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Starr James M JM Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, - - 2014
Pre-existing pesticide degradates are a concern for pesticide biomonitoring studies as exposure to them may result in overestimation of pesticide exposure. The purpose of this research was to determine whether there was significant formation and movement, of pesticide degradates over a five week period in a controlled indoor setting after ...
Axler Olof O Department of Clinical Chemistry, University and Regional Laboratories Region Skåne, Sweden; - - 2014
The presenting symptoms and clinical course of 2 cases of intermittent maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) are described. Intermittent MSUD is a potentially life-threatening metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase, the enzyme complex that decarboxylates the 3 branched-chain amino acids. In contrast to classic MSUD, ...
Wang Yi Y EaStCHEM School of Chemistry, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9ST, - - 2014
The syntheses of palmitic acids and a nonadecane are reported with CF2 groups located 1,3 or 1,4 to each other along the aliphatic chain. Specifically 8,8,10,10- and 8,8,11,11-tetrafluorohexadecanoic acids (6b and 6c) are prepared as well as the singly modified analogue 8,8-difluorohexadecanoic acid (6a). Also 8,8,11,11-tetrafluorononadecane (27) is prepared as ...
Poerschmann J J UFZ - Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Engineering, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
A mixture of xylenols (2,6-, 3,4-, 3,5-) was subjected to laboratory-scale constructed wetland treatment using helophytes. Conversion efficiencies under aerobic conditions ranged from 89% to 94%; the corresponding numbers under anaerobic conditions were lower. The studies were focused on the identification of stable organic intermediates. Identification was performed by a ...
Furch Alexandra C U AC Research Centre for BioSystems, Land Use and Nutrition, Institute of Phytopathology and Applied Zoology, Justus Liebig University, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32, D-35392, Gießen, - - 2014
The stress-related phytohormones, salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA), and the three jasmonates, jasmonic acid (JA), cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (cis-OPDA), and (+)-7-iso-jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile), were investigated in phloem and xylem exudates of Cucurbita maxima. Phloem and xylem exudates were separately collected and analysed via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We show direct evidence ...
Badia-Fabregat Marina M Departament d'Enginyeria Química, Escola d'Enginyeria, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, - - 2014
The widespread of emerging contaminants in the environment and their potential impact on humans is a matter of concern. White-rot fungi are cosmopolitan organisms able to remove a wide range of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP) through cometabolism (i.e. laccases and peroxidases) or detoxification mechanisms (i.e. cytochrome P450 system). ...
Kuo James J Departments of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 - - 2014
Cyanobacteria are Gram-negative bacteria that are desirable hosts for biodiesel production, because they are photosynthetic, relatively fast growing, and can secrete products. We have reconstituted the fatty acid synthase (FAS) of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 and subjected it to in vitro kinetic analysis. Our data revealed that the ...
Pires Eduardo J EJ IBB - Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre for Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057, Braga, Portugal, - - 2014
Among the most important factors influencing beer quality is the presence of well-adjusted amounts of higher alcohols and esters. Thus, a heavy body of literature focuses on these substances and on the parameters influencing their production by the brewing yeast. Additionally, the complex metabolic pathways involved in their synthesis require ...
Szermerski Marina M Institut für Pharmazeutische und Medizinische Chemie der Westfälischen Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Corrensstraße 48, D-48149 Münster, - - 2014
The inhibition of the UDP-3-O-[(R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC) represents a promising strategy to combat infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. In order to elucidate the functional groups being important for the inhibition of LpxC, the structure of our previously reported hydroxamic acid 4 should be systematically varied. Therefore, a series of ...
Morrison Michael James - - 2014
Prokaryote-specific sugars, including N,N´-diacetylbacillosamine (diNAcBac) and pseudaminic acid, have experienced a renaissance in the past decade due to their discovery in glycans related to microbial pathogenicity. DiNAcBac is found at the reducing end of oligosaccharides of N- and O-linked bacterial protein glycosylation pathways of Gram-negative pathogens including Campylobacter jejuni and ...
Mousouri Evgenia - - 2014
'Megaritiki' is an olive cultivar widely used in Greece for production of low polyphenol olive oil and table olives. To investigate possible metabolic differentiation in comparison with other varieties, the composition of 'Megaritiki' olive fruits and wastewaters from the debittering procedure was studied. Moreover, the recovery of bioactive metabolites from ...
Truong Quyen - - 2014
Comprehensive analysis of isotopic labeling patterns of metabolites in proteinogenic amino acids and starch for plant systems lay in the powerful tool of 2-Dimensional [(1)H, (13)C] Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (2D NMR) spectroscopy. From (13)C-labeling experiments, 2D NMR provides information on the labeling of particular carbon positions, which contributes to the ...
Araújo Wagner L - - 2014
Plant metabolic pathways and the molecular and atomic fluxes through them can be deduced using stable isotopically labeled substrates. To this end one prerequisite is accurate measurement of the labeling pattern of targeted metabolites. Experiments are generally limited to the use of single-element isotopes, mainly (13)C. Here, we summarize the ...
Lane Katie - - 2014
Presently alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is the most widely used vegetarian LC3PUFA, but only marginal amounts are converted into eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); both of which are strongly related to human health. Currently, fish oils represent the most prominent dietary sources of EPA and DHA; however, these are unsuitable ...
Englund Ethan A - - 2014
Incorporating a cyclopentane ring into the two-carbon unit of a peptide nucleic acid backbone increases its binding affinity to complementary nucleic acid sequences. This approach is a general method to improve binding and can be applied at either purine or pyrimidine bases.
Xie Neng-Zhong - - 2014
cis,cis-Muconic acid (CCMA) is used as a platform chemical for the production of several high-value compounds. For this article, an optimization strategy has been used to optimize medium composition for CCMA production from fairly cheap benzoate by Pseudomonas sp. 1167. The effect of different concentrations of medium components on CCMA ...
Wilson F Perry FP Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, - - 2014
Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is an oncologic emergency triggered by the rapid release of intracellular material from lysing malignant cells. Most common in rapidly growing hematologic malignancies, TLS has been reported in virtually every cancer type. Central to its pathogenesis is the rapid accumulation of uric acid derived from the ...
Espay Alberto J AJ James J. and Joan A. Gardner Center for Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders, Department of Neurology, UC Neuroscience Institute, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Electrolyte and acid-base disturbances are common occurrences in daily clinical practice. Although these abnormalities can be readily ascertained from routine laboratory findings, only specific clinical correlates may attest as to their significance. Among a wide phenotypic spectrum, acute electrolyte and acid-base disturbances may affect the peripheral nervous system as arreflexic ...
Abu-Ouf Noran M - - 2014
Fish oil originates from fish tissue rich in omega-3 fatty acids. These include eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Healthy individuals are advised to consume foods rich in fish oil at least twice a week. However, such intake varies depending on cultural or personal preference, and socio-economic status. Many ...
Neverov Alexey D AD Federal Budget Institution of Science "Central Research Institute for Epidemiology", Moscow, Russia ; Department of Bioengineering and Bioinformatics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, - - 2014
Reassortments and point mutations are two major contributors to diversity of Influenza A virus; however, the link between these two processes is unclear. It has been suggested that reassortments provoke a temporary increase in the rate of amino acid changes as the viral proteins adapt to new genetic environment, but ...
Sanjoh Mai M Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental - - 2014
Phenylboronic acid (PBA) derivatives are known to form reversible complexes with polyols, including sugars. This unique chemistry has provided many useful molecular bases for analytical and therapeutic applications. This mini-review highlights some new aspects of related research efforts with a special focus on the interaction with sialic acid as a ...
Pohl Carolina H CH Department of Microbial, Biochemical and Food Biotechnology, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa. - - 2014
Oxylipins or oxidized fatty acids are a group of molecules found to play a role in signaling in many different cell types. These fatty acid derivatives have ancient evolutionary origins as signaling molecules and are ideal candidates for inter-kingdom communication. This review discusses examples of the ability of organisms from ...
van Vliet Danique - - 2014
Aminoacidopathies are a group of rare and diverse disorders, caused by the deficiency of an enzyme or transporter involved in amino acid metabolism. For most aminoacidopathies, dietary management is the mainstay of treatment. Such treatment includes severe natural protein restriction, combined with protein substitution with all amino acids except the ...
Saunders Eleanor C EC Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bio21 Institute of Molecular Science and Biotechnology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, - - 2014
Leishmania parasites alternate between extracellular promastigote stages in the insect vector and an obligate intracellular amastigote stage that proliferates within the phagolysosomal compartment of macrophages in the mammalian host. Most enzymes involved in Leishmania central carbon metabolism are constitutively expressed and stage-specific changes in energy metabolism remain poorly defined. Using ...
Nicolson Garth L - - 2014
responsible for cellular energy production, can result in the excess fatigue and other symptoms that are common complaints in almost every chronic disease. At the molecular level, a reduction in mitochondrial function occurs as a result of the following changes: (1) a loss of maintenance of the electrical and chemical ...
Janßen Helge Jans - - 2014
The idea of renewable and regenerative resources has inspired research for more than a hundred years. Ideally, the only spent energy will replenish itself, like plant material, sunlight, thermal energy or wind. Biodiesel or ethanol are examples, since their production relies mainly on plant material. However, it has become apparent ...
Nanjappa Deepak D Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, Naples 80121, Italy. - - 2014
Marine planktonic organisms, such as diatoms, are prospective sources of novel bioactive metabolites. Oxygenated derivatives of fatty acids, generally referred to as oxylipins, in diatoms comprise a highly diverse and complex family of secondary metabolites. These molecules have recently been implicated in several biological processes including intra- and inter-cellular signaling ...
Li Hong-Ye HY Key Laboratory of Eutrophication and Red Tide Prevention of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China. - - 2014
The role of diatoms as a source of bioactive compounds has been recently explored. Diatom cells store a high amount of fatty acids, especially certain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, many aspects of diatom metabolism and the production of PUFAs remain unclear. This review describes a number of technical strategies, ...
Mazard Sophie S Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, - - 2014
This protocol presents a method of dissecting the DNA or RNA of key organisms involved in a specific biochemical process within a complex ecosystem. Stable isotope probing (SIP) allows the labelling and separation of nucleic acids from community members that are involved in important biochemical transformations, yet are often not ...
Cramp Lucy J E LJ Organic Geochemistry Unit, School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, , Cantock's Close, Bristol BS8 1TS, UK, School of History, Archaeology and Religion, Cardiff University, , Humanities Building, Colum Drive, Cardiff CF10 3EU, UK, National Museums Scotland, , Chambers Street, Edinburgh EH1 1JF, - - 2014
The appearance of farming, from its inception in the Near East around 12 000 years ago, finally reached the northwestern extremes of Europe by the fourth millennium BC or shortly thereafter. Various models have been invoked to explain the Neolithization of northern Europe; however, resolving these different scenarios has proved ...
Hilleman Daniel E DE Department of Pharmacy Practice, Creighton University School of Pharmacy and Health Professions, Omaha, NE, - - 2014
The cardiovascular benefits of marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids are supported by epidemiologic and clinical studies. Both healthy patients and those with confirmed coronary heart disease are advised by the American Heart Association to consume omega-3 fatty acids either through dietary fatty fish or fish oil products. We present two case ...
Egea-Serrano Andrés A Department of Zoology and Physical Anthropology, University of Murcia, , Murcia 30100, Spain, Eawag, Department of Aquatic Ecology, and ETH-Zurich, Institute of Integrative Biology, , Ueberlandstrasse 133, Duebendorf 8600, Switzerland, Animal Ecology/Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, , Norbyvägen 18D, Uppsala 75236, - - 2014
Environmental change can simultaneously cause abiotic stress and alter biological communities, yet adaptation of natural populations to co-changing environmental factors is poorly understood. We studied adaptation to acid and predator stress in six moor frog (Rana arvalis) populations along an acidification gradient, where abundance of invertebrate predators increases with increasing ...
Murtaza Mian Anjum MA a Institute of Food Science and Nutrition , University of Sargodha , Sargodha , 40100 , - - 2014
Cheddar cheese is a biochemically dynamic product that undergoes significant changes during ripening. Freshly made curds of various cheese varieties have bland and largely similar flavors and aroma and, during ripening, flavoring compounds are produced that are characteristic of each variety. The biochemical changes occurring during ripening are grouped into ...
Ghose Nelima N DNGM Research Foundation, Kolkata, - - 2014
Chronic arsenic toxicity (Arsenicosis) due to drinking of arsenic contaminated ground water is a global problem. However, its treatment is unsatisfactory. Methylation of arsenic facilitates its urinary excretion. Persons with relatively lower proportion of urinary dimethyl arsenic acid (DMA) are found to have at greater risk of developing symptoms of ...
Abdallah Claude C Department of Anesthesiology, Children's National Medical Center, The George Washington University Medical Center, NW Washington, DC, - - 2014
Valproic acid (VPA) is one of the widely prescribed antiepileptic drugs in children with multiple indications. VPA-induced coagulopathy may occur and constitute a pharmacological and practical challenge affecting pre-operative evaluation and management of patients receiving VPA therapy. This review summarizes the different studies documenting the incidence, severity and available recommendations ...
Jiang Li L Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York - - 2014
Nucleic acid-based diagnostic techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are used extensively in medical diagnostics due to their high sensitivity, specificity and quantification capability. In settings with limited infrastructure and unreliable electricity, however, access to such devices is often limited due to the highly specialized and energy-intensive nature of ...
Hou Ting T School of Biological Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China ; Shanghai Center for Bioinformation Technology, Shanghai, China ; Key Laboratory of Systems Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, - - 2014
Lysine acetylation is a crucial type of protein post-translational modification, which is involved in many important cellular processes and serious diseases. However, identification of protein acetylated sites through traditional experiment methods is time-consuming and laborious. Those methods are not suitable to identify a large number of acetylated sites quickly. Therefore, ...
Liu Yi - - 2014
Cytochrome P450 OleTJE from Jeotgalicoccus sp. ATCC 8456, a new member of the CYP152 peroxygenase family, was recently found to catalyze the unusual decarboxylation of long-chain fatty acids to form α-alkenes using H2O2 as the sole electron and oxygen donor. Because aliphatic α-alkenes are important chemicals that can be used ...
Oh Taek-Joo TJ College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Republic of - - 2014
Variation of metabolic profiles in Cordyceps pruinosa mycelia cultivated under various media and light conditions was investigated using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with multivariate statistical analysis. A total of 71 metabolites were identified (5 alcohols, 21 amino acids, 15 organic acids, 4 ...
Royce Liam A LA Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, United States of - - 2014
Carboxylic acids are an attractive biorenewable chemical. Enormous progress has been made in engineering microbes for production of these compounds though titers remain lower than desired. Here we used transcriptome analysis of Escherichia coli during exogenous challenge with octanoic acid (C8) at pH 7.0 to probe mechanisms of toxicity. This ...
Harmrolfs Kirsten K Institute of Organic Chemistry and Center of Biomolecular Drug Research (BMWZ), Leibniz University Hannover, Schneiderberg 1b, 30167 Hannover, - - 2014
The preparation of alkyne-modified ansamitocins by mutasynthetic supplementation of Actinosynnema pretiosum mutants with alkyne-substituted aminobenzoic acids is described. This modification paved the way to introduce a thiol linker by Huisgen-type cycloaddition which can principally be utilized to create tumor targeting conjugates. In bioactivity tests, only those new ansamitocin derivatives showed ...
Dhillon M K - - 2014
A common method for analysis of 17 amino acids from various insect species and plant parts was standardized using HPLC-PDA. Prior to hydrolysis, lyophilization of test samples was found indispensible to remove excess moisture, which interferes in hydrolysis and separation of amino acids. After the hydrolysis of plant and insect ...
Shekiro Iii Joseph J National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 617 Cole Blvd, 80401 Golden, CO, USA. - - 2014
Dilute acid pretreatment is a promising process technology for the deconstruction of low-lignin lignocellulosic biomass, capable of producing high yields of hemicellulosic sugars and enhancing enzymatic yields of glucose as part of a biomass-to-biofuels process. However, while it has been extensively studied, most work has historically been conducted at relatively ...
Knorr Rudolf R Department Chemie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Butenandtstrasse 5-13 (Haus F), 81377 München, - - 2014
2-(Dichloromethylidene)-1,1,3,3-tetramethylindane was "hydrolyzed" by solid KOH in DMSO as the solvent at ≥100 °C through an initial chlorine particle transfer to give a Cl,K-carbenoid. This short-lived intermediate disclosed its occurrence through a reversible proton transfer which competed with an oxygen transfer from DMSO that created dimethyl sulfide. The presumably resultant ...
Semchyshyn Halyna M HM Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Vassyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, 57 Shevchenko Street, Ivano-Frankivsk 76025, - - 2014
Reactive carbonyls are widespread species in living organisms and mainly known for their damaging effects. The most abundant reactive carbonyl species (RCS) are derived from oxidation of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids. Chemical modification of proteins, nucleic acids, and aminophospholipids by RCS results in cytotoxicity and mutagenicity. In addition to ...
Fritsche Kevin L - - 2014
Should we listen to warnings that linoleic acid (LA) promotes inflammation and that Americans would be healthier if they restricted their intake of LA (i.e., vegetable oils)? A recently published systematic review of 15 clinical trials failed to find any support for the "diet LA causes inflammation hypothesis." These findings ...
Polzin Kenneth K Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of - - 2014
When inferring phylogenetic relationships, not all sites in a sequence alignment are equally informative. One recently proposed approach that takes advantage of this inequality relies on sites that contain amino acids whose replacement requires multiple substitutions. Identifying these so-called RGC_CAM substitutions (after Rare Genomic Changes as Conserved Amino acids-Multiple substitutions) ...
Nilsson Emeli M EM Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, Sutton Bonington Campus, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, United - - 2014
Adipose tissue (AT) is a dynamic and flexible organ with regulatory roles in physiological functions including metabolism, reproduction and inflammation; secreted adipokines, including leptin, and fatty acids facilitate many of these roles. The African elephant (Loxodonta africana) is experiencing serious challenges to optimal reproduction in captivity. The physiological and molecular ...
Chen Hongxia H Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products, CAF, National Engineering Lab for Biomass Chemical Utilization, Key and Open Laboratory of Forest Chemical Engineering, SFA, Jiangsu Province, Nanjing 210042, - - 2014
Lacquer wax is an important fatty resource obtained from the mesocarp of the berries of Toxicodendron vernicifluum. In order to expand the applications of lacquer wax, we hydrolyzed it after establishing the best conditions for the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis using a Box-Behnken design. Then we synthesized a quarternary ammonium gemini surfactant ...
Scott Joseph W JW Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, - - 2014
The hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus grows by fermenting peptides and carbohydrates to organic acids. In the terminal step, acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) isoenzymes convert acyl-CoA derivatives to the corresponding acid and conserve energy in the form of ATP. ACS1 and ACS2 were previously purified from P. furiosus and have α 2 ...
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