional ...
Sirota Pinkhas - - 2006
The objective of this study was to measure anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) in major psychiatric diseases. In Experiment 1, 96 subjects were evaluated: 20 first episode schizophrenia patients, [SCZ1] 20 chronic schizophrenia patients in acute exacerbation [SCZ2], l9 bipolar patients, 20 schizoeffective patients and 17 healthy age matched controls. In Experiment ...
De Hert Marc - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Metabolic abnormalities and weight gain are an important problem in patients with schizophrenia. An instrument to evaluate body image and self-esteem related to weight has recently been developed (B-WISE). The first objective was to evaluate whether the findings of the original validation study could be confirmed in a European ...
Lee Kyu Young - - 2006
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a well-known neurotrophic factor regulating the development of various neuronal cells, including dopaminergic neurons, and dysfunction of EGF signals has been demonstrated as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Recently, several researchers have investigated associations including age at onset (AAO) with EGF A61G functional polymorphism, but ...
Yumru Mehmet - - 2007
This is the first study in bipolar patients, aimed to evaluate possible roles of the drugs, [atypical antipsychotics (AA) and mood stabilizers (MS)], inducing metabolic syndrome (MetS). 125 bipolar patients, diagnosed according to the DSM IV, were assessed cross-sectionally for MetS according to the National Cholesterol Educational Program criteria (NCEP ...
Lopez-Garcia Pilar - - 2006
Structural MRI studies of schizophrenia have yielded a diversity of findings. To help characterize regional gray matter changes in schizophrenia, we used an automated region of interest (ROI)-based approach that targeted frontal and temporal regions in schizophrenia patients. The sample compromised 43 schizophrenia patients (21 chronic patients, 22 unmedicated first ...
Ohrmann Patricia - - 2007
Involvement of the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia has been implicated by neuropsychological, as well as neuropathological and imaging studies. Reductions of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), an in vivo marker of neuronal integrity, have repeatedly been detected in the frontal lobes of patients with schizophrenia by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). In chronic ...
Premkumar Preethi - - 2006
While the changes in the volume of the temporal lobe and its sub-regions over the course of illness have been studied in patients with schizophrenia, few studies have examined changes in the frontal lobe between the first episode and the chronic stage. In this study, we focussed on the effect ...
Shen Winston W - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to examine autoantibodies in patients with bipolar disorder. METHOD: We enrolled 94 patients with acute bipolar mania, with 37 of them medicated and 57 unmedicated at the time of blood sampling. The samples also consisted of 44 patients in the remission state and ...
Suzuki Atsuko - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: A series of methamphetamine psychosis reveals two kinds of clinical courses of methamphetamine psychosis: transient type and prolonged type. Furthermore, paranoid psychosis sometimes recurs without methamphetamine reuse, referred to as spontaneous relapse. Dysfunction of central dopaminergic neurotransmission has been implicated in the pathogenesis of these psychiatric states. Catechol-O-methyl transferase ...
Adewuya Omotayo A - - 2006
The aim of this study was to assess the predictability of speeches of Nigerian patients with psychosis compared with healthy controls and to examine the factors correlating with the speeches of patients with psychosis. The speeches of 52 patients with psychosis (schizophrenia = 22, depression with psychosis = 16, mania ...
Devrim-Uçok Müge - - 2006
The objective of this study was to evaluate P3b and novelty P3 responses in patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) and chronic schizophrenia (CS). P3b is consistently reported to be reduced in CS. However, novelty P3 results in CS are controversial. Novelty P3 is not studied, and there are only a ...
Nilsson B M - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: A lowered energy metabolism in schizophrenia was reported already in the 1920s. However, these early investigations were case studies without control groups or statistical analysis. In this study the resting energy expenditure (REE) and relevant body composition variables were measured in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. METHOD: REE ...
Madhusoodanan Subramoniam - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of risperidone on prolactin levels in 3 adolescent patients. METHOD: This is a case study of 3 adolescent patients with DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophreni-form disorder, major depressive disorder with psychotic features, or chronic undifferentiated schizophrenia who were treated in inpatient and outpatient psychiatric settings with ...
Jang Joon Hwan - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Reductions in the level of N-acetylaspartate within subcortical structures of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been reported in several studies. However, there have been, as yet, no reports regarding N-acetylaspartate levels in the prefrontal cortex of adult drug-naive OCD patients. The authors used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ...
Ragland J Daniel - - 2006
Patients with schizophrenia tend to have impaired source monitoring and intact item recognition, suggesting an over-reliance of familiarity effects. We previously demonstrated that providing patients with a levels-of-processing (LOP) semantic encoding strategy normalized source monitoring. The current blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study tests the hypothesis that patients ...
Bauer Michael - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Some investigators have suggested decreasing the minimum hypomania episode length criterion from 4 days, as in the DSM-IV, to 2 days. Using daily self-reported mood ratings, we studied the impact of changing the length requirement on the number of hypomanic episodes in patients with bipolar disorder. METHOD: 203 patients ...
Bersani G - - 2006
The present study examined, by means of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), the qualitative brain abnormalities in a group of 58 schizophrenic patients compared to a group of 58 matched control individuals. The possible relationships between these abnormalities and the demographic and clinical features of the participants in the study were ...
Steen R Grant - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Studies of people with schizophrenia assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) usually include patients with first-episode and chronic disease, yet brain abnormalities may be limited to those with chronic schizophrenia. AIMS: To determine whether patients with a first episode of schizophrenia have characteristic brain abnormalities. METHOD: Systematic review and ...
Amaral Jose Antonio de M S - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: The anterior cingulate region has been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Studies have reported anatomical and functional abnormalities in this region in bipolar disorder patients. Few neurochemical studies have evaluated this region, especially on medicated bipolar patients. Lithium has been reported to increase NAA levels but not ...
Adler Nevo G - - 2006
Homocysteine is a sulfur containing amino acid that has been widely investigated for its putative role in cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric disorders. It has been suggested that homocysteine has implications especially in young, male schizophrenia patients. In this prospective case-control study, we compared plasma homocysteine levels in a group of adolescent ...
Hoshi Yoko - - 2006
Hypofrontality has been a major finding obtained from functional neuroimaging studies on schizophrenia, although there have also been contradictory results that have questioned the reality of hypofrontality. In our previous study, we confirmed the existence of activation hypofrontality by using a 2-channel continuous-wave-type (CW-type) near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) instrument. In this ...
Weiss Elisabeth M - - 2006
In a previous fMRI study of high-functioning outpatients with remitted schizophrenia, we found that healthy subjects and schizophrenia patients showed similar patterns of activation during a verbal fluency task. However, the activation in controls was primarily in Broca's area on the left, while it was more bilateral for schizophrenia patients, ...
Lee Seung-Hwan - - 2006
Electrophysiological studies have demonstrated gamma and beta frequency oscillations in response to auditory stimuli. The purpose of this study was to test whether auditory hallucinations (AH) in schizophrenia patients reflect abnormalities in gamma and beta frequency oscillations and to investigate source generators of these abnormalities. This theory was tested using ...
Sumitani Satsuki - - 2007
Numerous neuroimaging studies have suggested that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients had a neurobiological abnormality in the frontal-subcortical circuits. On the other hand, there are distinct differences in the responses to pharmacological treatment among OCD patients. In the present study, we measured the concentration of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), a putative marker ...
Gangadhar Bangalore N - - 2006
The study examined the high energy-phosphate metabolism of basal ganglia in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia patients with and without developmental reflexes in comparison to healthy subjects. Nineteen antipsychotic-naive schizophrenics of whom 11 had developmental reflexes and 26 age-sex-matched healthy subjects without developmental reflexes underwent in-vivo 2-D 31P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of basal ...
Dunk Louisa R - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Further treatment with clozapine is contraindicated in any patient who has previously experienced leucopenia or neutropenia during clozapine therapy. AIMS: To investigate the results of such a rechallenge in 53 patients. METHOD: An analysis was made of the demographic, haematological and outcome data of patients in the UK and ...
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