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Results 201 - 250 of 634
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Pätzold R - - 2006
Fermented cocoa beans of various countries of origin (Ivory Coast, Ghana, Sulawesi), cocoa beans roasted under defined conditions (100-150 degrees C; 30-120 min), low and high fat cocoa powder, various brands of chocolate, and cocoa shells were analyzed for their contents of free L-and D-amino acids. Amino acids were isolated ...
Stipanuk M H - - 2006
The modeling of whole organism sulfur amino acid flux control has been aided in recent years by advancements in proteomics and mass spectroscopy-based metabolite analysis. The convergence of these two fields and their respective techniques, as demonstrated by a new study using yeast by Lafaye et al., has shown that ...
Zera Anthony J - - 2006
Although the differential flow of metabolites through alternate pathways of intermediary metabolism is thought to be an important functional cause of life-history trade-offs, this phenomenon remains understudied. Using a radiolabeled amino acid, we quantified genetic differences in in vivo amino acid metabolism between morphs of the wing-polymorphic cricket Gryllus firmus ...
Araúzo-Bravo Marcos J - - 2006
Solvent accessibility prediction from amino acid sequences has been pursued by several researchers. Such a prediction typically starts by transforming the amino acid category (or type) information into numerical representations. All twenty amino acids can be completely and uniquely represented by 20-dimensional vectors. Here, we investigate if the amino acid ...
Zhao Zhangwu - - 2006
The biochemical basis of specializations for dispersal vs. reproduction is an understudied aspect of dispersal polymorphism in insects. Using a radiolabelled amino acid, we quantified differences in in vivo amino acid metabolism between morphs of the wing-polymorphic cricket, Gryllus firmus, that trade-off early age reproduction and dispersal capability. Studies were ...
Nikiforova V J - - 2006
Amino acid levels in plants are regulated by a complex interplay of regulatory circuits at the level of enzyme activities and gene expression. Despite the diversity of precursors involved in amino acid biosynthesis as providing the carbon backbones, the amino groups and, for the amino acids methionine and cysteine, the ...
Roccio M - - 2006
The mTOR/S6K/4E-BP1 pathway integrates extracellular signals derived from growth factors, and intracellular signals, determined by the availability of nutrients like amino acids and glucose. Activation of this pathway requires inhibition of the tumor suppressor complex TSC1/2. TSC2 is a GTPase-activating protein for the small GTPase Ras homologue enriched in brain ...
Renault D - - 2006
Temporal changes in free amino acid pools are examined in starved and cold-exposed (10 degrees C) beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus) (control beetles; 4, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days of cold-exposure). The range of individual responses and the effect of gender on survival and free amino acid levels are evaluated. Females ...
Gietzen Dorothy W - - 2006
Indispensable amino acids are neither synthesized nor stored in animals and are rapidly depleted when not provided by the diet. To maintain homeostasis, organisms must sense deficiency of an indispensable amino acid and implement a repletion strategy. In rats and birds, the anterior piriform cortex houses the detector, but its ...
Ardö Ylva - - 2006
Microbial catabolism of amino acids produces flavour compounds of importance for foods such as cheese, wine and fermented sausages. Lactic acid bacteria are equipped with enzyme systems for using the amino acids in their metabolism and are useful for flavour formation of foods. Branched-chain amino acids (Leu, Ile, Val) are ...
Subramanian Sankar - - 2006
Amino acid mutations in a large number of human proteins are known to be associated with heritable genetic disease. These disease-associated mutations (DAMs) are known to occur predominantly in positions essential to the structure and function of the proteins. Here, we examine how the relative perpetuation and conservation of amino ...
Bulka Blazej - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Quantitative descriptions of amino acid similarity, expressed as probabilistic models of evolutionary interchangeability, are central to many mainstream bioinformatic procedures such as sequence alignment, homology searching, and protein structural prediction. Here we present a web-based, user-friendly analysis tool that allows any researcher to quickly and easily visualize relationships between ...
Rozman Marko - - 2006
The gas-phase interaction of sodiated amino acids and sodiated amino acid methyl esters with various deuterium donors is investigated by combining results of H/D exchange reactions with those from density functional theory and molecular dynamics calculations. Discrepancy between experimentally and theoretically obtained structures for sodium cationized amino acids is explained ...
Baker David H - - 2005
The 20th century saw numerous important discoveries in the nutritional sciences. Nonetheless, many unresolved questions still remain. Fifteen questions dealing with amino acid nutrition and metabolism are posed in this review. The first six deal with the functionality of sulfur amino acids (methionine and cysteine) and related compounds. Other unresolved ...
Lamont Linda S - - 2005
There are gender differences in the substrate used to fuel prolonged physical activity. Males rely on carbohydrate and amino acids (97%), while females use predominantly fat (62%) to fuel endurance exercise. This review looks at the mechanisms that regulate these gender differences, with a focus on amino acid metabolism. Gender-selective ...
Barth Andreas A Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Arrhenius Laboratories for Natural Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-106 91, Stockholm, - - 2006
Photolysis of amino acids that bear a 2-nitrobenzyl protecting group on the amino nitrogen involves a normal 2-nitrobenzyl-type photocleavage to release the amino acid but also a second mechanistic pathway, that appears to be initiated by single electron transfer from the amino group to the excited state of the nitroaromatic. ...
Venton B Jill - - 2006
Predator odors elicit fear and defensive behavioral responses in rats, but a wide range of individual responsivity exists. The aim of this study was to examine whether individual differences in behavioral responsivity correlate with differences in amino acid neurotransmission to a predator fox odor, 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT). We investigated the time ...
Lee Jungmin - - 2005
Two garlic subspecies (n = 11), Allium sativum L. var. opioscorodon (hardneck) and Allium sativum L. var. sativum (softneck), were evaluated for their free amino acid composition. The free amino acid content of garlic samples analyzed ranged from 1121.7 to 3106.1 mg/100 g of fresh weight (mean = 2130.7 +/- ...
Lee Jungmin - - 2005
Selenium-enriched broccoli florets, harvested from plants grown on soil fertilized with four levels of sodium selenate, were evaluated for their free amino acid composition using alkylchlorformate derivatization, solid-phase extraction, and GC-FID or GC-MS. The selenium-enriched florets contained 0.4 (control), 5.7 (treatment A), 98.6 (treatment B), and 879.2 (treatment C) microg/g ...
Leuchtenberger Wolfgang - - 2005
For almost 50 years now, biotechnological production processes have been used for industrial production of amino acids. Market development has been particularly dynamic for the flavor-enhancer glutamate and the animal feed amino acids L: -lysine, L: -threonine, and L: -tryptophan, which are produced by fermentation processes using high-performance strains of ...
Jervis Mark A - - 2005
Nectar of butterfly-pollinated flowers contains generally higher levels of amino acids than does nectar of flowers pollinated by most other animal types. One proposed explanation is that these amino acids promote butterfly fitness, although the evidence has been equivocal. In a new study, Mevi-Schütz and Erhardt showed that nectar amino ...
Anderson Robert J - - 2005
A Ramachandran plot is a visual representation of the main-chain conformational tendencies of an amino acid. Despite forty years of research, the shape of Ramachandran plots is still a matter of debate. The issue in making a Ramachandran plot based on experimental data is deciding whether sparse data represent genuine ...
Morita Masaki - - 2005
We have studied amino acid formation by UV (193 nm) irradiation to organic molecules (amines, alcohols and amides) in aqueous solution. Among several types of detected amino acids, small aliphatic amino acids (Gly and alpha-, beta-Ala and alpha-, beta-, gamma-ABA) were quantitatively identified. Among these small aliphatic amino acids, certain ...
Bass David - - 2005
A single or double amino acid insertion at the monomer-monomer junction of the universal eukaryotic protein polyubiquitin is unique to Cercozoa and Foraminifera, closely related 'core' phyla in the protozoan infrakingdom Rhizaria. We screened 11 other candidate rhizarians for this insertion: Radiozoa (polycystine and acantharean radiolaria), a 'microheliozoan', and Apusozoa; ...
Villegas M L - - 2005
The interaction with amino acids of the excited states of the N-oxide resazurin and its deoxygenation product resorufin, has been studied in aqueous solution at pH 7.5. Steady-state and time-resolved studies show that the fluorescence is quenched by amino acids. Complexation of the dyes in the ground state with aromatic ...
Damjanović Zvonimir M - - 2005
Our earlier studies of translation have led us to a specific numeric coding of nucleotides (A = 0, C = 1, G = 2, and U = 3)--that is, a quaternary numeric system; to ordering of digrams and codons (read right to left: .yx and Z.yx) as ordinal numbers from ...
Manku Sukhdev - - 2005
Simple HPLC experiments were used to identify a redundant tagging scheme wherein six different amino acids were tagged with only four fluorous tags. The tagged amino acids were converted to regiosiomeric mixtures of tricyclic hydantoins. Despite the lack of selectivity, the mixtures were demixed and detagged to give 11 individual ...
O'Brien Diane M - - 2005
It is a nutritional challenge for nectar-feeding insects to meet the amino acid requirements of oviposition. Here we investigate whether egg amino acids derive from larval diet or are synthesized from nectar sugar in four species of butterfly: Colias eurytheme, Speyeria mormonia, Euphydryas chalcedona, and Heliconius charitonia. These species exhibit ...
Banerjee T - - 2005
Recently Anders Fuglsang provided a modified way for calculating N(c) when biased discrepancy is present in a gene [Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 317 (2004) 957]. Instead of taking the average codon homozygosity for each synonymous family type (as proposed by Wright) [Gene 87 (1990) 23] Fuglsang considered codon homozygosity of ...
Alves Rui - - 2005
If the enzymes responsible for biosynthesis of a given amino acid are repressed and the cognate amino acid pool suddenly depleted, then derepression of these enzymes and replenishment of the pool would be problematic, if the enzymes were largely composed of the cognate amino acid. In the proverbial "Catch 22", ...
Chen N J - - 2005
The effect of a series of amino acids on the eutectic behavior of NaCl solutions at isotonic concentration has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry. The inclusion of different amino acids had different effects on eutectic formation. The amino acids were grouped into four categories based on their effect on ...
Deng Xing - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of amino acids (AA) on the development of in vitro cultured preimplantation embryos of Kunming mice, and define the optimal AA concentration for embryo culture. METHODS: Totally 630 zygotes were collected from the oviducts of superovulated female Kunming mice, which were cultured in protein-free potassium ...
Chakraborty Tushar Kanti - - 2005
Emulating the basic principles followed by nature to build its vast repertoire of biomolecules, organic chemists are developing many novel multifunctional building blocks and using them to create 'nature-like' and yet unnatural organic molecules. Sugar amino acids constitute an important class of such polyfunctional scaffolds where the carboxyl, amino and ...
Mevi-Schutz Jovanne - - 2005
Thirty years ago, researchers discovered that flowers pollinated by butterflies are consistently rich in nectar amino acids, and more recent findings have shown that butterflies prefer nectar with high amino acid content. These observations led to speculation that amino acids in nectar enhance butterfly fitness and that butterflies have acted ...
Esteve J G - - 2005
In this paper we carry out an analysis of different types of potential and substitution matrices for amino acids, oriented to give a classification of the latter. The cluster decomposition is obtained, in a fully unsupervised way, from the subdominant ultrametric associated to the distance between amino acids induced by ...
Geraldo Murilo V - - 2005
The metabolism of protozoan parasites of the Leishmania genus is strongly based on amino acid consumption, but little is known about amino acid uptake in these organisms. In the present work, we identified a Leishmania amazonensis gene (La-PAT1) encoding a putative amino acid transporter that belongs to the amino acid/auxin ...
Nozaki Tomoyoshi - - 2005
Sulfur-containing amino acids play indispensable roles in a wide variety of biological activities including protein synthesis, methylation, and biosynthesis of polyamines and glutathione. Biosynthesis and catabolism of these amino acids need to be carefully regulated to achieve the requirement of the above-mentioned activities and also to eliminate toxicity attributable to ...
Rooyackers Olav - - 2005
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses recent developments in the utilization of microdialysis to assess tissue amino acid kinetics. RECENT FINDINGS: Three questions regarding the use of microdialysis to assess amino acid kinetics have recently been addressed. Does glutamate measured in the interstitial fluid of the brain represent neurotransmission activity? ...
Kojima Naoshi - - 2005
We report here a new amino-modifier reagent, which enable high-throughput purification of amino-modified oligonucleotides. Either monomethoxytrityl (MMT) or trifluoroacetyl (TFA) group has been used as the protecting group for the primary amine when amino-terminal oligonucleotides are prepared. Generally, the removal of MMT requires the stringent acidic treatment after the oligonucleotide ...
Di Giulio Massimo - - 2005
A comparison is made between orthologous proteins from a nonbarophile (Pyrococcus furiosus) and a barophile (Pyrococcus abyssi) organism. The pattern of asymmetries in the amino acid substitution process identifies the amino acids arginine, serine, glycine, valine and aspartic acid as those having the most barophilic behaviour, and tyrosine and glutamine ...
Soudry Esther - - 2005
The process of leaf senescence is biochemically characterized by the transition from nutrient assimilation to nutrient remobilization. The nutrient drain by developing vegetative and reproductive structures has been implicated in senescence induction. The steady-state levels of amino acids in senescing leaves are dependent on the rate of their release during ...
Mun Hee-Chang - - 2004
We previously demonstrated that the human calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is allosterically activated by L-amino acids (Conigrave, A. D., Quinn, S. J., and Brown, E. M. (2000) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 97, 4814-4819). However, the domain-based location of amino acid binding has been uncertain. We now show that ...
Valiyaveetil Francis I - - 2004
The K(+) channel-selectivity filter consists of two absolutely conserved glycine residues. Crystal structures show that the first glycine in the selectivity filter, Gly-77 in KcsA, is in a left-handed helical conformation. Although the left-handed helical conformation is not favorable for the naturally occurring L-amino acids, it is favorable for the ...
Marashi Sayed-Amir - - 2004
A. Fuglsang [Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 317 (2004) 957-964] suggested that effective number of codons for individual amino acids (Nc-values) should be re-adjusted to the number of synonymous codons of those amino acids, in order to prevent the overestimation of the effective number of codons. Here, it is shown that ...
Schmidt L E - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Liver failure is associated with low concentrations of branched-chain amino acids and high concentrations of most other amino acids. In this study the effect of treatment with the Molecular Adsorbents Recirculating System (MARS) on arterial amino acid levels and cerebral amino acid metabolism was examined in patients with severe ...
Zeng Q - - 2004
In the present work various free amino acids, including tryptophan and tyrosine, were effectively N-phthaloylated under reduced pressure and at lower temperature. Moreover, under these conditions, the presence of phthalic acid in phthalic anhydride did not hinder the N-phthaloylation of amino acids. This simple process is economic, environmentally friendly, and ...
Trifonov E N - - 2004
Temporal order ("chronology") of appearance of amino acids and their respective codons on evolutionary scene is reconstructed. A consensus chronology of amino acids is built on the basis of 60 different criteria each offering certain temporal order. After several steps of filtering the chronology vectors are averaged resulting in the ...
Wu Guang - - 2004
In this study, we use our probabilistic approach to analyze the amino acid pairs in human copper-transporting ATPase 2 (ATP7B) in order to determine which amino acid pairs are more sensitive to 125 variants from missense mutant human ATP7B. The results show 97.6% of 125 variants occur at randomly unpredictable ...
Young Vernon R - - 2004
A series of Amino Acid Assessment Workshops (AAAWs) are being organized and conducted to bring together experts in amino acid nutrition, metabolism, cell and molecular biology, toxicology, and regulation/policy with the eventual goal to establish a paradigm for the characterization of risks associated with ingestion of specific intakes of amino ...
Fürst Peter - - 2004
The aims of this introductory article are to survey and critically evaluate the concepts and approaches that have been used to assess amino acid adequacy and to hypothesize about possible future directions of research. The issue in question is extensive, consequently this article will be limited to: 1) definitions of ...
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