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Chen Wen-Hsing WH Department of Environmental Engineering, National Ilan University, Yilan, 260, Taiwan, - - 2013
This study evaluated a cost-effective approach for the conversion of rice straw into fermentable sugars. The composition of rice straw pretreated with 1 % sulfuric acid or 1 % sodium hydroxide solution was compared to rice straw with no chemical pretreatment. Enzymatic saccharification experiments on non-pretreated rice straw (NPRS), pretreated rice straw ...
Liu Zhen Z State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, , Kunming 650223, China, University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, , Beijing 100039, China, Key Laboratory of Adaptation and Evolution of Plateau Biota, Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, , Xining 810008, China, Centre for Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, Royal Ontario Museum, , Toronto, Canada , M5S - - 2014
Hibernating mammals need to be insensitive to acid in order to cope with conditions of high CO2; however, the molecular basis of acid tolerance remains largely unknown. The African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) and hibernating mammals share similar environments and physiological features. In the naked mole-rat, acid insensitivity has been ...
Augustine Alicia H AH Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, United - - 2013
The effects of dietary fatty acid supplementation on lipoprotein fatty acid composition have rarely been described. Sixty-one overweight and obese adults with dyslipidemia and insulin resistance were randomized to placebo, 2g/day extended-release nicotinic acid (ERN), 4g/day prescription omega-3 fatty acid ethyl ester (P-OM3), or combination therapy for 16 weeks. Lipoprotein ...
Flock Michael R MR Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania, - - 2013
The purpose of this review is to discuss macronutrient replacement options for saturated fatty acids (SFAs) to optimize cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction. Dietary recommendations advise decreasing SFAs. There is convincing evidence that replacing SFAs with unsaturated fat, both omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, reduces CVD risk. Monounsaturated fatty ...
Wang Jie J The Key Laboratory of Food Colloids and Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, PR - - 2013
The copolymer of poly(l-malic acid-co-d,l-lactic acid) (PML) was synthesized through a direct polycondensation of l-malic acid (MA) and d,l-lactic acid (LA). Then, a new polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) based on the complexation between the copolymer (PML) and chitosan (CS) was prepared. The PEC formed stable nano particles in aqueous solutions with ...
Demiralay Ebru Çubuk EC Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Literature, Süleyman Demirel University, 32260 Isparta, Turkey. Electronic address: - - 2013
In this work, thermodynamic acidity constants (pssKa) of methicillin, oxacillin, nafcillin, cloxacilin, dicloxacillin were determined with reverse phase liquid chromatographic method (RPLC) by taking into account the effect of the activity coefficients in hydro-organic water-acetonitrile binary mixtures. From these values, thermodynamic aqueous acidity constants of these drugs were calculated by ...
Wang Caixia C National Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, PR China; Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, PR - - 2013
Succinic acid was produced in a novel membrane-based fermentation and separation integrated system. With this integrated system, product inhibition was alleviated by removing acids and replenishing fresh broth. High cell density maintain for a longer time from 75 to 130h and succinic acid concentration increased from 53 to 73g/L. In ...
Martí-Centelles Vicente - - 2013
A family of pseudopeptidic macrocycles containing non-natural amino acids has been synthesized. The macrocyclization reaction was studied experimentally and computationally, demonstrating the key role of the amino acid side chain and the catalytic bromide anion. The anion acts as a template assisting the folding of the open-chain precursor in a ...
Macdonald Jacob P JP Department of Chemistry, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616, USA. - - 2013
A Lewis acid-catalyzed stereoselective [3+2] annulation of crotylsilanes with iminooxindoles is reported to access 2,3'-pyrrolidinyl spirooxindoles with four stereocenters. The addition of NaBArF significantly enhances reactivity, allowing either metal salts or acidic clay to be effective catalysts for the stereoselective reaction.
Ito Junitsu J Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata, - - 2013
Aldehyde reductase (AKR1A), a member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily, is highly expressed in the liver and is involved in both the detoxification of carbonyl compounds and ascorbic acid biosynthesis. By comparison with wild-type mice, Akr1a-knockout (Akr1a(-/-)) mice and human Akrla-transgenic (Akr1a(tg/+)) mice experience different anesthetic actions from pentobarbital-prolonged in ...
Nam Kyong-Hee KH Bio-Evaluation Center, KRIBB, 30 Yeongudanji-ro, Ochang-eup, Cheongwon, 363-883, Republic of - - 2014
Comparing well-watered versus deficit conditions, we evaluated the chemical composition of grains harvested from wild-type (WT) and drought-tolerant, transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.). The latter had been developed by inserting AtCYP78A7, which encodes a cytochrome P450 protein. Two transgenic Lines, '10B-5' and '18A-4', and the 'Hwayoung' WT were grown under ...
Wang K K Department of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, - - 2013
Dietary iron supplementation is associated with gastrointestinal (GI) side effects including vomiting, nausea, and diarrhea. Although inorganic iron in high concentrations may be damaging to the intestinal mucosa, we hypothesize that there are physiological effects on the GI tract that occur at concentrations achieved by supplementation. Thus, our aim was ...
Lee Young-Chul YC Department of Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751, Republic of - - 2013
Biofuels (biodiesel) production from oleaginous microalgae has been intensively studied for its practical applications within the microalgae-based biorefinement process. For scaled-up cultivation of microalgae in open ponds or, for further cost reduction, using wastewater, humic acids present in water-treatment systems can positively and significantly affect the harvesting of microalgae biomass. ...
Yu Yuanshan Y Sericulture and Agri-Food Research Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou 510610, PR - - 2014
In this study, the effects of ultra-high pressure homogenisation (UHPH) processing at 200MPa for 1-3 successive passes (inlet temperatures at 4°C) were compared with pasteurisation (95°C, 1min) processing on phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity (ORAC value) and anti-glucosidase of mulberry juice. Compared with thermal pasteurisation processing, the more reductions in the ...
Mullooly Niamh N 1 University College Dublin, - - 2013
Recent metabolic profiling studies have identified a correlation between branched-chain amino acid levels, insulin resistance associated with pre-diabetes and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes. Glucose and lipids in chronic excess have been reported to induce toxic effects in pancreatic beta cells but the effect of elevated amino acid concentrations on ...
Wan P-J PJ State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou, China; Education Ministry Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crop Diseases and Pests, College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, - - 2013
Nilaparvata lugens is a serious phloem-feeding pest of rice throughout Asia. Rice phloem sap can meet its nutrition requirement for sugars but not for some essential amino acids such as isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, lysine, arginine and histidine. N. lugens harbours yeast-like symbionts in mycetocytes formed by abdominal fat body cells. ...
Flanagan John J Naturex SA, Site d'Agroparc BP 1218, 84911, Avignon Cedex 9, - - 2013
The beneficial health effects of chlorogenic acids (CGAs), major components of coffee beans, are well known and have been attributed to multiple mechanisms of action. However, the lipolytic activity of CGAs does not appear to have been reported. We studied the effects of varying concentrations of Svetol®, a decaffeinated green ...
Kim Hye Yoom HY Hanbang Body-fluid Research Center & Professional Graduate School of Oriental Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749, Republic of - - 2013
Ursolic acid has recently been reported to increase both atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion and mechanical dynamics in rabbit atria. The present study was designed to clarify the regulatory effects of ursolic acid on the β-adrenergic or muscarinic receptor-mediated changes in ANP secretory and contractile function allowing measurement of atrial ...
Kim Daniel Seung - - 2013
Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a cardioprotective, HDL-associated glycoprotein enzyme with broad substrate specificity. Our previous work found associations between dietary cholesterol and vitamin C with PON1 activity. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of specific dietary fatty acid (DFA) intake on PON1 activity. 1,548 participants with ...
Moreno-Pérez Antonio Javier - - 2013
The substrate specificity of the acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases significantly determines the type of fatty acids that are exported from plastids. Thus, designing acyl-ACP thioesterases with different substrate specificities or kinetic properties would be of interest for plant lipid biotechnology to produce oils enriched in specialty fatty acids. In ...
Kampe Kapil K 1University Hospital - - 2013
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by dyslipidemia with elevated free fatty acids (FFAs). Loss of podocytes is a hallmark of diabetic nephropathy, and podocytes are susceptible to saturated FFAs, which induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and podocyte death. Genome wide association studies indicate that expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) 2, ...
Radhakrishnakartha Harikrishnan H Department of Biochemistry, University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram-695 581, - - 2013
The impact of ascorbic acid supplementation against ethanol induced Leydig cell toxicity was studied in guinea pigs. Male guinea pigs were exposed to ethanol (4g/ kg b.wt.) for 90 days. After 90 days, ethanol administration was completely stopped and animals in the ethanol group were divided into abstention group and ...
Lee Ji-Hyun JH Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Kyunggi-do 442-749, Republic of - - 2013
This work was initiated to determine whether toxicity generated through inhibition of mitochondrial fuel metabolism is similar to high glucose/palmitate (HG/PA)-induced glucolipotoxicity. Influx of glucose and free fatty acids into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was inhibited by treatment with the pyruvate carboxylase (PC) inhibitor phenylacetic acid (PAA) and carnitine ...
Oshiro Noriko N Massachusetts General Hospital, United - - 2013
Activation of mTOR complex 1 by amino acids is mediated in part by the Rag GTPases, which bind the raptor subunit of mTORC1 in an amino acid stimulated manner and promote mTORC1 interaction with Rheb-GTP, the immediate activator. Herein we examine whether the ability of amino acids to regulate mTORC1 ...
Luo Zhibing - - 2013
For most organisms, carbon and nitrogen uptake are essential for growth, development, and where applicable, pathogenesis. The role of the carbon catabolite repressor transcription factor homolog, BbcreA, in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana was investigated. Deletion of BbcreA resulted in pleiotropic effects including nutrient toxicity leading to a novel cell ...
Nostro Antonia - - 2013
Staphylococcal growth and biofilm formation in culture medium where pH was lowered with weak organic (acetic and lactic) or strong inorganic (hydrochloric) acids were studied. The effects were evaluated by biomass measurements, cell-surface hydrophobicity, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results demonstrated that the inhibition ...
Tao Rongsheng - - 2013
L-2-Aminobutyric acid (L-ABA) is an unnatural amino acid that is a key intermediate for the synthesis of several important drugs. It can be produced by transaminase or dehydrogenase from α-ketobutyric acid, which can be synthesized enzymatically from the bulk amino acid, L-threonine. Deamination of L-threonine followed by a hydrogenation reaction ...
Zhao Yang - - 2013
One of the two branches of the α-linolenic acid metabolism pathway is catalyzed by OPRI, and the other is involved in JA synthesis. The former is known to be active in the response to salinity tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum), but the participation of the latter in this response has ...
Kumar Pushpender P Department of Pharmacology, I.S.F. College of Pharmacy, Ferozepur Road, Ghal Kalan, Moga 142001, Punjab, - - 2013
Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant, progressive, and fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms. Systemic administration of 3-nitropropionic acid, a complex II inhibitor of the electron transport chain induces selective striatal lesions in rodents. Neurosteroids are synthesized in central nervous system, able to modulate GABAA receptor function ...
Tamaru Shun-Ichi - - 2013
Amphoteric β-1,3-glucans possessing both amino groups and carboxylic acid groups on the C6 positions of glucose units were designed and synthesized from naturally produced curdlan. The amphoteric polysaccharides showed the isoelectric point and the pH responsive interconversion between the original triple helix and single-stranded random structures. Since the pH dependences ...
Remling N - - 2013
The aim of this study was to determine the influence of fumaric acid (FA) on ruminal fermentation and its effects on the acid-base balance of seven ruminally and duodenally fistulated multiparous German Holstein cows. The experiment was conducted in a change-over design with three periods in which the animals were ...
Ortega-Heras Miriam - - 2013
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of three factors directly related to the amino acid content of grapes and their interaction. These three factors were vintage, maturity degree and irrigation. The amino acid evolution was also assessed during the winemaking along with the effect of maturity ...
Kakiuchi Hitoshi H Laboratory of Physiology II, Department of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5201, - - 2013
Tranexamic acid suppresses post-partum haemorrhage and idiopathic menorrhagia through its anti-fibrinolytic action. Although it is clinically useful, it is associated with high risks of side effects such as emesis. Understanding the mechanisms underlying tranexamic acid-induced emesis is very important to explore appropriate anti-emetic drugs for the prevention and/or suppression of ...
Shiue Eric E Department of Chemical Engineering, Synthetic Biology Engineering Research Center (SynBERC), Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, - - 2013
D-glucaric acid has been explored for a myriad of potential uses, including biopolymer production and cancer treatment. A biosynthetic route to produce D-glucaric acid from glucose has been constructed in E. coli (Moon et al., 2009b), and analysis of the pathway revealed myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX) to be the least active ...
Zhang Hong-Yan HY Division of Natural Products Chemistry, Institute of Natural Medicine, University of Toyama, Sugitani 2630, Toyama 930-0194, - - 2013
In order to develop new drugs for Alzheimer's disease, we prepared 17 fatty acid derivatives with different chain lengths and different numbers and positions of double bonds by using Wittig reaction and stereospecific hydrogenation of triple bonds as key reactions. Among them, (4Z,15Z)-octadecadienoic acid (10) and (23Z,34Z)-heptatriacontadienoic acid (16) showed ...
Burdge Graham C - - 2013
The purpose of this review is to assess the findings of recent studies on the effects of fatty acids on epigenetic process and the role of epigenetics in regulating fatty acid metabolism. The DNA methylation status of the Fads2 promoter was increased in the liver of the offspring of mice ...
Matityahu Ifat - - 2013
The essential sulfur-containing amino acid methionine plays a vital role in plant metabolism and human nutrition. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the regulatory role of the first committed enzyme in the methionine biosynthesis pathway, cystathionine gamma-synthase (CGS), on methionine accumulation in tobacco seeds. We also studied the effect ...
Migita Toshiro - - 2013
De novo lipogenesis is activated in most cancers, and several lipogenic enzymes have been implicated as therapeutic targets. Here, we demonstrate a novel function of the lipogenic enzyme, ATP citrate lyase (ACLY), in lipid metabolism in cancer cells. ACLY depletion by small interfering RNAs caused growth suppression and/or apoptosis in ...
Despras Guillaume - - 2013
Combining triflic acid-catalyzed acetalation, benzylation, reductive ring opening of benzylidene acetal and glycosylation in one-pot transformations leads to a wide range of d-glucosamine building blocks for assembling oligomers.
Tzeng Tsai-Teng - - 2013
The roles of caspase 3 on the kainic acid-mediated neurodegeneration, dendritic plasticity alteration, neurogenesis, microglial activation and gliosis are not fully understood. Here, we investigate hippocampal changes using a mouse model that receive a single kainic acid-intracerebral ventricle injection. The effects of caspase 3 inhibition on these changes were detected ...
Kougias P G PG Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby DK-2800, - - 2013
Foam control is an imperative need in biogas plants, as foaming is a major operational problem. In the present study, the effect of oils (rapeseed oil, oleic acid, and octanoic acid) and tributylphosphate on foam reduction and process performance in batch and continuous manure-based biogas reactors was investigated. The compounds ...
Fujita Takayuki - - 2013
Complement-activating capacity through the classical pathway in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was examined in the context of free sialic acid as a potential modulator of complement activation. Complement-activating capacity was investigated in an incubation study of heat-aggregated IgG (HAG) and sera from 42 T2DM patients. The study demonstrated diminished ...
García-Padial Marcos - - 2013
Tyrosol and caffeic acid are biophenols that contribute to the beneficial properties of virgin olive oil. The influence of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβ-CD) on their respective antioxidant capacities was analyzed. The ORAC antioxidant activity of tyrosol (expressed as μM Trolox equivalents/μM Tyrosol) was 0.83 ± 0.03 and it increased up to 1.20 ...
Castro Allisson Jhonatan Gomes - - 2013
The effect of betulinic acid on glycemia and its mechanism of action compared with 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 in rat muscle were investigated. Betulinic acid improved glycemia, induced insulin secretion and increased the glycogen content and glucose uptake in muscle tissue. Additionally, the integrity of both PI3K and the cytoskeleton is ...
Lopez-Real R E - - 2013
We have recently developed a range of synthetic retinoid analogues which include the compounds EC23 and EC19. They are stable on exposure to light and are predicted to be resistant to the normal metabolic processes involved in the inactivation of retinoids in vivo. Based on the position of the terminal ...
Wei Lina L College of Food Engineering and Nutritional Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, PR - - 2014
Thiamine dilaurylsulphate (TLS), synthesised by a new method, was developed for a formulation with a wide antimicrobial spectrum and evaluated in apple juice and milk. The result of a disc diffusion method showed that TLS, which was synthesised from sodium lauryl sulphate and thiamine hydrochloride, had strong growth-inhibitory effects on ...
Sánchez Antonio Higinio - - 2013
Abstract The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect on acrylamide (AA) formation and the impact on sensory characteristics in ripe olives of three selected amino acids (sarcosine, proline, and glycine), which previously showed high AA inhibition rates in an olive model system. Each amino acid ...
Kim Baek-Joong - - 2013
15-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), as a mammalian biologically active metabolite, has anti-carcinogenic effect. The conditions of producing 15-HETE from arachidonic acid by using soybean lipoxygenase were optimal at pH 8.5 and 20°C with 9 g/l arachidonic acid, 54.4 U/ml soybean lipoxygenase, and 4% methanol. Under these optimized conditions, the enzyme produced ...
Sublette M Elizabeth - - 2013
Dopaminergic function is thought to be altered in major depression and, in animal studies, is reduced in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) deficiency states. Therefore we studied PUFAs and resting prolactin, a marker for dopaminergic tone, and cerebrospinal fluid homovanillic acid (HVA), the chief dopamine metabolite. In medication-free adults (n = 23) ...
Yang Weihong - - 2013
Background: Gender differences in pharmacokinetics have been reported to have important clinical consequences; however, no information about differences in the pharmacokinetics of the cholesterol-lowering drug simvastatin lactone and its metabolite, simvastatin hydroxy acid, in males and females is available. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect ...
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