Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1340
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Ditman Tali - - 2007
Impairments in the buildup and use of context may lead to disorders of thought and language in schizophrenia. To test this hypothesis, event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured while patients and healthy controls read sentences that were highly causally related, intermediately related, or unrelated to preceding contexts. Although patients were slower ...
Fawzi Mounir H - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Nicotine dependence is common in schizophrenia patients but rare in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Little is known, however, about smoking in schizophrenia patients with obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) especially in a developing country, such as Egypt, that has the highest rate of tobacco consumption in the Middle East and North ...
Tang Yi-Lang - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To investigate gender differences in the onset and other clinical features of Han Chinese inpatients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Five-hundred-and-forty-two Han Chinese inpatients with DSM-IV schizophrenia were assessed with the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Global Assessment of Function scale (GAF) and ...
Molina V - - 2007
Previous data show that the effects of clozapine on regional brain activity are different from those of other antipsychotic agents. It seemed of interest to study the brain activity patterns after treatment with clozapine, since this drug might correct basal deficits directly related to schizophrenia or instead induce changes that ...
Charles Helen - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Stigma associated with mental illness affects patients and their families. Diverse beliefs about the cause and treatment of schizophrenia are common among patients and their relatives. AIM: To study the association between stigma and beliefs about illness in patients and their relatives. METHOD: Standard instruments were used to assess ...
Foley Sharon R - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Violence in first episode psychosis poses significant challenges for mental health staff and patients' families. Violence has been shown to be related to psychopathology. Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) has been shown to influence psychopathology at presentation in first-episode psychosis, but little is known about the direct relationship between ...
Szeszko Philip R - - 2008
The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical and neuropsychological correlates of white matter abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia studied early in the course of illness. A total of 33 (21 male/12 female) patients with recent onset schizophrenia and 30 (18 male/12 female) healthy volunteers completed structural and ...
Faragian Sarit - - 2008
A substantial proportion of adolescent schizophrenia patients also has obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). As the reliability of OCD identification in schizophrenia has been challenged, we evaluated insight into OCD symptoms and awareness of schizophrenia, using the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale and the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder respectively, ...
Panenka William J - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported that hippocampal volumes correlate with symptom severity in schizophrenia. This longitudinal study measured changes in symptoms and hippocampal volume in patients switched from typical antipsychotics to olanzapine. METHODS: MRI scans were acquired from patients with chronic schizophrenia (n=10) and healthy volunteers (n=20). At baseline, patients ...
Akanji A O - - 2007
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the blood homocysteine concentration in Arab patients with schizophrenia and assess its associations with clinical phenotypes of the disease. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Two age-matched groups of subjects were studied: (1) Healthy Controls, HC, n=165; (2) patients with schizophrenia, SZ: n=207. Each subject was evaluated ...
Garakani Amir - - 2007
Administration of doxapram hydrochloride, a respiratory stimulant, is experienced by panic disorder patients to be similar to panic attacks but has reduced emotional effect in normal volunteers, thus providing a laboratory model of panic for functional imaging. Six panic patients and seven normal control subjects underwent positron emission tomography with ...
Caspi Asaf - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Approximately one third of schizophrenia patients show partial or no response to pharmacotherapy. Despite intensive investigations, the phenomenological and biological characteristics of such patients are far from elucidated. This study examined the premorbid behavioral and intellectual functioning of schizophrenia patients who showed poor response to antipsychotic treatment. METHOD: One ...
Goikolea J M - - 2007
BACKGROUND: More than 20% of bipolar patients may present with seasonal pattern (SP). Seasonality can alter the course of bipolar disorder. However, to date, long-term follow-up studies of bipolar patients presenting with SP are scarce. We present a 10-year follow-up study comparing clinical and demographic features of bipolar patients with ...
Takahashi Tsutomu - - 2007
Magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate the prevalence of the cavum septi pellucidi (CSP) in 154 schizophrenia patients, 47 schizotypal disorder patients, and 163 healthy controls. We also explored the relation of a large CSP (> or =6 mm) with medial temporal lobe structures. No significant difference was found ...
Giakoumaki Stella G - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response refers to a reduction in the response to a strong stimulus (pulse) if preceded shortly by a weak stimulus (prepulse). Disrupted PPI is thought to reflect abnormalities in the inhibitory control of information processing. Reduced PPI has been reported in mania, although ...
Szulc Agata - - 2007
BACKGROUND: NAA, marker of neurons integrity and viability, is one of the most important brain metabolites visible in 1H MRS. In most studies of schizophrenia, the decrease of NAA level was observed in the temporal, frontal lobes and in the thalamus. This finding was observed more often among chronic patients, ...
Rao Vani - - 2007
The authors compared the severity and clinical profiles of patients with two etiologically different apathy syndromes: apathy after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and deficit schizophrenia (DSS). Patients from both groups were equally apathetic, but those with DSS had more severe anhedonia, blunted affect, and alogia, as measured by the Scale ...
GaliƄska Beata - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels in selected brain regions and cognitive performance in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. MATERIAL/METHODS: Thirty patients (20 male, 10 female; mean age: 22.5 years) with the diagnosis of first-episode schizophrenia and 19 comparable healthy controls were ...
Michel Carine - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Numerous authors have reported the existence of lateralised abnormalities towards the right side in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: In the present study, a manual line bisection task was used to assess the existence of a visuospatial bias in patients with schizophrenia as compared to healthy subjects and left unilateral ...
Brambilla Paolo - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Context processing is the adaptive control of current behavior through the use of prior context information. It has been found to be impaired in schizophrenia. Some studies have indicated that, compared with patients with schizophrenia, those with bipolar disorder (BPD) display a similar but less severe neuropsychological pattern of ...
Palmer Barton W - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Although clinical trials are needed to advance treatments for bipolar disorder, there has been little empirical research on the capacity of bipolar patients to consent to research. The aim of the present study was to evaluate levels of decisional capacity of bipolar patients compared with those of schizophrenia patients ...
Yamasaki Syudo - - 2007
The structural abnormality of planum temporale (PT), a part of the superior temporal heteromodal association cortex involved in auditory and language processing, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, its relationship to clinical manifestations remains unclear. Magnetic resonance images were obtained from 17 right-handed Japanese men with schizophrenia ...
Brahm Nancy C - - 2007
A case of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) following administration of aripiprazole to a man with developmental disabilities who had never received antipsychotic medications and had no history of movement disorders is presented. The patient was a 40-year-old male with developmental disabilities. He was nonverbal, profoundly mentally retarded, and diagnosed with obsessive ...
Panagariya A - - 2007
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare, life-threatening but potentially treatable condition. This study was performed to investigate the clinical spectrum, antecedent events and outcome of NMS patients admitted in the Neurology department of a large teaching hospital of North India. Fourteen cases of NMS were taken after a thorough ...
Bergemann Niels - - 2007
Up to now direct toxic effects or immunological processes have been said to explain clozapine-induced agranulocytosis. However, more recent studies may suggest that not yet metabolized clozapine is taken up by leukocytes and transformed by oxidative processes to apoptosis-inducing metabolites. To verify this hypothesis the concentrations of clozapine were measured ...
Putnam Katherine M - - 2007
This study investigated the ability of schizophrenia patients to volitionally display various emotional expressions. Accuracy and intensity of facial and vocal emotional expression were rated in 26 unmedicated male schizophrenia patients and 20 non-patient male controls while posing emotional facial and vocal expressions. Results indicate that schizophrenia patients, compared to ...
Iancu Iulian - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Schizophrenia patients display an extremely high rate of smoking. Neurosteroids appear to play a possible role in the pathophysiology and management of schizophrenia and have been proposed to be involved in the pathophysiology of nicotine addiction. Although many studies have evaluated blood levels of neurosteroids in schizophrenia patients, only ...
Kuha Annamaria - - 2007
There is increasing evidence that healthy siblings of schizophrenia patients have similar, although milder, neuropsychological deficits than their affected family members. However, the interpretation of these findings has been complicated by methodological differences, for example the selection of relatives studied and the sensitivity of tests used. We studied neuropsychological functioning ...
Szeszko Philip R - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Despite the high prevalence of cannabis use in schizophrenia, few studies have examined the potential relationship between cannabis exposure and brain structural abnormalities in schizophrenia. AIMS: To investigate prefrontal grey and white matter regions in patients experiencing a first episode of schizophrenia with an additional diagnosis of cannabis use ...
Boos Heleen B M - - 2007
CONTEXT: Smaller brain volumes have consistently been found in patients with schizophrenia, particularly in gray matter and medial temporal lobe structures. Although several studies have investigated brain volumes in nonpsychotic relatives of patients with schizophrenia, results have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To determine the magnitude and extent of brain volume differences ...
Mitelman Serge A - - 2007
Prior voxelwise studies of white matter anisotropy found widespread reductions involving all major fiber tracts of the schizophrenic brain. We set out to confirm these exploratory findings and evaluate their relation to illness severity using a hypothesis-driven region-of-interest approach. 104 schizophrenia patients (51 with good outcomes, 53 with poor outcomes) ...
Perlov E - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The dopaminergic system is thought to be essentially involved in the pathogenesis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, there is also evidence for abnormalities in the glutamatergic system and recent theories focus on a disturbed interaction between the two systems as the essential pathogenetic mechanism of ADHD. In the ...
Flashman Laura A - - 2007
Increased frequency of cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) has been inconsistently observed in schizophrenia, and little is known about its functional implications. We investigated whether patients with schizophrenia were more likely than healthy controls to have CSP, and among patients assessed the relationship between CSP, psychiatric symptoms, and selected neuropsychological functions. ...
de Wilde O M - - 2007
To evaluate whether the P50 gating deficit is present in young first-episode patients with schizophrenia and their healthy young siblings. An auditory paired-click paradigm was used to assess P50 gating in 53 patients, 27 unaffected siblings, and 28 healthy controls. P50 parameters were compared between patients, sibs, and unrelated controls ...
Martinez-Aran A - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Few studies have examined the clinical, neuropsychological and pharmacological factors involved in the functional outcome of bipolar disorder despite the gap between clinical and functional recovery. METHODS: A sample of 77 euthymic bipolar patients were included in the study. Using an a priori definition of low versus good functional ...
Yücel M - - 2007
Anterior cingulate (ACC) hypo-activity is commonly observed in chronically ill schizophrenia patients. However, it is unclear whether this is secondary to persistent illness and/or medication. METHOD: We examined eight antipsychotic-naïve first-episode patients and matched healthy controls undergoing PET scanning while performing the Stroop task. RESULTS: Group-averaged and single-subject analyses showed ...
Bota Robert G - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine if boarding home placement of patients with schizophrenia decreases the need for acute inpatient treatment, during and after the placement. METHOD: Data was collected from the medical records of 74 patients initially diagnosed with schizophrenia in our hospital from July 2001 to June 2002. The progress of ...
Modestin Jiri - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The main purpose of the study was to investigate whether there are differences between dual patients with affective disorders regarding the different kinds of substances abused - a topic which has hardly been dealt with in the literature. METHODS: Clinical charts of 94 dual and 94 non-dual patients, matched ...
Morrison Anthony P - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Recent models of emotional disorders and psychosis implicate metacognitive beliefs in the development and maintenance of psychological distress. We predicted that patients with established psychotic disorders and those meeting at risk mental state (ARMS) criteria (and, thus, at increased risk of developing psychosis) would show higher levels of metacognitive ...
Stephens, Timothy Charles Bondfield
Elevated serum homocysteine concentrations are neurotoxic and are strongly implicated as a risk factor for neuropsychiatric disease (Fabender, Mielke, Bertsch, & Hennerici, 1999; Kim & Pae, 1996; Kruman et al., 2000; Reutens & Sachdev, 2002). This study compares homocysteine levels in early stages psychosis patients and healthy controls. Data from ...
Huang Jeffrey T-J - - 2007
The initial prodromal state of psychosis (IPS) is defined as an early disease stage prior to the onset of overt psychosis characterized by sub-threshold or more unspecific psychiatric symptoms. Little is known regarding the biochemical changes during this period. We investigated the metabolic/proteomic profiles of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of first-onset ...
Haas Steven J - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Clozapine is an antipsychotic medication associated with a lower suicide rate compared with other antipsychotic agents. Clozapine is used specifically in patients for whom previous therapy was inadequate or not tolerated, and is the only antipsychotic agent associated with the development of myocarditis. OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively review all adverse ...
Uranova Natalya - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Replicated abnormalities in schizophrenia include decreased cellular immunity. The aim of the study was to verify whether there are some abnormalities in the ultrastructure of lymphocytes in drug-free schizophrenic patients. METHOD: Fifty-nine in-patients with paranoid schizophrenia (DSM-IV 295.30) and 31 normal controls were used. Psychosis severity was assessed by ...
Mercan Sibel - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Delusional parasitosis (DP) is a rare delusional disorder in which patients believe that they are infected with parasites, worms, insects, or bacteria. Antipsychotics are the preferred treatment in these patients. METHOD: Case series in which we summarize six patients with DP treated with atypical antipsychotic medications including amisulpride, olanzapine, ...
Wang Hsuan Chi - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance and increased leptin levels, were noted in patients with schizophrenia who had received antipsychotics. In this study, we examined the leptin levels of antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenic patients. METHOD: Seventeen antipsychotic-naïve patients with schizophrenia and 16 sex-, age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched subjects were recruited ...
Goldman M B - - 2007
Diminished hippocampal volume occurs in the anterior segment of some schizophrenic patients, and in the posterior segment in others. The significance of hippocampal pathology in general and these segmental differences in specific is not known. Several lines of evidence suggest anterior hippocampal pathology underlies the life-threatening hyponatremia seen in a ...
Damsa Cristian - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Despite the frequency of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in patients with acute agitation in emergency departments (EDs), there are few data about the use of intramuscular (IM) psychotropics in those patients. This is the first open-label study with olanzapine in this setting. METHOD: Measures were collected prospectively for patients ...
Amsterdam Jay D - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: We examined striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in bipolar and unipolar depressed patients and compared these values to those obtained from healthy control subjects using the selective DAT radioligand [(99m)Tc]TRODAT-1 and single photon emission computed tomography imaging. We hypothesized that DAT levels might be higher in bipolar versus unipolar ...
Levander S - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To examine nicotine use and its correlates among psychotic patients. METHOD: Longitudinal naturalistic study of 176 patients, diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-related psychotic disorders, and treated with risperidone at study entry. Levels of nicotine use (smoking, snuffing) were measured along with other relevant ratings and measurements (symptoms, drug treatment, ...
Okugawa Gaku - - 2007
Previously, we performed an MRI study that revealed smaller volumes of the subregions of the cerebellar vermis in men and women with chronic schizophrenia. An issue that arose from that study was whether similar structural changes in the cerebellum are found in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. In the present study, ...
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