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Lou Liping - - 2011
Acid treatment is a routine demineralization process to obtain black carbon (BC), but there has been little systematic research about its influence on BC's characteristics. In this study, elemental analysis, SEM, FTIR, and Boehm titration were used to investigate that effect. Our results showed that the acid treatment had little ...
Roberts James M - - 2011
We measured isocyanic acid (HNCO) in laboratory biomass fires at levels up to 600 parts per billion by volume (ppbv), demonstrating that it has a significant source from pyrolysis/combustion of biomass. We also measured HNCO at mixing ratios up to 200 pptv (parts-per-trillion by volume) in ambient air in urban ...
Harding A P - - 2011
The prediction of pK(a) from a single ab initio bond length has been extended to provide equations for benzoic acids and anilines. The HF/6-31G(d) level of theory is used for all geometry optimisations. Similarly to phenols (Part 2 of this series of publications), the meta-/para-substituted benzoic acids can be predicted ...
Thierry Anne - - 2011
Dairy propionibacteria are Actinobacteria, mainly isolated from dairy environments. Propionibacterium freudenreichii has been used for a long time as a ripening culture in Swiss-type cheese manufacture, and is more and more considered for its potent probiotic effects. This review summarises the knowledge on the main P. freudenreichii pathways and the ...
Betz Richard - - 2011
The title compound, C(7)H(4)ClFO(2), is a twofold halogenated derivative of benzoic acid. The C-C-C angles within the aromatic moiety cover a range 116.11 (14)-123.96 (15)°, with the maximum and the minimum value next to each other. In the crystal, O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds form carb-oxy-lic acid dimers, which are further connected by C-H⋯F ...
Ramachandran Kasirajan - - 2011
Al(HSO(4))(3) heterogeneous acid catalyst was prepared by the sulfonation of anhydrous AlCl(3). This catalyst was employed to catalyze transesterification reaction to synthesis methyl ester when a mixed waste vegetable oil was used as feedstock. The physical and chemical properties of aluminum hydrogen sulphate catalyst were characterized by scanning electron microscopy ...
Bradbury Joanne - - 2011
Modern humans have evolved with a staple source of preformed docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the diet. An important turning point in human evolution was the discovery of high-quality, easily digested nutrients from coastal seafood and inland freshwater sources. Multi-generational exploitation of seafood by shore-based dwellers coincided with the rapid expansion ...
Iliev Ivan - - 2011
Fatty acids of twelve species of cyanobacteria grown under different photoautotrophic conditions were studied and their composition was compared with literature data of many other species. We have come to the conclusion that the lipids of cyanobacteria do not contain fatty acids with a chain longer than 18 carbon atoms. ...
Fleury Beatriz Grosso - - 2011
The distribution of fatty acids in 13 species of macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Ochrophyta and Rhodophyta) and 1 seagrass (Spartina sp), collected on the Rio de Janeiro state coast was determined. The results were evaluated in search of correlations between the taxonomic and phylogenetic position of these macrophytes. Statistical analyses showed the ...
Sepe Paul S - - 2011
Fatty liver is associated with obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and the metabolic syndrome. The pathophysiology of fatty pancreas is poorly understood, but it may be closely related to fatty liver. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of fatty pancreas and risk factors associated with its development. Prospective, ...
Shinde S S - - 2011
The photocatalytic decomposition of eco-persistent toluene, salicylic acid and 4-chlorophenol with sun light in an oxygenated aqueous suspension has been studied under nanocrystalline hexagonal ZnO photocatalyst. The effect of substrate temperature onto the structural, morphological and photoactive properties has been investigated. The degradation of toluene, salicylic acid and 4-chlorophenol were ...
Venter G J - - 2011
The efficacy of a 15% (w/w) mixture of octanoic, nonanoic and decanoic acids in light mineral oil to repel Culicoides biting midges (Diptera; Ceratopogonidae) was determined in three replicates of a 4×4 Latin square design under South African field conditions. The fatty acids were applied to ±0.07m(2) polyester meshes with ...
Yu Hai H Department of Chemistry, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, United - - 2011
Naturally occurring 8-O-methylated sialic acids, including 8-O-methyl-N-acetylneuraminic acid and 8-O-methyl-N-glycolylneuraminic acid, along with 8-O-methyl-2-keto-3-deoxy-d-glycero-d-galacto-nonulosonic acid (Kdn8Me) and 8-deoxy-Kdn were synthesized from corresponding 5-O-modified six-carbon monosaccharides and pyruvate using a sialic acid aldolase cloned from Pasteurella multocida strain P-1059 (PmNanA). In addition, α2-3- and α2-6-linked sialyltrisaccharides containing Neu5Ac8Me and Kdn8Deoxy were ...
Hayat Akhtar - - 2011
In this work, an electrochemical method based on the diazonium-coupling reaction mechanism for the immobilization of okadaic acid (OA) on screen printed carbon electrode was developed. At first, 4-carboxyphenyl film was grafted by electrochemical reduction of 4-carboxyphenyl diazonium salt, followed by terminal carboxylic group activation by N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS), N-(3-dimethylaminopropyle)-N'-ethyle-carbodiimide hydrochloride ...
Ozel Rıfat Emrah RE Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Science, Potsdam, NY 13699-5810, - - 2011
We report the development of a chitosan modified carbon fiber microelectrode for in vivo detection of serotonin. We find that chitosan has the ability to reject physiological levels of ascorbic acid interferences and facilitate selective and sensitive detection of in vivo levels of serotonin, a common catecholamine neurotransmitter. Presence of ...
Priya Balakrishnan - - 2011
Ten different strains of marine cyanobacteria were tested for their ability to decolourise and degrade a recalcitrant diazo dye, C.I. Acid Black 1. Of them, Oscillatoria curvicepsBDU92191 was able to grow up to a tested concentration of 500mGL(-1). The organism degraded 84% of the dye at 100mGL(-1) in 8days in ...
Lin Ying-Chin - - 2011
BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY: Ultrasound assessment of the severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) shows substantial observer variability. The purpose of this retrospective study is to develop a more objective, quantitative, and applicable assessment method for all physicians. Male gender, and increases in age, body mass index, ...
Fufina T Yu - - 2011
Histidine M182 in the reaction center (RC) of Rhodobacter sphaeroides serves as the fifth ligand of the bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) B(B) Mg atom. When this His is substituted by an amino acid that is not able to coordinate Mg, bacteriopheophytin appears in the B(B) binding site instead of BChl (Katilius, E., ...
Oishi Toshiyuki T Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine Department of Laboratory, Yamaguchi University Hospital, Ube, Yamaguchi, - - 2011
  This study investigated whether splenectomy is of significance in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).   Five-week-old Wistar rats were fed a choline-deficient diet for 8 weeks to create a NASH model. A sham-operation or splenectomy was then performed, and rats were killed 4 weeks later.   Liver fibrosis and liver preneoplastic lesions were ...
Yuzbashev Tigran V - - 2011
Bio-based succinate is still a matter of special emphasis in biotechnology and adjacent research areas. The vast majority of natural and engineered producers are bacterial strains that accumulate succinate under anaerobic conditions. Recently, we succeeded in obtaining an aerobic yeast strain capable of producing succinic acid at low pH. Herein, ...
Grant Chris - - 2011
The alkane-1-monoxygenase (alkB) complex of Pseudomonas putida GPo1 has been extensively studied in the past and shown to be capable of oxidising aliphatic C(5)-C(12) alkanes to primary alcohols both in the wild-type organism by growth on C(5)-C(12) alkanes as sole carbon source and in vitro. Despite this, successful n-dodecane oxidation ...
Ikeda Kazutaka - - 2011
Fatty liver is one of the typical manifestations in homocysteinemia/homocystinuria patients and their genetic animal model, mice lacking cystathionine β-synthase (Cbs (-/-)). The vast majority of Cbs (-/-) die within 4 weeks after birth via yet unknown mechanisms, whereas a small portion survive to adulthood, escaping fatty degeneration of the liver ...
Gou Shaohua - - 2011
New amino acid-based modular chiral ligands were readily synthesized and used to catalyze the asymmetric conjugate addition of Et(2) Zn to various cyclic enones in the presence of a variety of copper sources. Moderately high ee of up to 72% were obtained using ligand (S)-1e under mild conditions. Chirality 2011. ...
Shah Aaliya - - 2011
This report summarizes the effect of methanol, glycerol and polyol (PEG) on the acid induced state of goat liver cystatin by various spectroscopic techniques. Native goat liver cystatin (LC) has a fluorescence maximum at 340 nm, whereas the acid induced state shows a red shift of 15 nm with enhanced fluorescence intensity. ...
Cronin Annette - - 2011
Hepoxilins are lipid signaling molecules derived from arachidonic acid through the 12-lipoxygenase pathway. These trans-epoxy hydroxy eicosanoids play a role in a variety of physiological processes, including inflammation, neurotransmission, and formation of skin barrier function. Mammalian hepoxilin hydrolase, partly purified from rat liver, has earlier been reported to degrade hepoxilins ...
Chu Kedan - - 2011
The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of Lepidium apetalum seed oil and its anti-oxidant activity were studied. The SFE process was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite design (CCD). Independent variables, namely operating pressure, temperature, time and flow rate were evaluated. The maximum extraction of Lepidium apetalum ...
Hylden Anne T - - 2011
The one-pot cyclization of 5-hexynoic acid to produce 3-alkoxy-2-cyclohexenones proceeds in good yields (58-90%). 3-Hexynoic acid was converted to its acyl chloride with the aid of oxalyl chloride and was cyclized to 3-chloro-2-cyclohexenone upon addition of indium(III) chloride. Subsequent addition of alcohol nucleophiles led to the desired 3-alkoxy-2-cyclohexenones.
Salimon Jumat - - 2011
For environmental reasons, a new class of environmentally acceptable and renewable biolubricant based on vegetable oils is available. In this study, oxirane ring opening reaction of monoepoxide linoleic acid (MEOA) was done by nucleophilic addition of oleic acid (OA) with using p-toluene sulfonic acid (PTSA) as a catalyst for synthesis ...
Wang Yuefei - - 2011
Seeds are another product in addition to leaves (raw materials for teas) of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plant. The great increase of tea consumption in recent years raises the challenge of finding commercial applications for tea seeds. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) extraction edible oil from tea ...
Zhang Yingwei - - 2011
In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time that poly(m-phenylenediamine) (PMPD) nanospheres and nanorods can be selectively synthesized via chemical oxidation polymerization of m-phenylenediamine (MPD) monomers using ammonium persulfate (APS) as an oxidant at room temperature. It suggests that the pH value plays a critical role in controlling the ...
Jing Fuyuan - - 2011
Acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases (acyl-ACP TEs) catalyze the hydrolysis of the thioester bond that links the acyl chain to the sulfhydryl group of the phosphopantetheine prosthetic group of ACP. This reaction terminates acyl chain elongation of fatty acid biosynthesis, and in plant seeds it is the biochemical determinant of the ...
Fink Patrick - - 2011
Recent studies have indicated that nitrogen availability can be an important determinant of primary production in freshwater lakes and that herbivore growth can be limited by low dietary nitrogen availability. Furthermore, a lack of specific essential nitrogenous biochemicals (such as essential amino acids) might be another important constraint on the ...
Elemo Babajide O BO Biochemistry Department, Lagos State University, Lagos, Nigeria. - - 2011
The chemical properties of the African palm weevil, Rhychophorus phoenicis (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), larvae were evaluated using standard methodology. The chloroform-methanol extract yielded 37.12% on a dry basis. The oil was liquid at room temperature with a flash point of 36.0 °C. Analysis of the physical constants indicated values of ...
Yoochatchaval W - - 2011
The biodegradation characteristics of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and the related microbial community were studied in both actual sequential anaerobic ponds in Malaysia and enrichment cultures. The significant degradation of the POME was observed in the second pond, in which the temperature was 35-37 °C. In this pond, biodegradation ...
Li Haimei - - 2011
The paper surveyed the chemical composition and nitrogen distribution of Maiwa yak milk, and compared the results with reference composition of cow milk. Compared to cow milk, yak milk was richer in protein (especially whey protein), essential amino acids, fat, lactose and minerals (except phosphorus). The contents of some nutrients ...
Koivukorpi Juha - - 2011
The reaction of 3-aminopropylamide of cholic acid with CS(2) produced a bile acid derivative of dithiocarbamic acid which further formed an ammonium salt with another molecule of 3-aminopropylamide of cholic acid. The cationic 3-ammonium propylamide of cholic acid did not react further with CS(2) and the formed salt was stable ...
Dejoye Céline - - 2011
Extraction yields and fatty acid profiles from freeze-dried Chlorella vulgaris by microwave pretreatment followed by supercritical carbon dioxide (MW-SCCO(2)) extraction were compared with those obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction alone (SCCO(2)). Work performed with pressure range of 20-28 Mpa and temperature interval of 40-70 °C, gave the highest extraction ...
Hayashi Hiroto - - 2011
Novel poly(ester-urethane)s were prepared by a synthetic route using a lipase that avoids the use of hazardous diisocyanate. The urethane linkage was formed by the reaction of phenyl carbonate with amino acids and amino alcohols that produced urethane-containing diacids and hydroxy acids, respectively. The urethane diacid underwent polymerization with polyethylene ...
Prasek Jan - - 2011
The first aim of this study was to fabricate vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). MWCNTs were successfully prepared by using plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. Further, three carbon composite electrodes with different content of carbon particles with various shapes and sizes were prepared and tested on measuring of nucleic ...
Gregory Melissa K - - 2011
Δ6-Desaturase (Fads2) is widely regarded as rate-limiting in the conversion of dietary α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3; ALA) to the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA). However, increasing dietary ALA or the direct Fads2 product, stearidonic acid (18:4n-3; SDA), increases tissue levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; EPA) and docosapentaenoic ...
Palanisamy Uma Devi - - 2011
Ostrich oil has been used extensively in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. However, rancidity causes undesirable chemical changes in flavour, colour, odour and nutritional value. Bleaching is an important process in refining ostrich oil. Bleaching refers to the removal of certain minor constituents (colour pigments, free fatty acid, peroxides, odour ...
Curreem Shirly O - - 2011
Laribacter hongkongensis is associated with community-acquired gastroenteritis and traveler's diarrhea. In this study, we performed an in-depth annotation of the genes and pathways of the general metabolism of L. hongkongensis and correlated them with its phenotypic characteristics. The L. hongkongensis genome possesses the pentose phosphate and gluconeogenesis pathways and tricarboxylic ...
Kagaya Shigehiro - - 2011
The extraction of cobalt(II) from solutions containing various concentrations of lithium chloride, hydrochloric acid, and mixtures of lithium chloride plus hydrochloric acid is reported using a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-based polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) containing 40% (w/w) Aliquat 336 as a carrier. The extraction from lithium chloride solutions and mixtures with ...
Yuan Cheng - - 2011
Biodiesel is considered to be a promising future substitute for fossil fuels, and microalgae are one source of biodiesel. The ratios of lipid, carbohydrates and proteins are different in different microalgal species, and finding a good strain for oil production remains a difficult prospect. Strains producing valuable co-products would improve ...
Sahana Animesh - - 2011
A new reagent has been synthesized by coupling anthracene moiety to L-leucine. The reagent is characterized by different analytical techniques. It is capable for easy identification of various amino acids on thin-layer chromatography plates by developing distinguishable colors (detection limit between 0.1-0.5 μg at cold condition and 0.1-0.4 μg after ...
Jawara Musa - - 2011
Odour baited traps have potential use in population surveillance of insect vectors of disease, and in some cases for vector population reduction. Established attractants for human host-seeking mosquitoes include a combination of CO(2) with L-lactic acid and ammonia, on top of which additional candidate compounds are being tested. In this ...
Dickschat Jeroen S - - 2011
The volatiles released by Micromonospora aurantiaca were collected by means of a closed-loop stripping apparatus (CLSA) and analysed by GC-MS. The headspace extracts contained more than 90 compounds from different classes. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) comprised the major compound class including saturated unbranched, monomethyl and dimethyl branched FAMEs in ...
Szwajgier Dominik - - 2011
Background. Phenolic acids were repeatedly pointed out as powerful antioxidants. The studies in the past prove the differences in the phenolic acids content in malts and worts. In this work, the influence of wort boiling and whirlpool separation on the phenolic acid content was studied. Material and methods. Worts were ...
Nagasawa Hiromichi - - 2011
Crustaceans have hard cuticle with layered structure, which is composed mainly of chitin, proteins, and calcium carbonate. Crustaceans grow by shedding the old cuticle and replacing it with a new one. Decalcification in the cuticle during the pre-molt stage and concomitant calcification in the stomach to form gastroliths observed in ...
Kudo Naomi - - 2011
Alterations by perfluorinated fatty acids (PFCAs) with a chain length of 6-9 carbons in the fatty acid profile of hepatic lipids of mice were investigated. The characteristic changes caused by all the PFCAs examined were increases in the contents and proportions of oleic acid (18 : 1), palmitoleic acid (16 ...
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