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Results 351 - 400 of 1683
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Lu Yulin - - 2008
Maleic acid-catalyzed hemicellulose hydrolysis reaction in corn stover was analyzed by kinetic modeling. Kinetic constants for Saeman and biphasic hydrolysis models were analyzed by an Arrhenius-type expansion which include activation energy and catalyst concentration factors. The activation energy for hemicellulose hydrolysis by maleic acid was determined to be 83.3 +/- ...
Souza Marcella S - - 2009
The objective of this work was to study the synthesis of ethyl esters via esterification of soybean oil deodorizer distillate with ethanol, using solid acid catalysts and commercial immobilized lipases, in a solvent-free system. Three commercially immobilized lipases were used, namely, Lipozyme RM-IM, Lipozyme TL-IM, and Novozym 435, all from ...
Pournamdari Mostafa - - 2009
A method was developed for the analysis of amino acids within bovine serum albumin (BSA) which had been modified by reaction with different enals. BSA was reacted with the aldehydes and the reaction products were stabilised by reaction with NaBH(4). The protein was then hydrolysed with 6N HCl and the ...
Lee Jong Ho - - 2008
In this study, the enzymatic process for biodiesel production was optimized using a mixture of immobilized Rhizopus oryzae and Candida rugosa lipases. The optimal temperature and agitation speed for biodiesel production were 45oC and 300 rpm, respectively. The optimal ratio of R. oryzae and C. rugosa lipases in the mixture ...
Duarte Luís C - - 2009
The dilute acid posthydrolysis of wheat straw hemicellulosic oligosaccharides obtained by autohydrolysis was evaluated. An empirical model was used to describe the effect of catalyst concentration (sulfuric acid, 0.1-4% w/w) and reaction time (0-60 min) based on data from a Doehlert experimental design. Catalyst concentration is the main variable influencing ...
Onel Lavinia - - 2008
A recent report on an intense CO 2 and CO evolution in the Briggs-Rauscher (BR) reaction revealed that iodination of malonic acid (MA) is not the only important organic reaction in the classical BR oscillator. To disclose the source of the gas evolution, iodomalonic (IMA) and diiodomalonic (I2MA) acids were ...
Lee On-Yi - - 2008
A new strategy has been developed for reductive amination of aldehydes and ketones with the InCl3/Et3SiH/MeOH system, which is a nontoxic system with highly chemoselective and nonwater sensitive properties. The methodology can be applied to a variety of cyclic, acyclic, aromatic, and aliphatic amines. Functionalities including ester, hydroxyl, carboxylic acid, ...
Negi Devendra P S - - 2008
We present a novel method for the selective detection of cysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, which plays a crucial role in many important biological functions such as protein folding. Surface-modified colloidal CdS nanoparticles have been used as a fluorescent probe to selectively detect cysteine in the presence of other amino ...
Yoshida Masahiro - - 2008
Studies about the regiocontrolled addition of arylboronic acids to allenes using a palladium or a platinum catalyst have been described. The selectivity of the reaction can be altered by the choice of the metal reagent and base. Contrary to the formation of endo-olefinic products in the reactions using hydroxopalladium complex, ...
Chu Fong Lam - - 2009
Imines or Schiff bases formed through the interaction of reducing sugars with amino acids are known to play a critical role not only in initiating the Maillard reaction but also in its propagation through isomerization reactions initiated by the intermediate oxazolidin-5-one. FTIR spectroscopic evidence for the formation of this intermediate ...
Yuan Jian-Ping - - 2008
Flaxseed is the richest dietary source of the lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) and contains the largest amount of SDG oligomers, which are often hydrolyzed to break the ester linkages for the release of SDG and the glycosidic bonds for the release of secoisolariciresinol (SECO). The alkaline hydrolysis reaction kinetics of ...
Qureshi Ziyauddin S - - 2009
A simple and convenient methodology for selective sulfonation of aromatic compounds using sulfuric acid under sonication is described. The present methodology shows a considerable enhancement in the reaction rate along with improved selectivity compared with the reactions performed under silent conditions. The effect of various parameters such as agitation speed, ...
García-Río Luis - - 2008
Nitrosation of enols shows a well-differentiated behavior depending on whether the reaction proceeds through the carbon (nucleophilic catalysis is observed) or the oxygen atom (general acid-base catalysis is observed). This is due to the different operating mechanisms for C- and O-nitrosation. Nitrosation of acetylacetone (AcAc) shows a simultaneous nucleophilic and ...
Bellido Guillermo G - - 2008
Among a number of impediments to a wider use of chemical leavening agents in bakery applications is the lack of standardized instrumentation capable of providing information on the rates of CO2 production from chemical leaveners in a format that is meaningful to both the technologist (i.e., the dough rate of ...
Wu Xingqiang - - 2008
Microcystins (MCs) are a family of related cyclic hepatotoxic heptapeptides, of which more than 70 types have been identified. The chemically unique nature of the C20 beta-amino acid, (2S,3S,8S,9S)-3-amino-9-methoxy-2,6,8-trimethyl-10-phenyldeca-4,6-dienoic acid (Adda), portion of the MCs has been exploited to develop a strategy to analyze the entirety. Oxidation of MCs causes ...
Oromí-Farrús Mireia - - 2008
Haloesterification of diverse diols with various carboxylic acids was achieved using potassium halides (KX) as the only halide source in ionic liquids. The best yield was obtained in [BMIM][PF(6)] when 1,2-octanediol, palmitic acid and KBr were used. This yield was 85% and the regioisomer with the bromine in primary position ...
Deshmane Vishwanath G - - 2009
Esterification is one of the most preferred synthesis routes for organic esters which are most frequently used as plasticizers, solvents and perfumery and flavour chemicals. The present work deals with acid catalyzed synthesis of isopropyl esters from palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) in the presence of ultrasonic irradiations operating at ...
Suzuki Daisuke - - 2008
Self-oscillation for the microgel particles ( approximately 200 nm in diameter) was studied by changing initial substrate concentrations (i.e., malonic acid, sodium bromate, and nitric acid) of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction that is used for chemical energy for the self-oscillation. The cross-linked microgels are composed of N-isopropylacrylamide and ruthenium tris(2,2'-bipyridine), ...
Navalon Sergio - - 2009
Chlorine dioxide is a hypochlorite alternative disinfectant agent. In this context, we have determined the products formed in the reaction of ClO(2) with selected amino acids as model compounds that can be present in natural waters. The reaction of tryptophane, histidine and tyrosine (10 ppm each) with ClO(2) were studied ...
Fernández-Alonso Alejandra - - 2008
We have investigated the effects of solvent composition, acidity and temperature on the dediazoniation of 4-bromobenzenediazonium (4BrBD) ions in MeOH-H(2)O mixtures by employing a combination of spectrometric and chromatographic techniques. The kinetic behaviour is quite complex; in the absence of MeOH, dediazoniations follow first-order kinetics with a half-life t(1/2) approximately ...
Verma M L - - 2008
A purified alkaline thermo-tolerant bacterial lipase from Bacillus cereus MTCC 8372 was immobilized on a Poly (MAc-co-DMA-cl-MBAm) hydrogel. The hydrogel showed approximately 94% binding capacity for lipase. The immobilized lipase (2.36 IU) was used to achieve esterification ofmyristic acid and isopropanol in n-heptane at 65 degrees C under continuous shaking. ...
Motokura Ken - - 2008
This article illustrates the modification of oxide surfaces with organic amine functional groups to create acid-base bifunctional catalysts, summarizing our previous reports and also presenting new data. Immobilization of organic amines as bases on inorganic solid-acid surfaces afforded highly active acid-base bifunctional catalysts, which enabled various organic transformations including C--C ...
Matsushita Yasuyuki - - 2009
Sulfuric acid lignin (SAL), which is formed as a by-product during the production of bioethanol from woody biomass, was solubilized and functionalized by hydrothermal reaction. SAL could be easily dissolved in an alkaline medium, especially sodium hydroxide solution, by this reaction. The soluble part of the reaction products (S-HSAL) could ...
Wada Akimori - - 2008
Various 5-substituted retinoic acids were prepared by a palladium-catalyzed cross coupling reactions of vinyl nonaflates and E- or Z-3-tributylstannyl-2-beten-1-ol as a key reaction. These coupling products were then converted to the corresponding all-E- and 9Z-retinoic acid analogs via Horner-Emmons reaction and subsequent basic hydrolysis, and their biological activities were evaluated. ...
Rica Tamás - - 2008
We have studied the density fingering of an acid-catalyzed autocatalytic reaction in the presence of carboxylate containing polyelectrolyte. The decrease in viscosity as a result of the change in the ionic character of the polymer due to the pH-change during the reaction is the major driving force for the spatiotemporal ...
Ma Yan - - 2008
The gas-phase ozonolysis of beta-pinene was studied in static chamber experiments, using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometric and flame ionisation detection to separate and detect products. A range of multifunctional organic acids-including pinic acid, norpinic acid, pinalic-3-acid, pinalic-4-acid, norpinalic acid and OH-pinalic acid-were identified in the condensed phase after ...
Chambreau Steven D - - 2008
A class of room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) that exhibit hypergolic activity toward fuming nitric acid is reported. Fast ignition of dicyanamide ionic liquids when mixed with nitric acid is contrasted with the reactivity of the ionic liquid azides, which show high reactivity with nitric acid, but do not ignite. The ...
Hudson Reggie L - - 2008
Solid CH(3)CN and solid H(2)O + CH(3)CN were ion irradiated near 10 K to initiate chemical reactions thought to occur in extraterrestrial ices. The infrared spectra of these samples after irradiation revealed the synthesis of new molecules. After the irradiated ices were warmed to remove volatiles, the resulting residual material ...
Dunlop Alex - - 2008
The direct manipulation by atomic force microscopy (AFM) of individual macrocycles within a rotaxane offers a potential route to a new sequencing tool for complex macromolecules such as polysaccharides, glycoproteins and nucleic acids. In this paper we demonstrate for the first time that a sliding contact made between a macrocycle, ...
Si Lin - - 2008
Mercury is an environmental contaminant of global concern. The reduction of oxidized mercury species (Hg(II)) by organic acids to elemental mercury (Hg0) is significant for understanding the cycling of mercury between the atmosphere and aqueous systems. This study focused on the reduction of Hg(II) by small, semivolatile dicarboxylic acids (C2-C4). ...
Weitkamp Emily A - - 2008
Multiphase oxidation of trace organic constituents inside of complex atmospheric particles is not well understood. In this study, organic aerosol formed from flash-vaporized residual grease from meat cooking was exposed to atmospherically relevant ozone concentrations in a smog chamber for 4-6 h. Changes in particle composition were measured to determine ...
Mohandass Chellandi - - 2008
Recycled blue colored paper was treated with laccase under various combinations of physical and chemical parameters including enzyme concentration, temperature, oxygen, and reaction time. Laccase treatment of recycled dyed pulp increased acid group content, tear index, tensile index, and color removal in a dose-dependent manner. Lengthening the treatment time from ...
Seeliger Florian - - 2008
Kinetics of the reactions of four benzenesulfonyl-stabilized carbanions (1a-d)- with reference electrophiles (quinone methides 2 and diarylcarbenium ions 3) have been determined in dimethyl sulfoxide solution at 20 degrees C in order to derive the reactivity parameters N and s according to the linear free-energy relationship logk(20 degrees C) = ...
Chen Jing - - 2008
Resting cells of Bacillus subtilis ZJB-063 were used for the direct transformation of MOPAN (p-methoxyphenylacetonitrile) to MOPAA (p-methoxyphenylacetic acid), which is an important pharmaceutical intermediate. The B. subtilis ZJB-063 culture conditions for the production of nitrilase and the reaction conditions for this nitrilase-mediated conversion were optimized. The maximum production of ...
Chen Hsin-Tsung - - 2008
The mechanisms and kinetics of unimolecular decomposition of succinic acid and its anhydride have been studied at the G2M(CC2) and microcanonical RRKM levels of theory. It was shown that the ZsgsZ conformer of succinic acid, with the Z-acid form and the gauche conformation around the central C-C bond, is its ...
Morishita Takami - - 2008
Arynes were found to couple with aminosilanes and carbonyl compounds in the presence of benzoic acid to provide 2-aminobenzhydrols. Sulfonylimines could also be applied to the reaction, enabling amino and aminomethyl moieties to be incorporated into contiguous positions of aromatic skeletons. Only a small amount of the three-component coupling product ...
Li Nan - - 2008
This study presents an experimental investigation of nonlinear dynamics in the photomediated bromate-1,4-benzoquinone-1,4-hydroquinone reaction, in which the copresence of hydroquinone and benzoquinone results in chemical oscillations taking place shortly after mixing all reagents together, which is in great contrast to the case of a few hours of induction time seen ...
Minerath Emily C - - 2008
Sulfate esters have recently been identified in the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed in the photooxidation of biogenic hydrocarbons both in laboratory and under ambient atmospheric conditions. In the present study, the kinetics feasibility of direct reactions between alcohols and sulfuric acid to form sulfate esters in aerosol particles is ...
Sentandreu Enrique - - 2008
This work evaluates the reduction kinetics of the antiradical probe 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH (*)) in methanol and acetonitrile by the antiradical activity of protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 1) and protocatechuic acid methyl ester ( 2). The reduction kinetics of DPPH (*) in both solvents by the antiradical activity of the p-catechol ...
Vanag Vladimir K - - 2008
We discuss the design of reaction-diffusion systems that display a variety of spatiotemporal patterns. We also consider how these patterns may be controlled by external perturbation, typically using photochemistry or temperature. Systems treated include the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction, the chlorite-iodide-malonic acid and chlorine dioxide-malonic acid-iodine reactions, and the BZ-AOT system, ...
Shimizu Mikio - - 2008
Conversion of glucose to pyruvate via reactions homologous to the non-phosphorylated Entner-Doudoroff (non-P ED) pathway could be achieved in the presence of two amino acid catalysts, cysteine and histidine: cystine oxidizes glucose to gluconic acid by the reaction homologous to glucose dehydrogenase and histidine changes gluconic acid to 2-keto-3-deoxy gluconic ...
Limacher Anita - - 2008
The formation of furan and 2-methylfuran was studied in model systems based on sugars and selected amino acids. Both compounds were preferably formed under roasting conditions in closed systems yielding up to 330 micromol of furan and 260 micromol of 2-methylfuran per mol of precursor. The amounts obtained under pressure ...
Bray Christopher D - - 2008
Deprotonation of o-hydroxybenzyl acetate with (i)PrMgCl provides a method of generating an o-quinone methide under mild, anionic conditions, such that highly sensitive exo-enol ethers can be employed as 2pi partners in hetero-Diels-Alder reactions. This process results in mono-benzannelated spiroketals such as those found in the natural products berkelic acid, the ...
Keerthi Kripa K Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Columbia, 125 Chemistry Building, Columbia, Missouri 65211, - - 2008
Sulfenic acids (RSOH) are among the most common sulfur-centered reactive intermediates generated in biological systems. Given the biological occurrence of sulfenic acids, it is important to explore the reactivity of these intermediates under physiological conditions. The Morin rearrangement is a synthetic process developed for the conversion of penicillin derivatives into ...
Hallmann Christian - - 2008
The conversion efficiency of alkanoic, alkenoic, branched, alicyclic, aromatic, keto-substituted, and dioic carboxylic acids to their corresponding butyl esters was compared under different reaction conditions (time, temperature, catalyst). We show that boron trifluoride is generally a more efficient catalyst than sulphuric acid. However, optimum derivatisation conditions vary strongly for different ...
Kesselring David - - 2008
A strategy for site-selectively generating reactive N-acyliminium ion intermediates on a microelectrode array has been developed. The route capitalizes on the use of an electroauxiliary for building a methoxylated amino acid substrate, and then the electrochemical generation and solution phase confinement of acid in order to form the N-acyliminium ion. ...
Nakamura Satoshi - - 2008
We present superacid-catalyzed intramolecular cyclization reactions of arylcyanopropionates to give cyclized five- and six-membered beta-enamino esters in moderate to high yields. Known intramolecular ring-closing reactions of protonated nitrile to aromatic carbon atom are limited to the 6-membered case. Interestingly, a significant synergistic increase of reactivity of the cyano functionality was ...
Ohno Yoko - - 2008
Malic enzyme [L-malate: NAD(P)(+) oxidoreductase (EC 1.1.1.39)] catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of L-malic acid to produce pyruvic acid using the oxidized form of NAD(P) (NAD(P)(+)). We used a reverse reaction of the malic enzyme of Pseudomonas diminuta IFO 13182 for HCO(3)(-) fixation into pyruvic acid to produce L-malic acid with ...
Nassiri Mahmoud - - 2008
Multicomponent reactions involving azines (phenanthridine or isoquinoline) and dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate were undertaken in the presence of heterocyclic NH compounds (indole, 2-methyl indole, 3-methyl indole, carbazole and 3,6-dibromocarbazole) or 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds such as N,N'-dimethylbarbituric acid, 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid, acetylacetone, 1,3-diphenyl-1,3-propandione and cyclopentan-1,3-dione to generate enaminoesters in good yields.
Lu Li-li - - 2008
High temperature liquid water (HTLW) has drawn increasing attention as an environmentally benign medium for organic chemical reactions, especially acid-/base-catalyzed reactions. Non-catalyzed hydrolyses of gallotannin and tara tannin in HTLW for the simultaneous preparation of gallic acid (GA) and pyrogallol (PY) are under investigation in our laboratory. In this study, ...
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