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Bae J H - - 2012
  Seasonal variations of heavy metals concentrations and overall chemical compositions were determined in chub mackerel caught in the Southern Sea of Korea. The average mercury and lead content varied between 0.04 and 0.08 mg/kg and between 0.01 and 0.02 mg/kg, respectively. Seasonal variations were not detected in lead, but ...
Bergfeld Wilma F - - 2011
Xylene sulfonic acid, toluene sulfonic acid, and alkyl aryl sulfonate hydrotropes used in cosmetics as surfactants, hydrotropes, were reviewed in this safety assessment. The similar structure, properties, functions, and uses of these ingredients enabled grouping them and using the available toxicological data to assess the safety of the entire group. ...
Kim Ji-Eon - - 2011
Hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers have many favorable characteristics that make it a popular injectable filler device. Its minimal immunogenicity and relative ease of use has helped HA become the most commonly used injectable filler today. A brief history of injectable fillers, the various injection techniques, and legal ramifications are discussed. ...
Martin C R - - 2012
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is characterised by progressive inflammatory and fibrotic destruction of the biliary ducts. There are no effective medical therapies and presently high dose ursodeoxycholic acid is no longer recommended due to significant adverse events in a recent clinical trial. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction is ...
Bera Saurav - - 2011
Diastereoselective trans-2,5-disubstituted amino acids derived diverse morpholines, piperazines and thiomorpholines were prepared in 30 min-1 h with high yields through iodine-mediated 6-exo-trig type cyclization from a single common synthetic intermediate. The displacement of iodine with hydride ion gave a methyl substituent at the 2-position of morpholines which provides an additional ...
Wasa Masayuki - - 2011
Systematic ligand development has led to the identification of novel mono-N-protected amino acid ligands for Pd(II)-catalyzed enantioselective C-H activation of cyclopropanes. A diverse range of organoboron reagents can be used as coupling partners, and the reaction proceeds under mild conditions. These results provide a new retrosynthetic disconnection for the construction ...
Levesque Annie - - 2011
Background  Lipohydroxyacid is a lipophilic derivative of salicylic acid with comedolytic properties. Objectives  To compare lipohydroxyacid and salicylic acid peels in subjects with comedonal acne. Methods  In this split face, randomized study, 20 subjects with comedonal acne received lipohydroxyacid peels on one side of the face, while the other side ...
Burnett Christina L - - 2011
Polyvinyl methyl ether/maleic acid (PVM/MA) copolymer, and its related salts and esters, are used in cosmetics, mainly as binders, film formers, and hair fixatives. Animal and human data relevant to the use of these ingredients in cosmetic products were reviewed by the CIR Expert Panel. The Panel concluded that these ...
Jeong Yong-Chul - - 2011
An efficient strategy for the control of the chemoselectivity in Dieckmann ring closures leading to tetramic acids derived from serine and α-methyl serine is reported, and this provides pathways to diversely substituted systems from a common starting material.
Matsuda Fumio - - 2011
Biomass properties of rice straws were compared among eight cultivars that formed a mini diverse set. The ethanol productivity from rice straws was evaluated employing a laboratory-scale method based on dilute acid-hydrolysis pretreatment. The results indicated significant variation in biomass properties among the cultivars.
McGinty D - - 2011
A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 16-hydroxy-7-hexadecenoic acid lactone when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 16-Hydroxy-7-hexadecenoic acid lactone is a member of the fragrance structural group macrocyclic lactone and lactide derivatives. The fragrance ingredient described herein is one of 12 structurally diverse C14, C15 and C16 compounds that ...
Aaronson Jeffrey G - - 2011
Conditions for facile solution-phase amide conjugation of amine-modified siRNA with a diverse set of carboxylic acid partners using the coupling reagent HATU are described. These conditions eliminate the need for isolated activated esters and allow for rapid access to conjugates with a wide range of lipophilicity and functionality in good ...
Oelke Alexander J - - 2011
Covering: up to 2010Since their first discovery in 1959, natural products containing the piperazic acid motif have been isolated from a variety of sources and exhibit diverse biological activity profiles. This review provides information about their isolation and biological activities, and presents an overview of recent total syntheses of these ...
Khozin-Goldberg Inna - - 2011
Microalgae offer potential for numerous commercial applications, among them the production of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). These valuable fatty acids are important for a variety of nutraceutical and pharmaceutical purposes, and the market for these products is continually growing. An appropriate ratio of LC-PUFA of the ω-3 and ω-6 ...
Misiek Mathias - - 2011
The armA-gene, encoding a tridomain enzyme reminiscent of nonribosomal peptide synthetases, was identified in the genome of the basidiomycete Armillaria mellea. Heterologously expressed enzyme and the ATP-pyrophosphate exchange assay were used for the in vitro biochemical characterisation of the ArmA adenylation domain. l-leucine was the preferred substrate, while l-threonine, l-valine, l-alanine, ...
Kraus Carl N - - 2011
Fusidic acid has been in clinical use outside the United States (US) since 1962 for skin infections, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Non-US labeling reflects safety concerns related to gastrointestinal, allergic, hematologic, and neurologic adverse events. We sought to survey available safety data on fusidic acid through the review of ...
Chen Rui - - 2011
Bismuth-asparagine coordination polymer nanostructures with diverse morphologies were fabricated by a facile aqueous bottom-up coordination-based self-assembly approach, and they exhibited unique properties in catalysis and biological aspects.
Burnett Christina L - - 2011
Cocos nucifera (coconut) oil, oil from the dried coconut fruit, is composed of 90% saturated triglycerides. It may function as a fragrance ingredient, hair conditioning agent, or skin-conditioning agent and is reported in 626 cosmetics at concentrations from 0.0001% to 70%. The related ingredients covered in this assessment are fatty ...
Roth Erich - - 2011
In various diseases amino acid imbalances occur which have been described especially in the 1980s of the last century. It was noted that some of these imbalances may exert specific negative physiological effects. However, mainly because of economic reasons, no real attempts have been made to develop special amino acid ...
Sarkandy Shahin Yegane - - 2010
A novel amino acid supplementation strategy was developed for enhancing the production of IL-2 (interleukin-2; as a model protein) by recombinant Escherichia coli BL21 (pET21a-hil2) in fed-batch high-cell-density cultures. The amino acids most needed and their amounts were determined using a stoichiometric model, and full factorial design experiments were conducted ...
Johannsen Marie W - - 2011
The synthesis of 2'-amino-LNA (the 2'-amino derivative of locked nucleic acid) has opened up a number of exciting possibilities with respect to modified nucleic acids. While maintaining the excellent duplex stability inferred by LNA-type oligonucleotides, the nitrogen in the 2'-position of 2'-amino-LNA monomers provides an excellent handle for functionalisation. Herein, ...
Khar R K - - 2010
Nucleic acid-based therapeutics have gained a lot of interest for the treatment of diverse ophthalmic pathologies. The first to enter in clinic has been an oligonucleotide, Vitravene(®) for the treatment of cytomegalovirus infection. More recently, research on aptamers for the treatment of age related macular degeneration has led to the ...
Chechetkin V R - - 2011
The standard genetic code is known to be much more efficient in minimizing adverse effects of misreading errors and one-point mutations in comparison with a random code having the same structure, i.e. the same number of codons coding for each particular amino acid. We study the inverse problem, how the ...
Meredith Tricia L - - 2010
Elasmobranch fishes are thought to possess greater olfactory sensitivities than teleost fishes due in part to the large amount of epithelial surface area that comprises their olfactory organs; however, direct evidence correlating the size of the olfactory organ to olfactory sensitivity is lacking. This study examined the olfactory morphology and ...
Ramazzina Ileana - - 2010
Although amino acids are known precursors of purines, a pathway for the direct recycling of amino acids from purines has never been described at the molecular level. We provide NMR and crystallographic evidence that the PucG protein from Bacillus subtilis catalyzes the transamination between an unstable intermediate ((S)-ureidoglycine) and the ...
Melzer Nico - - 2010
We report on a 51-year-old woman with episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2) and a novel CaV2.1 C-terminal single amino acid substitution (R2090Q). She had a 4-year history of acute episodes with ataxia, hemihypesthesia and hemicrania. Furthermore, fluctuating neuromuscular transmission abnormalities rarely described in patients with EA2 were clinically and electrophysiologically ...
Foote Andrew D - - 2011
Mitochondria produce up to 95 per cent of the eukaryotic cell's energy. The coding genes of the mitochondrial DNA may therefore evolve under selection owing to metabolic requirements. The killer whale, Orcinus orca, is polymorphic, has a global distribution and occupies a range of ecological niches. It is therefore a ...
Robinson Jacob William - - 2011
To gain insight into the metabolic design of the amino acid carrier systems in fish, we injected a bolus of (15)N amino acids into the dorsal aorta in mature rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The plasma kinetic parameters including concentration, pool size, rate of disappearance (R(d)), half-life and turnover rate were ...
Vogel Kevin J - - 2011
The nutritional symbiosis between aphids and their obligate symbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, is often characterized as a highly functional partnership in which the symbiont provides the host with essential nutrients. Despite this, some aphid lineages exhibit dietary requirements for nutrients typically synthesized by Buchnera, suggesting that some aspect of the symbiosis ...
Vrzal E M - - 2010
Culex mosquitoes feed on a wide range of nectars consisting of mostly carbohydrates and amino acids, however, little is known about the utilization and effects of these different carbohydrates and their accompanying amino acids on longevity. Culex quinquefasciatus larvae were reared on low- and high-quantity food diets to produce adults ...
Gördes Dirk - - 2011
The D-enantiomers of proteinogenic amino acids fulfill essential functions in bacteria, fungi and animals. Just in the plant kingdom, the metabolism and role of D-amino acids (D-AAs) still remains unclear, although plants have to cope with significant amounts of these compounds from microbial decay in the rhizosphere. To fill this ...
Pozo-Dengra Joaquín - - 2010
N-carbamoyl-amino-acid amidohydrolase (also known as N-carbamoylase) is the stereospecific enzyme responsible for the chirality of the D- or L-amino acid obtained in the "Hydantoinase Process." This process is based on the dynamic kinetic resolution of D,L-5-monosubstituted hydantoins. In this work, we have demonstrated the capability of a recombinant L-N-carbamoylase from ...
Grohmann Ursula - - 2010
The interaction between pathogenic microorganisms and their hosts is regulated by reciprocal survival strategies, including competition for essential nutrients. Though paradoxical, mammalian hosts have learned to take advantage of amino acid catabolism for controlling pathogen invasion and, at the same time, regulating their own immune responses. In this way, ancient ...
Pizzirani Daniela - - 2010
An efficient synthetic pathway to the possible stereoisomers of skeletally diverse heterocyclic small molecules is presented. The change in shape brought about by different intramolecular cyclizations of diastereoisomeric amino propargylic alcohols is quantified using principal moment-of-inertia (PMI) shape analysis.
Greaney Matthew J - - 2010
PAMAM dendrimer monolayers, immobilized on glass and modified with Ni(II)-NTA moieties at the termini, show generational dependent responses as histidine selective sensors via indicator displacement assays.
Hoefling Martin - - 2010
The interactions of amino acids with inorganic surfaces are of interest for biologists and biotechnologists alike. However, the structural determinants of peptide-surface interactions have remained elusive, but are important for a structural understanding of the interactions of biomolecules with gold surfaces. Molecular dynamics simulations are a tool to analyze structures ...
Martínez-Rodríguez Sergio - - 2010
Interest in D-amino acids has increased in recent decades with the development of new analytical methods highlighting their presence in all kingdoms of life. Their involvement in physiological functions, and the presence of metabolic routes for their synthesis and degradation have been shown. Furthermore, D-amino acids are gaining considerable importance ...
Han Da Xiong da - - 2010
Phosphorylation has to have been one of the key events in prebiotic evolution on earth. In this article, the emergence of phosphoryl amino acid 5'-nucleosides having a P-N bond is described as a model of the origin of amino acid homochirality and Genetic Code. It is proposed that the intramolecular ...
Kim Moon Il - - 2010
We describe a novel multiplex "amino acid array" for simultaneously quantifying different amino acids based on the rapid growth of amino acid auxotrophic E. coli. First, we constructed genetically engineered amino acid auxotrophs of E. coli containing a bioluminescence reporter gene, yielding concomitant luminescence as a response to cell growth, ...
Sturmey R G - - 2010
In the recently published article "Amino acid metabolism of bovine blastocysts: A biomarker of sex and viability" by R. Sturmey et al. (Mol Reprod Dev, volume 77 (3): 285-296, 2010 [DOI: 10.1002/mrd.21145]), the Acknowledgment of grant support was inadvertently omitted.The omitted text is herein printed to address this error: RGS ...
Nalle Catootjie L - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Removal of hulls may be an effective means of reducing the level of some antinutritional factors and improving the feeding value of grain legumes. Published data on the effects of dehulling on the energy utilisation and amino acid digestibility of grain legumes are limited. This study was designed to ...
Kolodkin-Gal Ilana I Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, - - 2010
Bacteria form communities known as biofilms, which disassemble over time. In our studies outlined here, we found that, before biofilm disassembly, Bacillus subtilis produced a factor that prevented biofilm formation and could break down existing biofilms. The factor was shown to be a mixture of D-leucine, D-methionine, D-tyrosine, and D-tryptophan ...
Katti Kalpana S - - 2010
Sodium montmorillonite (Na-MMT) clay was modified with three different unnatural amino acids in order to design intercalated clay structures that may be used for bone biomaterials applications. Prior work on polymer-clay nanocomposites (PCNs) has indicated the effect of the appropriate choice of modifiers on enhancing properties of PCNs. Our X-ray ...
White Elizabeth Johnston - - 2010
During the course of HIV infection, some HIV-1 viruses switch from using the CCR5 (R5) coreceptor to using CXCR4 (X4). Here, we describe two subtype C isolates from a Zimbabwean patient that switched from using R5 to using both R5 and X4 with an accompanying addition of five amino acids ...
Kim Jeong Won - - 2010
Adsorption behaviors of sulfur-containing amino acids, cysteine, methionine, and cystine molecules on Cu(110) surface were studied by core level photoelectron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. We found the following through the systematic comparisons of core level peaks such as S 2p, N 1s, and O 1s from different amino acids. At ...
Johnson David B F DB The Jack H Skirball Center for Chemical Biology and Proteomics, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, - - 2010
The establishment of the genetic code remains elusive nearly five decades after the code was elucidated. The stereochemical hypothesis postulates that the code developed from interactions between nucleotides and amino acids, yet supporting evidence in a biological context is lacking. We show here that anticodons are selectively enriched near their ...
Sancak Yasemin - - 2010
The mTORC1 kinase promotes growth in response to growth factors, energy levels, and amino acids, and its activity is often deregulated in disease. The Rag GTPases interact with mTORC1 and are proposed to activate it in response to amino acids by promoting mTORC1 translocation to a membrane-bound compartment that contains ...
Less Hadar - - 2010
Amino acid metabolism is among the most important and best recognized networks within biological systems. In plants, amino acids serve multiple functions associated with growth. Besides their function in protein synthesis, the amino acids are also catabolized into energy-associated metabolites as well we into numerous secondary metabolites, which are essential ...
Castro-Chavez Fernando - - 2010
General guidelines for the molecular basis of functional variation are presented while focused on the rotating circular genetic code and allowable exchanges that make it resistant to genetic diseases under normal conditions. The rules of variation, bioinformatics aids for preventative medicine, are: (1) same position in the four quadrants for ...
Shi Chun Hai - - 2010
The relationship between the genetic effects of endosperm, cytoplasm and maternal plant on amylose content (AC) and amino acid contents of indica rice was studied using unconditional and conditional analysis methods. The results indicated that the protein content (PC) and brown rice weight (WBR) could significantly affect the relationships between ...
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