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Espinosa-Gonzalez Isabel I Biorefining Conversions and Fermentations Laboratory, Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, 4-10 Agriculture/Forestry Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2P5, - - 2014
The aim of this study was to evaluate the conversion of microalgal biomass to renewable chemicals and fuels through a two-step reaction and separation process. High density Chlorella protothecoides culture with 40% lipid accumulation (dwb) was produced in 10L bioreactors and hydrolyzed in batch stainless steel reactors under subcritical conditions. ...
Luna-Palencia Gabriela R - - 2014
Valproic acid (VPA) is extensively used as an anticonvulsive agent and as a treatment for other neurological disorders. It has been shown that VPA exerts an anti-proliferative effect on several types of cancer cells by inhibiting the activity of histone deacetylases (HDACs), which are involved in replication and differentiation processes. ...
Snelders Jeroen J Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Biochemistry & Leuven Food Science and Nutrition Research Centre (LFoRCe), KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, 3001 Leuven, - - 2014
To assess the potential of acetic and formic acid organosolv fractionation of wheat straw as basis of an integral biorefinery concept, detailed knowledge on yield, composition and purity of the obtained streams is needed. Therefore, the process was performed, all fractions extensively characterized and the mass balance studied. Cellulose pulp ...
Madan Raman K RK Beth Israel Medical Center, Mount Sinai Health System; Department of Dermatology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount - - 2014
Topical salicylic acid is often used in dermatologic conditions because of its keratolytic, bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and photoprotective properties. The bioavailability of salicylic acid differs depending on the vehicle used and pH of transcellular fluids. Although rare, salicylic acid toxicity (salicylism) can occur from topical application. Physicians should be mindful of ...
Seon Jiyun J The Institute of Cleaner Production, Pukyong National University, 365 Sinseon-ro, Nam-gu, Busan 608-739, Republic of Korea; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University, 63 Busandaehak-ro, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735, Republic of - - 2014
Alginate as biomass feedstock for bioconversion into volatile fatty acids (VFAs) is limited primarily by the low solubility in water or little utilization as microbial substrate and yet unknown about the microbial community structure for acidogenesis. The bacterial community structure was demonstrated the reflected changes in VFAs profiles in the ...
Lee Hyungjae H 1 Department of Food Engineering, Dankook University , Cheonan, - - 2014
Abstract With the increasing concern for health and nutrition, dietary fat has attracted considerable attention. The composition of fatty acids in a diet is important since they are associated with major diseases, such as cancers, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) requires the expression of ...
Ma Ruoshui R Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way, Richland, WA, 99354 - - 2014
The emerging biomass-to-biofuel conversion industry has created an urgent need for identifying new applications for biorefinery lignin. This paper demonstrates a new route to producing dicarboxylic acids from biorefinery lignin through chalcopyrite-catalyzed oxidation in a highly selective process. Up to 95 % selectivity towards stable dicarboxylic acids was obtained for several ...
Zhao Yingjie Y Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Geneva , Geneva, - - 2014
The introduction of new noncovalent interactions to build functional systems is of fundamental importance. We here report experimental and theoretical evidence that anion-π interactions can contribute to catalysis. The Kemp elimination is used as a classical tool to discover conceptually innovative catalysts for reactions with anionic transition states. For anion-π ...
Jirošová Anna A Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Flemingovo n. 2, 166 10 Prague (Czech - - 2014
In 1974, (E)-1-nitropentadec-1-ene, a strong lipophilic contact poison of soldiers of the termite genus Prorhinotermes, was the first-described insect-produced nitro compound. However, its biosynthesis remained unknown. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that (E)-1-nitropentadec-1-ene biosynthesis originates with condensation of amino acids with tetradecanoic acid. By using in vivo ...
Nakatani Akihiro - - 2014
A manganese-mediated dehydrogenative direct alkylation of 2-pyridones with diethyl malonates has been developed. A similar reaction system is applicable to the direct arylation with arylboronic acids. These manganese-based reactions occur regioselectively at the C3 position of the 2-pyridones. The observed high C3-regioselectivity can complement precedented C-H functionalization protocols of the ...
Crisóstomo Fernando Pinacho FP Instituto de Productos Naturales y Agrobiología, CSIC, Francisco Sánchez, 3, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife - - 2014
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) has been used as a radical initiator in a metal-free direct CH arylation of (hetero)arenes. Starting from an aniline, the corresponding arenediazonium ion is generated in situ and immediately reduced by vitamin C to an aryl radical that undergoes a homolytic aromatic substitution with a (hetero)arene. ...
Schulthess Bettina B Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Zurich, Zurich, - - 2014
Reported MALDI-TOF MS identification rates of Gram-positive rods (GPR) are low compared to identification rates of Gram-positive cocci. In this study, three sample preparation methods were compared for MALDI-TOF MS identification of 190 well-characterized GPR strains: direct transfer, direct transfer-formic acid preparation, and ethanol-formic acid extraction. Using the interpretation criteria ...
Feng Zhang Z Key Laboratory of Organofluorine Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 345 Lingling Lu, Shanghai 200032 - - 2014
The palladium-catalyzed difluoroalkylation of aryl boronic acids with bromodifluoromethylphosphonate, bromodifluoroacetate, and further derivatives has been developed. This method provides a facile and useful access to a series of functionalized difluoromethylated arenes (ArCF2 PO(OEt)2 , ArCF2 CO2 Et, and ArCF2 CONR(1) R(2) ) that have important applications in drug discovery and ...
Bradley Christina J CJ Department of Oceanography, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of - - 2014
Compound specific isotopic analysis (CSIA) of amino acids has received increasing attention in ecological studies in recent years due to its ability to evaluate trophic positions and elucidate baseline nutrient sources. However, the incorporation rates of individual amino acids into protein and specific trophic discrimination factors (TDFs) are largely unknown, ...
Li Bi-Qing BQ Key Laboratory of Systems Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, P. R. - - 2014
Aptamers are oligonucleic acid or peptide molecules that bind to specific target molecules. As a novel and powerful class of ligands, aptamers are thought to have excellent potential for applications in the fields of biosensing, diagnostics and therapeutics. In this study, a new method for predicting aptamer-target interacting pairs was ...
Yang Yuanfa Y Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Advanced Catalysis Materials, Zhejiang Normal University, 688 Yingbin Road, Jinhua 321004, China. - - 2014
An unprecedented Pd-catalyzed trans-addition of boronic acids to ynamides has been reported, giving α,β-disubstituted enamides in high yields with excellent regio- and stereoselectivity. A possible mechanism involving the palladium carbene intermediate has been proposed to account for the unusual trans-addition.
Prasad Manish M 1Department of Paediatric Neurology and Neurodisability, Dewsbury Hospital, Wakefield, United - - 2014
Late-onset glutaric aciduria type II has been described recently as a rare but treatable cause of proximal myopathy in teenagers and adults. It is an autosomal recessive disease affecting fatty acid, amino acid, and choline metabolism. This is usually a result of 2 defective flavoproteins: either electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) ...
Petrie James R JR CSIRO Food Futures National Research Flagship, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, - - 2014
Omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DHA) are critical for human health and development. Numerous studies have indicated that deficiencies in these fatty acids can increase the risk or severity of cardiovascular, inflammatory and other diseases or disorders. EPA and ...
Morrison Michael J MJ Departments of Chemistry and Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology , 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, United - - 2014
Prokaryote-specific sugars, including N,N'-diacetylbacillosamine (diNAcBac) and pseudaminic acid, have experienced a renaissance in the past decade because of their discovery in glycans related to microbial pathogenicity. DiNAcBac is found at the reducing end of oligosaccharides of N- and O-linked bacterial protein glycosylation pathways of Gram-negative pathogens, including Campylobacter jejuni and ...
Grininger Martin M Institute of Organic Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Cluster of Excellence for Macromolecular Complexes, Goethe University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Str. 15, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
Recently, atomic models of the mammalian, fungal and the bacterial fatty acid synthases type I (FAS I) were reported. Now, a wealth of functional data, collected during the last decades, can be embedded into structural frames. But there is more, which remains to be done! Our current considerations are implicitly ...
Xu Zhifeng - - 2014
Boronic acid affinity gels are important for effective separation of biological active cis-diols, and are finding applications both in biotech industry and in biomedical research areas. To increase the efficacy of boronate affinity separation, it is interesting to introduce repeating boronic acid units in flexible polymer chains attached on solid ...
Tilborg Anaëlle A Unité de Chimie Physique Théorique et Structurale, Dept. Chemistry, University of Namur, 61, Rue de Bruxelles, B-5000 Namur, Belgium. Electronic address: - - 2014
Salification of new drug substances in order to improve physico-chemical or solid-state properties (e.g. dissolution rate or solubility, appropriate workup process, storage for further industrial and marketing development) is a well-accepted procedure. Amino acids, like aspartic acid, lysine or arginine take a great part in this process and are implicated ...
Bohlke Nina N Chemistry, TU Berlin, Mueller-Breslau-Straße 10, Berlin, - - 2014
One of the major challenges in contemporary synthetic biology is to find a route to engineer synthetic organisms with altered chemical constitution. In terms of core reaction types, nature uses an astonishingly limited repertoire of chemistries when compared with the exceptionally rich and diverse methods of organic chemistry. In this ...
Xu Lubin L College of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Qingdao Agricultural University , Qingdao 266109, - - 2014
The catalyst-free sp(3) C-H functionalization of 2-alkylazaarenes has been achieved in the reaction with (thio)coumarin-3-carboxylic acids. Followed by a tandem decarboxylation, this method provides facile synthesis of biologically important azaarene-substituted 3,4-dihydro(thio)coumarins in a single step in high yields.
Unsworth William Paul - - 2014
Imines and carboxylic acids have been directly coupled using propylphosphonic acid anhydride and NEt(i-Pr)2 to give N acyliminium ions which were intramolecularly trapped with oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon nucleophiles to provide a wide range of structurally diverse heterocycles.
Kennedy Allyson E AE Department of Biology, Virginia Commonwealth University, 1000 West Cary Street, Richmond, - - 2014
Xenopus has become a useful tool to study the molecular mechanisms underlying orofacial development. However, few quantitative analyses exist to describe the anatomy of this region. In this study we combine traditional facial measurements with geometric morphometrics to describe anatomical changes in the orofacial region during normal and abnormal development. ...
Ho Shih-Hsin SH Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan; Organization of Advanced Science and Technology, Kobe University, Kobe, - - 2014
The optimal conditions for cultivating the thermotolerant lipid-rich microalga Desmodesmus sp. F2 to achieve maximal lipid productivity were determined in this study. The conditions were light intensity, 700μmol/m(2)s; temperature, 35°C; cultivation nitrogen source, nitrate; initial nitrogen level, 6.6mM nitrogen. Carbon dioxide (2.5%, 0.2 vvm) was pumped into the cultures continuously. ...
Manley David W - - 2014
Photochemical reactions employing TiO2 and carboxylic acids, under dry anaerobic conditions, led to several types of C-C bond forming processes with electron deficient alkenes. The efficiency of alkylation varied appreciably with substituents in the carboxylic acids. The reactions of aryloxyacetic acids with maleimides resulted in a cascade process in which ...
Su Jing J College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Xianyang, Shannxi, 712100, - - 2014
In an era of economic globalization, the competition among wine businesses is likely to get tougher. Biotechnological innovation permeates the entire world and intensifies the severity of the competition of the wine industry. Moreover, modern consumers preferred individualized, tailored, and healthy and top quality wine products. Consequently, these two facts ...
Wang Huai-Chun HC Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4R2, - - 2014
Standard protein phylogenetic models use fixed rate matrices of amino acid interchange derived from analyses of large databases. Differences between the stationary amino acid frequencies of these rate matrices from those of a dataset of interest are typically adjusted for by matrix multiplication that converts the empirical rate matrix to ...
Kong Kien Voon KV Singapore Bioimaging Consortium, Agency for Science, Technology, and Research, - - 2014
In this work, we propose a novel glucose binding mechanism on a highly sensitive SERS substrate, in order to overcome challenges in specific glucose detection in bio-fluids. We make use of phenylboronic acid as a receptor for saccharide capture onto the substrate and the ability of the captured glucose molecule ...
Walsh Robert G - - 2014
Compound-specific stable isotope analysis of amino acids has proven informative to many ecological systems, but only a handful of analytical methods are routinely employed. We evaluated a simple, rapid procedure in which biological samples undergo short-duration acid hydrolysis and the resulting amino acids are derivatized with methyl chloroformate for gas ...
Pencharz P P Department of Gastroenterology, Nutrition and Hepatology, University of Toronto, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, - - 2014
Pregnancy and the first two years of life are periods of rapid growth and yet the knowledge of requirements for protein and dietary indispensable amino acids is very limited. The development of carbon oxidation methods opens the way to studies that should fill these important gaps in knowledge.European Journal of ...
Gao Li L Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, the Chinese Academy of Agricultural - - 2014
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes an economically significant disease of chickens worldwide. The emergence of very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) has brought more challenges for effective prevention of this disease. The molecular basis for the virulence of vvIBDV is not fully understood. In this study, twenty IBDV strains were phylogenically ...
Lundberg Helena H Department of Organic Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden. hans.adolfsson@su.se - - 2014
The amide functionality is found in a wide variety of biological and synthetic structures such as proteins, polymers, pesticides and pharmaceuticals. Due to the fact that synthetic amides are still mainly produced by the aid of coupling reagents with poor atom-economy, the direct catalytic formation of amides from carboxylic acids ...
Guo Daoyi D Key Laboratory of Combinatorial Biosynthesis and Drug Discovery, Ministry of Education, and Wuhan University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China; Hubei Engineering Laboratory for Synthetic Microbiology, Wuhan Institute of Biotechnology, Wuhan 430075, - - 2014
Fatty acid short-chain esters (FASEs) are biodiesels that are renewable, nontoxic, and biodegradable biofuels. A novel approach for the biosynthesis of FASEs has been developed using metabolically-engineered E. coli through combination of the fatty acid and 2-keto acid pathways. Several genetic engineering strategies were also developed to increase fatty acyl-CoA ...
Li Zhenqing Z Engineering Research Center of Optical Instrument and System, Ministry of Education, Shanghai Key Lab of Modern Optical System, Univesity of Shanghai for Science and Technology, No. 516 Jungong Road, Shanghai 200093, China; Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Consolidated Research Institute for Advanced Science and Medical Care (ASMeW), Waseda University, 513 Wasedatsurumaki-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-0041, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
We have presented a study focused on the migration pattern of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and RNA under pulsed field conditions. By calculating the dependence of nucleic acid mobility on its molecular size in a double logarithm plot, we found that (I) dsDNA molecules proceeded by a sigmoidal migration regime which ...
Pagani Ariana P AP Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, and Instituto de Química Rosario (IQUIR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Suipacha 531, Rosario S2002LRK, - - 2014
In the present work, we describe the determination of salicylic acid and its major metabolite, salicyluric acid, in spiked human urine samples, using synchronous fluorescence spectra measured in a flow-injection system with a double pH gradient. Because the fluorescent urine background constitutes a potentially interfering signal, it becomes necessary to ...
Tai Chao C Department of Biological Systems Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, 68583, - - 2014
Pretreatment of corn stover with dilute sulfuric acid at moderate temperature was investigated, and glucan digestibility by Cellic CTec2 and Celluclast on the pretreated biomass was compared. Pretreatments were carried out from 60 to 180 min at the temperature from 105 to 135 °C, with acid concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 2 % ...
Yasu Yusuke Y Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology , 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503, - - 2014
Trifluoromethylative lactonization of both terminal and internal alkenoic acids by photoredox catalysis has been developed. The use of a Ru photocatalyst and Umemoto's reagent as a CF3 source is key in the present carbolactonization. This is the first example of a highly endo- and diastereoselective synthesis of CF3-substituted five-, six-, ...
Xie Jianfei - - 2014
Methyl parathion hydrolase (MPH) is an important enzyme in hydrolyzing toxic organophosphorus (OP) compounds. However, MPH is easily deactivated when subjected to extreme environmental conditions and is difficult to recover from the reaction system for reuse, thereby limiting its practical application. To address these shortcomings, we examined the entrapment of ...
Zhou Jingjing - - 2014
Hyperuricemia appeared to be a common symptom in IgA nephropathy (IgAN), even in those with normal eGFR. IgAN was characterized by variation of pathological features, especially variable tubulointerstitial lesions. Since tubular reabsorption and excretion appeared to be more important in determination of plasma uric acid levels in persons without obvious ...
Cao Yi-Ming YM Key Laboratory of Preclinical Study for New Drugs of Gansu Province, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000 - - 2014
α-Amino phosphonic acid derivatives are considered to be the most important structural analogues of α-amino acids and have a very wide range of applications. However, approaches for the catalytic asymmetric synthesis of such useful compounds are very limited. In this work, simple, efficient, and versatile organocatalytic asymmetric 1,2-addition reactions of ...
Chavarro Jorge E JE Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2014
Is intake of fatty acids related to semen quality among young men? The intake of trans fatty acids is inversely related to total sperm count in healthy young men. Spain has seen an increase in the proportion of calories consumed as fat over the same period that a downward trend ...
Knuf Christoph C Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Kemivägen 10, 412 96, Gothenburg, - - 2014
Malic acid is a C4 dicarboxylic acid that is currently mainly used in the food and beverages industry as an acidulant. Because of the versatility of the group of C4 dicarboxylic acids, the chemical industry has a growing interest in this chemical compound. As malic acid will be considered as ...
Terashima Yoshihiro Y Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toyama, Toyama City, - - 2014
We have previously conducted a cohort study to investigate n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in red blood cells (RBCs) and risk of all-cause mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients over 5 years and found that n-3 PUFAs, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), might be an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. In the ...
Schneewind Olaf O Howard Taylor Ricketts Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois, USA and Department of Microbiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, - - 2014
Lipoteichoic acids (LTA) are polymers of alternating units of a polyhydroxy alkane, including glycerol and ribitol, and phosphoric acid, joined to form phosphodiester units that are found in the envelope of Gram-positive bacteria. Here we review four different types of LTA that can be distinguished on the basis of their ...
Gu Xiangying - - 2014
A new strategy for diversity-oriented direct glycosylation of bioactive small molecules was developed. This reaction features (-)-β-pinene as acid scavenger and work with glycosyl iodides under mild conditions. With the aid of RP-HPLC and chiral SFC separation techniques, the new direct glycosylation proved effective at gram scale on bioactive small ...
Gauss Dominik D Sigma-Aldrich GmbH, Industriestrasse 25, 9471 Buchs, - - 2014
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphates are important intermediates of many central metabolic pathways in a large number of living organisms. d-Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (d-GAP) is a key intermediate during glycolysis and can as well be found in a variety of other metabolic pathways. The opposite enantiomer, l-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (l-GAP), has been found in a ...
Sleiman Mazen Haj MH Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, UK. - - 2014
We report the synthesis of squaraine dyes under mild conditions by carbodiimide activation of squaric acid or semi-squaraine dyes. Despite low yields when the reaction was carried out in solution, these conditions were successfully applied to efficient peptide labelling on resin and nucleic acid sensing in solution.
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