Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 635
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Baldwin Nicole E - - 2002
The identity of amino acid 149 of Escherichia coli sigma(70) has been reported variably as either arginine or aspartic acid. We show that the behavior of both a region 1.2 deletion and a single-amino-acid substitution at position 122 are greatly affected by the identity of amino acid 149.
Balakrishnan J - - 2002
Group theoretical concepts are invoked in a specific model to explain how only twenty amino acids occur in nature out of a possible sixty four. The methods we use enable us to justify the occurrence of the recently discovered 21st amino acid selenocysteine, and also enables us to predict the ...
Christie Graham R - - 2002
Amino acids exert modulatory effects on proteins involved in control of mRNA translation in animal cells through the target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway. Here we use oocytes of Xenopus laevis to investigate mechanisms by which amino acids are "sensed" in animal cells. Small ( approximately 48%) but physiologically relevant ...
Xia Xuhua - - 2002
Amino acids interact with each other, especially with neighboring amino acids, to generate protein structures. We studied the pattern of association and repulsion of amino acids based on 24,748 protein-coding genes from human, 11,321 from mouse, and 15,028 from Escherichia coli, and documented the pattern of neighbor preference of amino ...
Crafts-Brandner S J. - - 2002
The effect of plant nitrogen (N) status on the content and distribution of free amino acids in the bodies and honeydew of silverleaf whiteflies Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) Biotype B (= B. argentifolii Bellows and Perring) was determined. Whiteflies fed for 4 days on cotton leaves that received high or low ...
Brosnan J T - - 2001
H. A. Krebs made an enormous contribution to our knowledge of amino acid metabolism, beginning with his studies on proteolysis in the early 1930s, progressing through his work on urea synthesis to an extensive series of papers on deamination and, then, to work on gluconeogenesis from amino acids. This paper ...
Elf J - - 2001
In bacteria, expression from amino acid biosynthetic operons is transcriptionally controlled by two main mechanisms with principally different modes of action. When the supply of an amino acid is in excess over demand, its concentration will be high and when the supply is deficient the amino acid concentration will be ...
Martial-Gros A - - 2001
In the present study an approach has been developed in order to examine the consequence of essential and non essential amino acid supplementation on VO208 hybridoma cells behaviour. The effect of amino acid enrichment has been studied taking into account the culture process, i.e., batch or continuous culture mode and ...
Tarr M A - - 2001
Photochemical release of free amino acids was observed from dissolved fulvic acid (Suwannee River) and from colloidal fractions collected from Bayou Trepagnier, LA. Water samples were irradiated with a solar simulator, and free amino acid concentrations were determined using high performance liquid chromatography of the fluorescent derivitized amino acids. Increased ...
Bongaerts J - - 2001
Metabolic engineering to design and construct microorganisms suitable for the production of aromatic amino acids and derivatives thereof requires control of a complicated network of metabolic reactions that partly act in parallel and frequently are in rapid equilibrium. Engineering the regulatory circuits, the uptake of carbon, the glycolytic pathway, the ...
Hans M A - - 2001
The dynamics of intracellular amino acid pools were determined in batch cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Immediate termination of metabolic activity was found to be necessary for accurate quantification of in vivo concentrations of intracellular amino acids, due to significant changes in most intracellular amino acid pools observed during extraction without ...
Coghlan A - - 2001
MOTIVATION: We propose representing amino acids by bit-patterns so they may be used in a filter algorithm for similarity searches over protein databases, to rapidly eliminate non-homologous regions of database sequences. The filter algorithm would be based on dynamic programming optimization. It would have the advantage over previous filter algorithms ...
Sakagami H - - 2001
Recent studies have demonstrated the apoptosis-inducing potential of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, against various cultured cell lines. By using an amino acid analyzer, we investigated here the possible changes in the amino acid pool and utilization during the apoptosis of HL-60 cells induced by EGCG ...
Lee C -K. - - 2001
An interesting phenomenon was observed that the existence of the intact cell membrane can enhance the D-amino acids production from D,L-5-substituted hydantoins by reacting with the whole cells of Agrobacterium radiobacter. Two intracellular enzymes were involved in the reaction process. The first enzyme D-hydantoinase converted hydantoins to carbamoyl derivatives which ...
Aubel C - - 2001
Long-term amino acid starvation represents a form of metabolic stress which stimulates gene expression. Here we report that depriving HeLa cells for any one of a series of amino acids activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase-1 (JNK-1). In contrast, the other mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) ERK-1 and, to a lesser extent, p38 ...
McDonald J H - - 2001
Asymmetrical patterns of amino acid substitution in proteins of organisms living at moderate and high temperatures (mesophiles and thermophiles, respectively) are generally taken to indicate selection favoring different amino acids at different temperatures due to their biochemical properties. If that were the case, comparisons of different pairs of mesophilic and ...
Mayne P D - - 2001
This workshop was organized as a direct response to concerns and queries raised by laboratory personnel, both in Europe and in the United States, about the imminent withdrawal of Beckman Coulter from the amino acid analysis market. The topics covered included external quality control schemes, standard operating procedures for amino ...
Nandula V K - - 2001
The parasitic plant broomrape is entirely dependent on its host for reduced carbon and nitrogen and is also susceptible to inhibition by glyphosate that is translocated to the parasite through a host. Studies were conducted to examine the effect of broomrape parasitism on amino acid concentrations of two hosts: common ...
Naderi-Manesh H - - 2001
A new, simple method based on information theory is introduced to predict the solvent accessibility of amino acid residues in various states defined by their different thresholds. Prediction is achieved by the application of information obtained from a single amino acid position or pair-information for a window of seventeen amino ...
Jager P L - - 2001
As the applications of metabolic imaging are expanding, radiolabeled amino acids may gain increased clinical interest. This review first describes the basic aspects of amino acid metabolism, then continues with basic aspects of radiolabeled amino acids, and finally describes clinical applications, with an emphasis on diagnostic value. A special focus ...
Armstrong D W - - 2001
Initial results from the analyses of geological and anthropological samples for amino acids were difficult to accept because of the high enantiomeric purities of the analytes (i.e., predominantly L-amino acids). Consequently, sources of contamination had to be considered. All sources were eliminated except for direct atmospheric contamination. Essentially invisible, microscopic, ...
Glavin D P - - 2001
The delivery of amino acids by micrometeorites to the early Earth during the period of heavy bombardment could have been a significant source of the Earth's prebiotic amino acid inventory provided that these organic compounds survived atmospheric entry heating. To investigate the sublimation of amino acids from a micrometeorite analog ...
Alnabari M - - 2001
Chloranil and 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone have been linked to different natural and unnatural amino acids via a vinylic spacer. Two routes were developed for the facile preparation of these novel modified amino acids: the direct method, which can only be applied to secondary amines, and the indirect method (transamination reaction), which can ...
Tirreé J J Anorganisch-chemisches Institut der Universität Gerhard-Domagk-Strasse 1, 53121 Bonn, Germany, Fax: - - 2001
The tautomeric four-membered-ring P-N heterocycles 1, 2, and 3 can be interconverted; the formation of the cyclodiphosph(V)azene 1 is enthalpically and entropically favored. The crystal structures of the tautomers 1 and 3 have been determined and indications are given regarding the mechanism of the interconversion.
Trifonov E N - - 2000
Forty different single-factor criteria and multi-factor hypotheses about chronological order of appearance of amino acids in the early evolution are summarized in consensus ranking. All available knowledge and thoughts about origin and evolution of the genetic code are thus combined in a single list where the amino acids are ranked ...
Ronneberg T A - - 2000
It has long been conjectured that the canonical genetic code evolved from a simpler primordial form that encoded fewer amino acids [e.g., Crick, F. H. C. (1968) J. Mol. Biol. 38, 367-379]. The most influential form of this idea, "code coevolution" [Wong, J. T.-F. (1975) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA ...
Nandula V K - - 2000
The relationship between the organic nitrogen status of Egyptian broomrape and one of its hosts, carrot, was studied by comparing amino acid profiles of leaf and root tissues of nonparasitized and broomrape-parasitized carrot plants and by analyzing amino acid profiles of broomrape at different growth stages. Total N concentrations, expressed ...
Imamura K - - 2000
The adsorption behavior of various amino acids on a stainless steel surface was investigated at 30 degrees C and over a pH range of 3-10. Acidic and basic amino acids except histidine adsorbed remarkably at pH 3-4 and 7-10, respectively, and showed Langmuir-type adsorption isotherms. The effects of pH and ...
Summers M C - - 2000
The addition of amino acids to a modified simplex optimized medium (mKSOM) did not increase the percentage of blastocysts that develop from CF1 mouse ova fertilized in vitro. In contrast, the percentage of blastocysts that began to hatch and the number of cells in these blastocysts, particularly in the inner ...
Hoffmann B - - 2000
Amino acid limitation results in impaired sexual fruit body formation in filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus nidulans. The starvation signal is perceived by the cross-pathway regulatory network controlling the biosynthesis of translational precursors and results in increased expression of a transcriptional activator encoded by a c-Jun homologue. In the presence ...
Brunton J A - - 2000
The amino acid requirements of the parenterally fed neonate are poorly defined. Newborn infants are at risk for amino acid deficiency and toxicity, due to lack of small intestinal metabolism and metabolic immaturity. We discuss recent evidence that identifies inadequacies of commercial amino acid solutions with respect to the balance ...
Reeds P J - - 2000
Here, we compared the traditional nutritional definition of the dispensable and indispensable amino acids for humans with categorizations based on amino acid metabolism and function. The three views lead to somewhat different interpretations. From a nutritional perspective, it is quite clear that some amino acids are absolute dietary necessities if ...
Albin D M - - 2000
Accurate determination of amino acid levels in soy products facilitates optimum diet formulation and amino acid supplementation. A study was carried out to investigate the effect of hydrolysis time and method of amino acid measurement on amino acid levels. Correction factors to standardize amino acid levels to 24 h of ...
Kim YS - - 2000
Amino acids are common constituents of floral nectars and can be critical components in the diets of insect pollinators. Yet the means through which insects detect amino acids can be complex and arise from pre- and post-ingestive mechanisms. Furthermore, the response to an amino acid can change depending on an ...
Facchini P J - - 2000
A comprehensive survey of the extensive literature relevant to the evolution, physiology, biochemistry, regulation, and genetic engineering applications of plant aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylases (AADCs) is presented. AADCs catalyze the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent decarboxylation of select aromatic L-amino acids in plants, mammals, and insects. Two plant AADCs, L-tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC) and ...
Liu W - - 2000
Amino acid starvation is a pathophysiological condition that results in protein deprivation due to cancer cachexia. Using the method of differential display of reverse transcription PCR (DDRT-PCR), we isolated a cDNA fragment in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in response to amino acid starvation, which was identical with human CD24 ...
Zamparelli M - - 2000
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Hypothermia is common after major surgery in newborns and can be triggered by intraoperative fentanyl analgesia. Recent studies have found that fentanyl inhibits hepatocyte mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, which is proportional to thermogenesis. In adults it has been shown that amino acids have a thermogenic effect, although the biochemical basis ...
Conigrave A D - - 2000
The extracellular calcium (Ca(2+)(o))-sensing receptor (CaR) recognizes and responds to (i.e., "senses") Ca(2+)(o) as its principal physiological ligand. In the present studies, we document that the CaR is activated not only by extracellular calcium ions but also by amino acids, establishing its capacity to sense nutrients of two totally different ...
Kawato H C - - 2000
Structure-activity relationships of the east and south amino acid modified analogues of rhodopeptins, novel antifungal cyclic tetrapeptides isolated from Rhodococcus species Mer-N1033, have been investigated. It was observed that a basic amino acid moiety (lysine or ornithine) as the east amino acid and a hydrophobic and bulky neutral amino acid ...
Mühling J - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown the inhibitory effects of etomidate on polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN) function. No reports exist, however, regarding free intracellular amino acid metabolism, although physiological cell metabolism and basic cell functions rely upon a balanced intracellular amino acid content and the cell membrane-mediated separation of cellular amino acids ...
Pozdeyev N V - - 2000
The effects of melatonin and dopamine precursor L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) intraperitoneal administration on the rhythms of free amino acids content in the retina of rats were studied. The authors found that the levels of those amino acids, which are protein constituents but not neurotransmitters in the rat retina, change diurnally with ...
Knight R D - - 2000
If the genetic code arose in an RNA world, present codon assignments may reflect primordial RNA-amino acid affinities. Whether aptamers selected from random pools to bind free amino acids do so using the cognate codons at their binding sites has been controversial. Here we defend and extend our previous analysis ...
Rozan P - - 2000
The importance of fresh seedlings for human consumption on European markets continues to increase. Although the contents of free amino acids and potentially toxic free nonprotein amino acids in these fresh and supposedly healthy seedlings is very different from those of the seeds, the crude composition is never mentioned on ...
Valentincic T - - 2000
Olfactory discrimination of amino acids was investigated in brown bullhead catfish (Ameiurus nebulosus). Based on the magnitude of the observed food search activity of catfish conditioned to single amino acids, the tested compounds were classified as being detected by the catfish as equal to, similar to, or different from the ...
Groarke M - - 2000
The reductive amination of an amino acid derived glyoxal, with the free amino group of a protected amino acid or oligopeptide fragment, has been developed as a simple and efficient method for the preparation of ketomethylene amino pseudo-oligopeptide isosteres Aa psi(COCH2NH)Aa. Trichlorosilane-DMF is the reagent of choice for the reduction.
Kawashima S - - 2000
AAindex is a database of amino acid indices and amino acid mutation matrices. An amino acid index is a set of 20 numerical values representing various physico--chemical and biochemical properties of amino acids. An amino acid mutation matrix is generally 20 x 20 numerical values representing similarity of amino acids. ...
Mura A - - 2000
In a previous study, we described a population of striatal cells in the rat brain containing aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, the enzyme involved in the conversion of L-DOPA into dopamine. We have also presented evidence that these cells produce dopamine in the presence of exogenous L-DOPA. In this paper, we ...
Pilipenko VV - - 2000
252Cf Plasma desorption with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-PDMS) has been applied to comparative studies of the interactions of steroid glycosides (SGs) of the spirostan series with amino acids. SGs can interact with amino acids to form heteroclusters of the type [SG + aminoacid + H](+) and [SG + aminoacid + ...
Ager D J - - 2000
The introduction of a stereogenic centre to produce an "unnatural" amino acid can be accomplished in a variety of ways ranging from asymmetric hydrogenation to biotransformations based on transaminase enzymes. Our transaminase approach can be used to access a wide variety of L- and D-amino acids from an alpha-keto acid ...
D'Andrea G - - 2000
Eleven popular and recent biochemistry textbooks were examined and compared concerning the classification of amino acids as being gluco(glyco)genic, ketogenic, or both. The main differences concerned mostly two amino acids, threonine, which in some cases is considered only gluco(glyco)genic and in others both gluco(glyco)-ketogenic, and lysine, which is considered chiefly ...
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