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Moore Simon J SJ School of Biosciences, University of Kent, Giles Lane, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NJ, - - 2014
Bacillus megaterium is a bacterium that has been used in the past for the industrial production of vitamin B12 (cobalamin), the anti-pernicious anaemia factor. Cobalamin is a modified tetrapyrrole with a cobalt ion coordinated within its macrocycle. More recently, B. megaterium has been developed as a host for the high-yield ...
Hu Jia J Longevity Institute, Davis School of Gerontology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, 90089, USA; Department of Biological Sciences, School of Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, 90089, - - 2014
In mammals, extended periods of fasting leads to the accumulation of blood ketone bodies including acetoacetate. Here we show that similar to the conversion of leucine to acetoacetate in fasting mammals, starvation conditions induced ketone body-like acetic acid generation from leucine in S. cerevisiae. Whereas wild-type and ras2Δ cells accumulated acetic ...
Woyda-Ploszczyca Andrzej M AM Laboratory of Bioenergetics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznan, - - 2014
Using isolated potato tuber mitochondria possessing uncoupling protein (StUCP), we found that, under non-phosphorylating conditions, the sensitivity of aldehyde (all trans-retinal or 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal)-induced and fatty acid (linoleic acid)-induced StUCP-mediated proton leaks to GTP is controlled by the endogenous ubiquinone (Q) reduction level. The action of StUCP activators was abolished by ...
Le Thanh-Blicharz Joanna J Department of Food Concentrates and Starch Products in Poznań, Institute of Agricultural and Food Biotechnology, Poznań, - - 2014
Resistant starches are type of dietary fibers. However, their physiological effects depend on the way they resist digestion in the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of this study was to examine the hypothesis that new type of RS4 preparations, of in vitro digestibility of about 50%, obtained by cross-linking and acetylation, ...
Arijaje Emily Oluwaseun EO Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas , 2650 North Young Avenue, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72704, United - - 2014
Debranched unacetylated and acetylated potato starches with two degrees of substitution, 0.041 (low) and 0.078 (high), combined with or without β-amylase hydrolysis were prepared to form soluble and insoluble complexes with stearic acid. The effects of modifications on the complexation, thermal properties, and X-ray patterns of soluble and insoluble complexes ...
Kumar Pawan P Division of Biotechnology, CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Post Box No. 6, Palampur, 176061, Himachal Pradesh, India, - - 2014
Cell suspension cultures of Arnebia euchroma were established from the friable callus on liquid Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (10.0 μM) and indole-3-butyric acid (5.0 μM). Salicylic acid was used to study its effect on the enzymes which participate in shikonin biosynthesis with respect to metabolite (shikonin) content in the ...
Wang Jiangxin J Laboratory of Synthetic Microbiology, School of Chemical Engineering Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, People's Republic of - - 2014
Early studies in cyanobacteria have found that few genes induced by short-term salt shock (15-60 min) display a stable induction in the long-term (>1 day) salt-acclimated cells; meanwhile, most of the genes responsive to long-term salt stress were different from those by short-term salt shock, suggesting that different regulatory mechanisms may be ...
Gu Shuai S State Key Laboratory of Material-oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, No. 5 Xinmofan Road, Nanjing, 210009, People's Republic of - - 2014
Under the conditions of fumaric acid fermentation, Rhizopus oryzae ME-F14 possessed at least two respiratory systems. The respiration of mycelia was partially inhibited by the cytochrome respiration inhibitor antimycin A or the alternative respiration inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid and was completely inhibited in the presence of both antimycin A and salicylhydroxamic ...
Xu Daohua D Department of Pharmacology, Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan, China; Department of Orthopaedics & Traumatology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong, - - 2014
Salvianolic acid B, a major bioactive component of Chinese medicine herb, Salvia miltiorrhiza, is widely used for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Our recent studies have shown that Salvianolic acid B can prevent development of osteoporosis. However, the underlying mechanisms are still not clarified clearly. In the present study, we aim ...
Busó-Rogero Carlos C Instituto de Electroquímica, Universidad de Alicante, Ap. 99 E-03080, Alicante, Spain. - - 2014
Thallium modified shape-controlled Pt nanoparticles were prepared and their electrocatalytic activity towards formic acid electrooxidation was evaluated in 0.5 M sulfuric acid. The electrochemical and in situ FTIR spectroscopic results show a remarkable improvement in the electrocatalytic activity, especially in the low potential region (around 0.1-0.2 V vs. RHE). Cubic ...
Top Sara M SM Department of Earth, Atmospheric, & Planetary Sciences, and the Purdue Climate Change Research Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA; School of Agricultural, Forest and Environmental Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, 29634, - - 2014
Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations can change chemistry and input rate of plant tissue to soil, potentially influencing above- and below-ground biogeochemical cycles. Given the important role played by leaf and root litter chemistry in controlling ecosystem function and vulnerability to environmental stresses, we investigated the hydrolyzable amino acid distribution and ...
Masi Marco M Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte Sant' Angelo , Via Cintia 4, 80126 Napoli, - - 2014
A new phytotoxic sesquiterpenoid penta-2,4-dienoic acid, named pyrenophoric acid, was isolated from solid wheat seed culture of Pyrenophora semeniperda, a fungal pathogen proposed as a mycoherbicide for biocontrol of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and other annual bromes. These bromes are serious weeds in winter cereals and also on temperate semiarid rangelands. ...
Mangia Nicoletta P NP Dipartimento di Agraria, University of Sassari, V.le Italia 39, 07100 Sassari, - - 2014
In this study we identified Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lc. lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis, Kluyveromices lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the dominant microorganisms of traditional Moroccan acid-alcoholic fermented milk named Lben. The low pH (3·8±0·3), lactose (16·8±3·4 mg/l) and lactic acid (8·16±0·6 mg/l) content indicated that a strong fermentation occurred in ...
Jindal Garima G Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India) - - 2014
Insights into chiral induction for an asymmetric sulfoxidation reaction involving a single oxygen atom transfer are gained through analyzing the stereocontrolling transition states. The fitting of the substrate into the chiral cavity of a new class of imidodiphosphoric Brønsted acids, as well as weak CH⋅⋅⋅π and CH⋅⋅⋅O noncovalent interactions, are ...
Godoy Leticia Casas LC Université de Toulouse, INSA, UPS, INP, LISBP, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse, France; INRA, UMR792 Ingénierie des Systèmes Biologiques et des Procédés, F-31400 Toulouse, France; CNRS, UMR5504, F-31400 Toulouse, - - 2014
The production of Omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) rich in cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was studied using lipase-catalysed hydrolysis of a mixture of ethyl esters from tuna oil. Lipases from Yarrowia lipolytica (YLL2), Thermomyces lanuginosus (TLL) and Candida rugosa (CRL1, CRL3 and CRL4) were tested. C. rugosa lipases discriminated esters ...
Duncan Katharine K KK Department of Chemistry and The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, United - - 2014
A series of α-ketooxazoles containing heteroatoms embedded within conformational constraints in the C2 acyl side chain of 2 (OL-135) were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). The studies reveal that the installation of a heteroatom (O) in the conformational constraint is achievable, although the potency ...
Asnaashari Maryam M Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Food Science and Technology, P.O. Box 91775-1163, Mashhad, - - 2014
The anti-DPPH radical effect as well as anti-peroxide activity of gallic acid, methyl gallate, and α-tocopherol in a bulk Kilka fish oil and its oil-in-water emulsion stabilized by soy protein isolate at 55°C were investigated. Gallic acid with the lowest hydrophobicity (log P=-0.28) was found to be the most active ...
Hoshino Yu Y Department of Chemical Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka, 819-0395, - - 2014
Temperature-responsive nanogel particles with acids exhibiting large and reversible pK a shift are prepared by an ion-imprinting polymerization of stimuli responsive monomers, cross-linkers, and acidic monomers using protons as a template. The principles employed here should be broadly applicable to other stimuli-responsive materials and will be an integral step in ...
Pravdivtsev Andrey N AN International Tomography Center SB RAS, Institutskaya 3a, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia. - - 2014
Magnetic field dependence of long-lived spin states (LLSs) of the β-CH2 protons of aromatic amino acids was studied. LLSs are spin states, which are immune to dipolar relaxation, thus having lifetimes far exceeding the longitudinal relaxation times; the simplest example of an LLS is given by the singlet state of ...
Mezni F F a National Institute for Research on Rural Engineering, Water and Forests, INRGREF , BP 10, Ariana 2080 , - - 2014
In this investigation, we aim to study, for the first time, the effect of the growing area on tocopherols, carotenoids and fatty acid content of Pistacia lentiscus fixed oil. Fruits were harvested from eight different sites located in the north and the centre of Tunisia. Tocopherols, carotenoids and fatty acid ...
Fischer Robert R Experimental and Clinical Research Center, - - 2014
Cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) contribute to the regulation of cardiovascular function. CYP enzymes also accept eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to yield more potent vasodilatory and potentially anti-arrhythmic metabolites, suggesting that the endogenous CYP-eicosanoid profile can be favorably shifted by dietary omega-3 fatty acids. ...
Tian Xiwei X State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, P.O. Box 329, Shanghai, 200237, People's Republic of - - 2014
This paper hinged on the combination effect of two different neutralizing agents Ca(OH)2 and NH4OH on the production of L-lactic acid by Lactobacillus paracasei. Present study quantitatively indicated that environmental osmotic pressure (844-1,772 mOsm/kg) exerted minor influence on L-lactic acid production, but a critical level fell on approximately 3,000 mOsm/kg which restricted ...
Puniani Eva E Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, - - 2014
The neotropical lianas Souroubea gilgii and Souroubeasympetala (Marcgraviaceae) were chosen for study as part of a phytochemical discovery strategy focusing on rare plant families in Central America. In participatory research, Q'eqchi' healers in Belize reported the use of these plants to reverse psychological symptoms inflicted by witchcraft. Extracts of two ...
Al-Nabulsi Anas A AA Department of Nutrition and Food Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan. Electronic address: - - 2014
Since tahini and its products have been linked to Salmonella illness outbreaks and product recalls in recent years, this study assessed the ability of Salmonella Typhimurium to survive or grow in commercial tahini and when hydrated (10% w/v in water), treated with 0.1%-0.5% acetic or citric acids, and stored at ...
Hamano Y Y a Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Department of Agribusiness, Faculty of Bioresource Sciences , Akita Prefectural University , Ohgata , Akita 010 0444 , - - 2014
Abstract 1. The effects of α-lipoic acid administration on sexual differences in growth performance, heat exposure-induced metabolic response, and lipid peroxidation of raw meat in broiler chickens were studied. 2. Two-week-old male and female broiler chicks were divided into two groups each, as a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Half ...
Sarter Barbara B Hahn School of Nursing and Health Sciences, University of San Diego, CA, - - 2014
Several studies have demonstrated that vegetarians and vegans have much lower plasma concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids (i.e., docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids) when compared to those who eat fish. The purposes of this study were 1) to define the age and/or sex-specific docosahexaenoic plus eicosapentaenoic acids levels in red blood ...
Jeong Yong-Chul YC Chemistry Research Laboratory, University of Oxford, Mansfield Rd, Oxford OX1 3TA, - - 2014
The synthesis and evaluation of 3-enaminetetramic acids as antibacterial agents is reported; contrary to the analogous 3-acyltetramic acids, the enaminetetramic acid class of compound exhibits modest antibacterial activity against a limited spectrum of organisms, and even that activity is strongly dependent on the identity of the tetramate ring substituents. Moreover, ...
Oh Nam Su NS R&D Center, Seoul Dairy Cooperative, Ansan, Kyunggi 425-839, South - - 2014
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of temperature and supplementation with skim milk powder (SMP) on microbial and proteolytic properties during storage of cottage cheese. Cottage cheese were manufactured using skim milk with 2% skim milk powder (SMP) and without SMP as control, and then stored ...
Rouhou Mouna Cheikh MC TOXEN, Département des sciences biologiques, Université du Québec à Montréal, C.P. 8888 Succ. Centre-ville, Montreal, (Qc.), Canada, H3C - - 2014
Toxicological interactions with drugs have the potential to modulate the toxicity of trichloroethylene (TCE). Our objective is to identify metabolic interactions between TCE and 14 widely used drugs in human suspended hepatocytes and characterize the strongest using microsomal assays. Changes in concentrations of TCE and its metabolites were measured by ...
Wang Baixin B Zachry Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, - - 2014
Lignocellulosic biomass has been recognized as a promising feedstock for the fermentative production of biofuel. However, the pretreatment of lignocellulose generates a number of by-products, such as furfural, 5-hydroxylmethyl furfural (5-HMF), vanillin, vanillic acids and trans-p-coumaric acid (TPCA), which are known to inhibit microbial growth. This research explores the ability ...
Rosati Adolfo A Consiglio per la Ricerca e la sperimentazione in Agricoltura - Centro di Ricerca per l'olivicoltura e l'industria olearia, CRA-OLI, Via Nursina 2, 06049 Spoleto, PG, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
We examined whether some agronomical practices (i.e. organic vs. conventional) affect olive fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties. Fruit characteristics (i.e. fresh and dry weight of pulp and pit, oil content on a fresh and dry weight basis) did not differ. Oil chemical traits did not differ except ...
Connolly Brian D - - 2014
Asparaginyl (Asn) deamidation could lead to altered potency, safety and/or pharmacokinetics of therapeutic protein drugs. In this study, we investigated the effects of several different carboxylic acids on Asn deamidation rates using an IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb1*) and a model hexapeptide (peptide1) with the sequence YGKNGG. Thermodynamic analyses of the ...
Burden Daniel K - - 2014
Gas-liquid scattering experiments are used to determine how a soluble, branched surfactant (2-ethylbutanol) controls the entry of gaseous HCl molecules into 60 and 68 wt % D2SO4 at 213 K. Short-chain alcohols spontaneously segregate to the surfaces of these sulfuric acid solutions, which are representative of aerosol droplets in the ...
Guo Xue-Yuan XY Department of Cardiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Institute of Heart Lung and Blood Vessel Diseases, Beijing, 100029, - - 2014
The effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the prevention of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) are inconclusive in current studies. Moreover, the most appropriate composition of PUFA to play the protective role is unclear. The aim of this meta-analysis was to ascertain the protective role of PUFA on POAF ...
Passari Livia Maria Zambrozi Garcia LM Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, CP 6154, 13083-970 Campinas, SP, - - 2014
Statistical design mixtures of acetone, chloroform, dichloromethane and ethanol were used to study the effects of different solvents and their mixtures on the quantities of coumarin and related metabolites extracted from Mikania laevigata samples harvested in each of the four seasons. RP-HPLC-DAD and both positive and negative modes of UPLC-MS ...
Piras Cristina C Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Cittadella di Monserrato, SS 554, 09042 Monserrato, CA, - - 2014
(1)H NMR spectroscopy was used to investigate changes in the low molecular weight metabolic profile of raw mullet (Mugil spp.) roes during frozen storage and upon processing. NMR data were analysed by Principal Component Analyses (PCA). In the model constructed using frozen roes, no statistical significant metabolic modifications were observed ...
de Jong Bouke W - - 2014
Due to an increasing demand of transportation fuels, a lower availability of cheap crude oil and a lack of sustainability of fossil fuels, a gradual shift from petroleum based fuels towards alternative and renewable fuel resources will be required in the near future. Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) have properties ...
Aguayo-Ulloa L A LA Department of Animal Production and Food Science, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Zaragoza, Spain. Electronic address: - - 2014
We analysed the effect of enriched housing on the sensory meat quality and fatty acid composition of longissimus muscle in 60 entire Rasa Aragonesa lambs, housed indoors for 5weeks in six pens (10 lambs/pen, 0.95m(2)/lamb, initial weight 17.13±0.18kg and carcass mean 12.23±0.23kg); three control pens (barren) and three enriched pens ...
Utrilla M C MC Department of Analytical Chemistry and Food Technology, Faculty of Sciences and Technologies Chemistries, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Camilo José Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain; Regional Institute for Applied Scientific Research (IRICA), University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Camilo José Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real, - - 2014
A venison salchichon was made using varying proportions of olive oil to replace the traditional pork meat and to obtain a healthier product. Six types of salchichon were produced. The control type contained 75% lean venison and 25% pork meat; in the other types, 15%, 25%, 35%, 45% and 55% ...
Kobayashi Keiichi K Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Ohkubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 169-8555, - - 2014
The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is used worldwide in the industrial production of citric acid. However, under specific cultivation conditions, citric acid-producing strains of A. niger accumulate oxalic acid as a by-product. Oxalic acid is used as a chelator, detergent, or tanning agent. Here, we sought to develop oxalic acid ...
Wang Zikun Z Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130022, China. yjliang@ciac.ac.cn - - 2014
A novel copper-catalyzed formal O-H insertion of α-diazo-1,3-dicarbonyl compounds to carboxylic acids has been developed, providing a straightforward synthetic method for α-acyloxy-1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, in which the activation of carboxylic acids by isocyanide plays a crucial role.
Teng Yinglai Y Biobased Commodity Chemistry, Wageningen University, Bornse Weilanden 9, 6708, WG Wageningen, The - - 2014
Amino acids (AAs) derived from hydrolysis of protein rest streams are interesting feedstocks for the chemical industry due to their functionality. However, separation of AAs is required before they can be used for further applications. Electrodialysis may be applied to separate AAs, but its efficiency is limited when separating AAs ...
Rado X0161 Du X0161 Ica DX Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Av. da República - EAN, 2780-157 Oeiras, - - 2014
Corynebacterium glutamicum wild type produces a mixture of lactic, succinic and acetic acid from glucose under oxygen deprivation. We investigated the effect of CO2 on the production of organic acids in a two-stage process: cells were grown aerobically in glucose and, subsequently, organic acid production by non-growing cells was studied ...
Poverenov Elena - - 2014
Conjugated polymers which can undergo unusual non-oxidative doping were designed. A series of polymers based on donor-acceptor-donor moieties 2,1,3-benzoselenadiazole, 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole, 2,1,3-benzoxadiazolebenzo[2,1,5]oxodiazole and 2-hexylbenzotriazole as acceptor fragments and 3,4-ethylenedioxyselenophene (EDOS) and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) as donor fragments was prepared. When the studied polymers were reacted with Lewis acids and bases notable optical ...
Ochsenreither Katrin K Institute of Process Engineering in Life Sciences, Section II: Technical Biology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Engler-Bunte-Ring 1, 76131, Karlsruhe, Germany, - - 2014
L-Malic acid and fumaric acid are C4 dicarboxylic organic acids and considered as promising chemical building blocks. They can be applied as food preservatives and acidulants in rust removal and as polymerization starter units. Molds of the genus Aspergillus are able to produce malic acid in large quantities from glucose ...
Yuan Xiaowei X College of Life Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an 271018, People's Republic of - - 2014
IgASE1, a C18 Δ(9)-specific polyunsaturated fatty acid elongase from the marine microalga Isochrysis galbana, is able to convert linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid to eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid in Arabidopsis. Eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid are precursors of arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid, which are synthesized via ...
Wang Ziqiang Z National Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, - - 2014
An Escherichia coli-engineered bacterium with cis-epoxysuccinate hydrolase (ESH) activity was used to catalyze the stereospecific hydrolysis of cis-epoxysuccinic acid to L-(+)-tartaric acid. The effect of the substrate composition on the production efficiency of L-(+)-tartaric acid was investigated. Based on the sodium-type homogeneous substrate system, a heterogeneous substrate system, composed of ...
O'Mahony Aoife M AM Pharmacodelivery Group, School of Pharmacy, University College Cork, Cork, - - 2014
Modified cyclodextrins (CDs) have shown great promise as non-viral gene and siRNA delivery vectors in a range of in vitro and in vivo studies. In the current study, structural and biophysical characterisation of selected CDs was carried out to enhance our understanding of their interaction with nucleic acids. The methods ...
Hochuli Michel M Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Clinical Nutrition (M.Ho., I.A., P.A.G., G.A.S., K.B.), University Hospital Zurich, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland; Division of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry (A.W., M.He., H.T.), University Children's Hospital Zurich, 8032 Zurich, Switzerland; Human Nutrition Laboratory (I.A.), Institute of Food, Nutrition, and Health and Competence Center for Systems Physiology and Metabolic Diseases (P.A.G., G.A.S.), ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland; Zurich Center for Integrative Human Physiology (K.B.), 8057 Zurich, - - 2014
Context: The impact of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) on lipid metabolism when consumed in moderate amounts by normal weight subjects is debated. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of different types of sugars in SSB on fatty acid metabolism (ie, fatty acid synthesis and oxidation) in ...
Baba Takashi T Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, - - 2014
Recent studies have suggested that phosphatidic acid (PA), a cone-shaped phospholipid that can generate negative curvature of lipid membranes, participates in mitochondrial fusion. However, precise mechanisms underling the production and consumption of PA on the mitochondrial surface are not fully understood. Phosphatidic acid-preferring phospholipase A1 (PA-PLA1) is the first identified ...
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